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William Clayton's Journal 

A Daily Record of the Journey of the Original 

Company of "Mormon" Pioneers from 

Nauvoo, Illinois, to the Valley 

of the Great Salt Lake 





Copyright, 1921 


Lawrence Clayton 
Trustee for the 
Clayton Family Association 

All rights reserved 




William Clayton was one of the remarkable char- 
acters of early Utah history. Born in ithe county of 
Lancashire, England, July 17, 1814, he was educated in 
one of the schools of his native town, and grew to man- 
hood with a love for books and nature. An early convert 
of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, he 
conducted one of the first companies from England to 
Nauvoo, and there became one of the trusted secretaries 
of the Prophet Joseph Smith. With the exodn^ from 
Nauvoo, he was Clerk of the Camp of Israel, and when 
the Mormon pioneers left Winter Quarters in April, 1847, 
he was appointed by Brigham Young one of the historians 
of that noted company. His journal of that memorable 
expedition over the plains is one of the most valuable 
diaries we have of that early period of western history. 
He kept careful account of the distances traveled each 
day, and 'his writings are full of descriptions of the coun- 
try over which they traveled. He has noted the topo- 
graphy, the fauna and flora of the trail ; and his descrip- 
tions of the activities of the company indicate a well 
trained intellect in social study. His language is simple 
and direct, and his care in keeping each day's distance 
and important facts of the journey show order and 

His hymn, "Come, come, ye Saints" takes its place as 
one of the most beautiful hymns of western history, for it 
is full of joy fulness, and expresses an optimism and faith 


Winter Quarters, November 28, 1847. The remainder 
of his brothers and sisters survived the persecutions of 
mobs and the early privations of the Church and came to 
the valley of the Great Salt Lake with the pioneers of 

William Clayton first heard the Gospel preached in 
England by Heber C. Kimball and Orson Hyde. With 
his wife, Ruth Moon Clayton, whom he married in Eng- 
land, October 9, 1836, he listened to the teachings of 
these missionaries, but he was not easy to convert. His 
wife received the Gospel first, and many evenings had 
to be spent before William Clayton became a believer in 
"Mormonism." He was ordained a Priest December 25, 
1837, and a High Priest, April 1, 1838, at which time 
he was appointed with Willard Richards, Counselor to 
Joseph Fielding who presided over the Church in Europe. 

September 8, 1840, he left England in the packet ship 
North America, arriving in New York, October 11, 1840, 
and in Nauvoo November 24, 1840. In this city, he 
became a trusted friend of the founders of the Church, 
so much so that on February 10, 1842, he was appointed 
secretary to Joseph Smith the Prophet. October 7, 1842, 
he became Temple Recorder and Recorder of Revela- 
tions. In 1842, he became Tresaurer of the City of 
Nauvoo. These appointments are indicative of the zeal 
with which William Clayton served the Church through- 
out his life. 

What of the personal characteristics of our subject? 
As will appear from his portrait on the frontispiece, Wil- 
liam Clayton did not tend to frivolity or mirth but rather 
to seriousness and earnestness. Yet he was witty and 


had a keen sense of humor. In the home he was not 
demonstrative; although he had great love for his home 
and family and provided well for their comfort. He was 
methodical, always sitting in his own arm chair, having 
a certain place at the table and otherwise showing his 
love for order, which he believed the first law of heaven. 
His person was clean and tidy ; his hands small and dimp- 
led. He wore very little jewelry but what little he had 
was the best money could buy. He would not carry a 
watch that was not accurate, and his 'clothing was made 
from the best material. His children remember him best 
in black velvet coat and grey trousers and, in cold 
weather, a broad-cloth cloak in place of overcoat. 

The man-timber in William Clayton came from 
sturdy trees. His character was above all littleness. He 
believed that what was good for him was good for all 
men, and that the measurement of our lives was based 
upon our daily conduct towards each other. To him that 
was God's standard. He believed in perfect equity in 
the adjustment of the affairs of life. Had he loved money, 
he could probably have had it because of his education, 
and executive ability. But he cared little for material 
gain, centering his zeal in the pursuit of honor and right. 

William Clayton was honest and nothing to him 
could justify an untruth. He deplored waste or extrava- 
gance, yet he never withheld from a neighbor in distress, 
or from the widow or orphan. Many are those who knew 
his generosity. When his harvest was gathered, bushels 
of grain and fruit found place among those of scanty 
store. And many pairs of shoes and much warm cloth- 
ing were given to comfort the needy. Nor was the home- 


less forgotten, but the orphan was given a home and joy 
by his own fireside. 

His religion was deeply rooted and nurtured by as- 
sociation with and testimony of an eye witness to the liv- 
ing God. His love for Joseph Smith was love seldom 
shown in man for man. Few men possessed stronger 
faith and courage. These qualities alone could inspire 
a man under heart-rendering circumstances, to write 
such hymns of faith and comfort as "Come, come, ye 
Saints," and "The' Resurrection Day." 

The record of William Clayton in Utah kept pace 
with that of previous years. His home was open al- 
ways to his friends who loved to gather there for social 
hours. Civic welfare always interested him. He was 
a musician and played in the pioneer orchestra and that 
of the Salt Lake Theatre. He was a lover of community 
features and took part in dramatic functions. 

He was treasurer of Zion's Cooperative Mercantile 
Institution, Recorder of Marks and Brands, Receiver of 
Weights and Measures, and was Territorial Auditor. His 
love for education prompted many sacrifices and he tried 
hard to give his children the essentials of good school- 

He had a strong will, although a tender conscience. 
Cowardice had no place in him. Truly he could say, "My 
heart is fixed. I know in whom I trust." Joseph Smith 
believed that they should meet and associate in the Ce- 
lestial Kingdom of God as they had here. 

William Clayton died December 4, 1879, in Salt Lake 
City. Services were held in the Seventeenth Ward 
Chapel at which his own funeral hymn was sung. He 

left a large posterity. , T 


Salt Lake City, Utah, June, 1921 

Editor's Note 

The descendants of William Clayton have in recent 
years formed themselves into an organization known as 
the "Clayton Family Association." This book is offered 
to the public by the Asociation with the thought that a 
document of such faithful description and fine spirit 
would be welcomed by all people who might be interested 
either in the Pioneer Period of Western History or more 
particularly in the exodus of the "Mormon" people from 
Missouri to the valley of the Great Salt Lake. It is dif- 
ficult to understand why the "Journal" was not published 
years ago and it seems to require somewhat of an apology 
that this interesting record should have remained so long' 
unknown and be now brought out with considerable haste. 
In the effort to have it ready for distribution to the 
members of the Clayton Family Association on the anni- 
versary of the birth of their forefather on July 17th, there 
has been a sacrifice of care and deliberation in the prepar- 
ation of this first edition which is hoped the reader will 
overlook upon consideration of the facts. This lack 
of time and care will show itself more in the text than 
in any other particular. Much of the proof reading was 
done by the undersigned on board train between Salt 
Lake i.nd California. To say the least, such surroundings 
are not conducive to the most finished work. It is hoped 
that this circumstance will also make the reader more 
tolerant when encountering mistakes in the text, ob- 
viously the result of hasty proof reading. At a later date 


a second edition will do better justice to the author of the 
"Journal" and will show more consideration for the fine 
taste of the reader. 

Salt Lake City, Utah, June, 1921. 

William Clayton's Journal. 


SUNDAY, FEBRUARY 8, 1846. At the office all day 
packing public goods, evening at Fair's writing out a 
letter of instruction to trustees. 

MONDAY, 9xn. At the office packing. At 3:30 the 
temple was seen on fire. Women carrying water. 

TUESDAY, lOxn. At the temple packing, also Wed- 
nesday llth. 

THURSDAY, 12xH. At home preparing to move. 

FRIDAY, 13xH. Sent four loads of goods over the 
river. Loading and packing. 

SATURDAY, 14xn. Packing and seeking letters. 

SUNDAY, 15xn. Riding around to get teams and 
things together. Sent two teams over the river. 

MONDAY, 16xH. Still loading teams, also Tuesday 

WEDNESDAY, 18xn. Got about ready to go over the 
river. Evening President Brigham Young, Heber C. 
Kimball, J. M. Grant and some of the pioneers came to 
hurry us over. N. K. Whitney also came in. We 
conversed together some. They .state the brethren have 
made a perfect waste of food and property in the camp. 

THURSDAY, 19xn-. This morning the ground is 
covered with snow. It is so windy they cannot cross 
the river. Continued to snow all day. Evening went 


to Elder Babbit's to supper with Elder Kimball. Presi- 
dent Young- was there, Backenstos, J. M. Grant and 
some others. 

FRIDAY, 20rn. The weather is very cold and windy. 
Impossible to cross the river. Spent the day running 
after things to g^et ready, fixing wagons and chopping 
fire wood. 

FRIDAY, 2/TH. We have spent the past week wait- 
ing for crossing over the river.* It has been hard frost 
and much snow. This morning I concluded to start 
over the river and began early to send my teams. About 
noon I crossed with my family and then rested the teams 
and soon after went on to the camp where we arrived 
a little before four o'clock. Bishop Whitney concluded 
to ,stay at the river until morning because some of his 
teams could not get over. When we got to the camp 
we were received with joy and formed in the company of 
the band. The weather is still very cold especially during 
the night. The distance from Nauvoo to this place is 
called seven and a half miles. 

SATURDAY, 28TH. A. M. arranging my tents, etc. 
At twelve was sent for to council and about two the 
band was requested to go and meet bishop Whitney and 
his teams. We went and met him five miles from the 
camp. We played some time and then returned to the 
camp. President Young, Heber C. Kimball, P. P. Pratt, 
Orson Pratt and others accompanied us. At nighl 
played with the band. 

SUNDAY, MARCH 1, 1846. A. M. preparing to march 
to the next encampment. At ten a lecture was given 
by Elder Kimball and about one the company proceeded 



to the next camp about four and a half miles, where we 
arrived in good season. 

MONDAY, 2ND. Started this morning for another 
camp about eight miles where we arrived about five P. 
M., the roads being somewhat hilly and muddy. The 
band played at night. During the day the artillery com- 
pany broke into our ranks .several times and broke a 
number of our wagon boxes. At night they complained 
of us at headquarters, but after hearing our story the 
matter stood about right. 

TUESDAY, 3RD. Proceeded on our journey through 
Farmington about eight miles to a place where bishop 
Miller was encamped and arrived in good season. The 
band played at night. 

WEDNESDAY, 4xH. This morning we concluded to 
stay a day and fix up some wagons which were broken. 
A number of the citizens from Farmington came to the 
camp and gave a very pressing invitation for the band to 
go to Farmington and play some. Accordingly about 
three o'clock, the band started and arrived at Farming- 
ton about 4:30 p. m. We played at the principal hotel 
and then went to the school house and played till nearly 
dark. The house was filled with men and ' women, the 
leading people of the place. We then retained to the hotel 
where they had provided us with a good supper. They 
also gave us $5 in money. Kay* sang a number of songs. 
At eight o'clock we returned and when we left they gave 
us three cheers. When we arrived at the camp we met 
thirty of the guard just starting out to meet us. The 
President felt uneasy at our staying so long and was 
sending the men to protect us. 

*John Kay. 


THURSDAY, STH. Proceeded on our journey. 
Crossed the Des Moines river at Bonaparte and after- 
wards had a very bad road up the bluff for several miles 
which detained us until late in the afternoon. We stopped 
awhile to feed the band teams inasmuch as they had none 
this morning-. We then started and went to the next 
camping ground, making the day's journey about six- 
teen miles. 

SATURDAY, 7TH. Proceeded about eight miles to a 
camp ground near to a Dr. Elberts where the band 
camped. President Young was behind and when he ar- 
rived he went on about eight miles farther. The band 
went to work splitting rails for corn and made before 
dark, about 130. In the evening Dr. Elbert and some 
others came to hear the band play. Kay sang some 
songs which pleased them. 

SUNDAY, STH. Waited for orders from headquart- 
ers. Many of the citizens came to hear the band play 
and gave us a very pressing invitation to go to Keo- 
saugua and give a concert. About noon word came 
we should follow on to the camp. We immediately 
struck tents and started and we arrived at the main cairn 
about five o'clock. Some of the citizens from Keo- 
saugtia followed us waiting for an answer whether we 
would give a concert as soon as we arrived at the camp. 
I asked the President whether the band should go to 
Keasaugua to give a concert. He advised us to go and 
I immediately sent out the appointment and then \\e 
pitched our tents forming a line on the road opposite 
to the President's company. 


MONDAY, 9xH. Spent the day chiefly preparing for 
the concert and attending on my family. 

TUESDAY, K)TH. The weather still continues fine. 
Spent the morning preparing for the concert and abouc 
one o'clock p. m. started in company with the brass band 
for Keosaugua. I rode in Elder Kimball's wagon with 
William Kimball, J. Smithies and Wm. Pitt. The dis- 
tance from the camp to Keosaugua is about ten miles, 
the camp being at a place called Richardson's point. We 
arrived at Keosaugua about three o'clock and being re- 
quested we went through the town and played some. One 
of the grocery keepers invited us to play him a tune 
which we did. He then invited us in and offered to treat 
us to anything he had. We each took a little and then 
the next grocery keeper sent an invitation for us to play 
him a tune. We did so and he also gave us anything he 
had. A beer keeper next .sent word that he did not want 
us to slight him and we went and played him a tune and 
then took some of his cake and beer. We then marched up 
to the Des Moines hotel near the court-house where we 
had ordered supper and after eating we went to the court- 
house to prepare for the concert. At seven o'clock the 
house was crowded and we commenced, playing and sing- 
ing till about 9 :30. The audience seemed highly pleased 
and gave loud applause. About the close one of the 
citizens got up and said it was the wish of many that 
we should repeat the concert the following evening and 
he took a vote of all who wished us to go again. The 
vote was unanimous. We made nearly $25.00 clear of all 
expenses. We started back for the camp soon after ten 
and arrived about one o'clock all well and pleased. 


WEDNESDAY, HTH. In the morning- I reported to 
President Young our success and the request of the citi- 
zens of Keosaugua and he advised us to go again. We 
accordingly started about eleven o'clock. I again rode 
with William Kimball, Horace Whitney and James 
Smithies. When we arrived we were welcomed again 
with the same kind feelings as yesterday. Pitt had a 
severe chill all the way and when we got there it com- 
menced raining and made it very unpleasant. The 
house was again filled but we only made $20.00 besides all 
expenses. We learned that there is a party of socialists 
there and they and the priests are much opposed to each 
other. We also learned that a man named McCully was 
in jail close by under sentence to be hung on the 4th of 
April for murdering a man and a child. I did not feel 
so well at the concert as ,on the night previous on sev- 
eral accounts. We started back between eleven and 
twelve and got to the camp about three o'clock. 

THURSDAY, 12TH. The band moved to better ground 
about one quarter of a mile farther. The heavy rains 
had made it very muddy and unpleasant, all our bedding 
and things being wet. 

FRIDAY, 13TH. Went hunting. 

SATURDAY, 14-TH. Wrote a letter to Diantha. 

SUNDAY, 15TH. In camp all day. 

MONDAY, 16TH. Some of the citizens of Keosaugua 
came again to request us to give another concert. We 
agreed to go tomorrow evening. 

TUESDAY, I/TH. Started for Keosugua with Pitt, 
Hutchinson, Kay, Smithies and Egan. I took my music 
box and china to try and sell them. We arrived in good 


season and soon learned that the priests had been hard 
at work preventing the sectarians from coming to the 
concert, saying- that it was an infidel move consequently 
there were not many present. We had far the best con- 
cert which lasted till nine o'clock. We then went over 
to the hotel, took supper and played for a private party till 
about three o'clock. We only cleared from both, about 
$7.00 over expenses but were wiell treated. 

WEDNESDAY, 18TH. It rained last night and this 
morning again and we almost concluded to go to Fair- 
field, but finally determined to return to camp. We visited 
with a Mr. Bridgman who treated us very kindly. Bought 
about eight bushels of beans and some articles for Presi- 
dent Young and then returned to camp. It rained some 
again today. We got back about five o'clock. After dark 
Dr. Elbert came to see my china and said if I would take 
it over tomorrow he would buy it. 

THURSDAY, 19xH. Went to ask council whether i 
should go to sell my china. Saw Heber who advised me 
to go. A few of us started and soon met President 
Young who said we had better go back and go with the 
camp who were then starting on their way. We accord- 
ingly turned back our horses and struck tents in a hurry. 
At twelve o'clock we started on our journey. After travel- 
ing about six or seven miles we had to go up a very bad 
bluff which took us till five o'clock. President Young's 
company went ahead of us and camped three miles from 
the bluff. Some of our teams gave out and we only went 
about a mile from the bluff and camped in a little point of 
timber a little from the road. Our teams were very tired. 

SATURDAY, 21 ST. We started early in the morning 


and soon came up with the main body of the camp. 1 
rode ahead about three miles to hunt my cow. We did not 
have her last night being- with the main camp. We trav- 
eled nine or ten miles and then rested our teams. We 
started again and traveled three miles farther where we 
found the President and Heber camped on the brink of 
a long bluff. We concluded to go to the other bank which 
we did and camped in a good place. In the evening the 
band went and played for the President and Heber and 
then went to a farmer's house at the owner's request about 
three quarters of a mile from camp to play for his fam- 
ily. He promised to give us some honey if we would play 
for him. We played about an hour and then left but 
neither saw nor heard anything of the honey. We learned 
afterwards, however, that Hutchinson had a pail under 
his cloak and got it full of honey after the rest had left the 
house and kept it to himself, very slyly. 

SUNDAY, 22ND. Started again and soon came to the 
Shariton bottoms which is a very low land for about four 
miles. The road was bad and it took us sometime to While on the bottom Root and Davis came again. 
Root had asked permission of President Young to go 
back to his family some days ago but it seems things did 
not go to suit him and he followed his team again. It took 
sometime to go up the bluff. We had to let the teams 
down into the Shariton river by ropes and also helped 
them up again by the same means. Our company goi; 
over in good season but we concluded to camp after get- 
ting up the bluff as it would take till night for the whole 
to get up. I spent the day helping the teams till I was 
so sore and tired I could scarcely walk. 


MONDAY, 23RD. In council with Brigham, Heber, 
and others. We found that Miller's company had gone 
still farther about eight miles instead of waiting till we 
overtook them so that we could organize. I wrote a let- 
ter to them saying if they did not wait or return to or- 
ganize, the camp would organize without and they be dis- 
fellowshiped. We concluded to stay at this place a 
few -days to buy corn to last to Grand river but we found 
corn scarce and 26c a bushel, the farmers having ad- 
vanced on account ,of a disposition to speculate. 

TUESDAY, 24-TH and WEDNESDAY, 25xH. At the 
camp writing, etc. It rained considerably. 

THURSDAY, 26xH. Evening in council. Wrote a 
long letter to be sent to Emmet's company by John But- 
ler and James W. Cummings. This morning wrote an- 
other letter to P. P. Pratt, Orson Pratt, George Miller 
telling them they must wait for us or come back to ofgan- 
ize. The letters were sent by Smithies. He met them on 
the way and about noon P. P. Pratt, Orson Pratt, John 
Kay and G. Miller came into camp and at 1.00 P. M. the 
council met. The brethren plead that the charges in the 
letters were unjust. They had not striven to keep out of 
the way but had done all for the best. The whole camp 
accordingly was organized, A. P. Rockwood over 1st 50; 
Stephen Markham, 2nd 50; Young, 3rd 50; Howard E. 
Kimball, 4th 50; Charles C. Rich, 5th 50; Charles Cris- 
man, 6th 50. Each fifty had also appointed a contracting 
commissary for the purpose of contracting for work and 
grain as follows: Henry Sherwood 1st 50; David H. 
Kimball 2nd ; Wm. H. Edwards 3rd ; Peter Haws 4th ; 
Joseph Worthen 5th ; Samuel Gully 6th. It was under- 


stood that I continue to preside over the band and in the 
absence of Brother Haws over the whole fifty. After this 
there was appointed for each fifty a distributing- commis- 
sary to distribute feed in camp as follows : Charles Ken- 
nedy for 1st 50; J. M. Grant 2nd 50; Nathan Tanner 3rd 
50 ; Orson B. Adams 4th 50 ; James Allred 5th 50 ; Isaac 
Allred 6th 50. The brethren then gave the following in- 
structions for the whole camp with orders that same be 
observed hereafter, viz. No man to set fire to prairies. No 
man to shoot off a gun in camp without orders. No man 
to go hunting unless he is sent and all to keep guns, 
swords and pistols out of sight. There was then appointed 
a clerk for each fifty as follows : John D. Lee Young, 1st 
50; John Pack 2nd 50; Lorenzo Snow 3rd 50; Geo. H. 
Hales 4th 50; John Oakley 5th 50; A. Lathrop 6th 50. 
The council then adjourned to meet at Shariton Ford 
camp-on Monday at 10 A. M. We then returned to our 
camp where we arrived just at dark. 

SATURDAY, 28TH. In camp making out forms for 
clerks of 50's and also copied letter to James Emmet. 

SUNDAY, 29rH. Making forms for clerks of 50's 
and felt quite unwell all day with bad cola. 

MONDAY,, 30rH. Met with the council. The guard 
and pioneers were divided and distributed amongst the 
several companies of 50's. It was also agreed that com- 
pany No. 4 should go on to the next camp tomorrow and 
the remainder of the day following. Jackson Redding 
sold one of Keller's horses for one yoke of oxen, leaving 
me as bad off for teams as before. 

TUESDAY, 31 ST. It was concluded we could not get 
readv to move until tomorrow. O. P. Rockwell arrived 


with the mail. I received a letter from Diantha and 
father. President Young received one from the trustees, 
one from Matlock and one from E. Pratt which I read in 
council. I was ordered to write an answer to the trustees' 
and Matlock's letter, but being late I left it till morning 
when I was quite unwell. I got two new teamsters, Levi 
Kendall' and Swap. 

WEDNESDAY, APRIL IST. President Young also sent 
me two yoke of oxen, wagon, and Brother Jones, the 
owner, to assist me. We divided the load out of the spare 
wagons putting a yoke of oxen to each and about 11 :00 
o'clock started on our journey. Mother was very sick, 
and could not bear to ride. She walked all the way. I 
felt very unwell myself, having much pain in my limbs. 
The roads were bad, but we arrived in camp about 2 :00 
o'clock and got on good ground. After getting our tents 
fixed, fires made, etc., I went to wrestling, jumping etc., 
to try to get well. I over-exerted myself without any 
symptons of perspiration and was so sick after I had to 
go to bed. 

THURSDAY. 2ND. I was very sick all day and un- 
able to write the letters or meet with the council. O. P. 
Rockwell started back to Nauvoo with letters. One of 
the Brother Hales arrived to ,say to his brotner who drives 
team for Pitt that his family is very sick and wants him 
to go back but we cannot spare the team and he says it is 
no use for him to go back without it. At night I wrote 
again to Diantha and sent it by Brother Hale who returns 

FRIDAY, 3RD. This morning it was decided to start 
early so as to get over the bad roads and also travel about 


fifteen miles. We had to send a wagon and team to fetch 
the eight bushels of corn which some^of the band earned 
by playing last night. We started, however, about eight 
o'clock. The roads were very bad and when we had trav- 
eled about three miles it began to thunder and rain. .The 
clouds gathered fast and it soon showed signs for heavy 
rain the whole day. We reached Bishop Whitney's camp 
about noon and rested our teams while the rest came up. 
We then started again in the heavy rain and bad roads and 
traveled about three miles to Bishop Miller's camp. We 
had a very bad bluff to rise and had to double teams to get 
up. On the top I -met Heber camped. He selected a 
camping ground for us and advised us to go no farther. 
President Young has gone on six or seven miles. It was 
about 5 :00 o'clock before all our teams got up and it 
rained heavily all the time. Mother walked all day again 
in the rain. I was very sick myself and unable to do any- 
thing. Yesterday the portion of the guard detailed to our 
company joined in with us, being Orvil M. Allen and 
eight men. They reported themselves destitute of every- 
thing and said they had lived a week on corn meal gruel, 
Stout and Hunter having made them serve as their body 
guard and used them very hard. I dealt out some of my 
own flour and bacon to them, determined to comfort 
them some if I could and not being willing to see any- 
one in our company suffer while I have anything left. It 
Continued to rain all night very hard. 

SATURDAY, 4xn. This morning all our clothing, 
beds and bed clothing were drenched and it has continued 
to rain all day. I have been sick again all day especially 
towards night. I was so distressed with pain it seemed 


as though I could not live. I went to bed and put a bag 
of hot salt on my chest which seemed to give me some 
ease but I suffered much through the night, and it con- 
tinued to rain until after midnight. We put an extra 
cover on our .sleeping wagon, which kept out the rain. 
We have only slept in the wagon three nights but have 
slept under a tent on the wet ground. Haw's company 
are now formed with us, making our 50 nearly complete. 
A number of the company feel unwell on account of the 
rain and wet. 

SUNDAY, STH. This morning I feel a little better 
and the day is fine and pleasant. I have spent the day 
writing in this journal, having written from memory all 
since the date of March 9th. Some of the dates may not 
be correct but the matters recorded are true. It is now 
1 :00 o'clock P. M. There is a meeting at Elder Kimball's 
camp but I am sent here in this wagon to fetch up this 
record. My health is somewhat better for which I feel 
thankful. Elder Kimball says we had better not attempt 
to move tomorrow. We can get corn within ten miles 
from here and he will help us to means. We have now 
to lay in corn to last till we get to Grand River about fifty 
miles farther, there being no farms on the road. On Fri- 
day evening I appointed Charles Terry captain of my 
ton and Henry A. Terry clerk and my brother James to 
attend on my family agreeable with the orders of the 
President that I may be able to spend my time writing 
for the council and camp and attend councils. Elder Kim- 
ball instructed the captains of tens to call their com- 
panies together at 4 :00 o'clock. Agreeable with this, the 
band assembled in front of mv tent and administered the 


sacrament. \Vm. F. Gaboon and Charles A. Terry offici- 
ated. I spoke about three quarters of an hour on various 
subjects touching on our journey and the policy we ought 
to use, etc. After I had done Elder Haws spoke on some 
subjects and the meeting adjourned. The captains then 
went over to Elder Kimball's camp about sending foi 
corn. We concluded to send four teams for our 50, Cap- 
tain Egan and Haws then went through the camp to .see 
if they could obtain some money. Haws obtained $31.45 
and Egan $9.00. I sent $14.00 by Egan for some. Wrote 
to Diantha. 

MONDAY, 6TH. It has rained again the last night 
and continued to rain all day very heavily. The camp is 
very disagreeable and muddy. I spent the day reading. 
About 5 :00 o'clock the clouds began to break and it looks 
more likely for being fair. In the evening Elder Kimball 
came over and the band met opposite Hutchinson's wagon 
and played .some. After that the quadrille band met in my 
tent and played on the violins. All the time we were play- 
ing the lightning occasionally broke forth from the north- 
west and at 8 :00 o'clock we dispersed just as the storm ap- 
proached. Before I got to my tent the wind arrived and 
soon blew a perfect gale with heavy rain, hail, lightning 
and thunder. It continued for an hour and then abated 
some. All the tents in our company except mine and 
Pack's were blown down. The rain beat through the 
wagon covers and drenched the families and effects. It 
was the most severe storm we have experienced and with 
such wind it seems impossible to preserve our little cloth- 
ing and provisions from being spoiled. But in the midst 


of all, the camp seems cheerful and happy and there are 
but few sick. 

TUESDAY, ?TH. This morning it is fair but cold and 
windy. The ground is frozen stiff and considerable ice. 
Many of the tents are still lying flat and everything 
around shows that the storm was very severe. A number 
of the ban-d have no meat and some no flour nor in fact 
scarcely any provisions and several have had little, only 
what I have given them out of the stock I laid in for my 
family. I have this morning given the guard the bag of 
flour Miller left and a piece of pork and also a piece to 
Redding. The day continued fine but roads almost im- 
passable. Evening the band played some. 

WEDNESDAY, STH. This morning the ground was hard 
again. But the weather looks more for rain. I went out 
with Captain Cahoon and President Haws to look out a 
better camp ground and we concluded to move on a little 
farther west about a quarter of a mile. It took the com- 
pany all day to move, it being almost impossible to move 
the loads even with tripling teams. About five o'clock 
Egan and the teams came back with fifty-seven bushels of 
corn. He ha-d to give 21c a bushel for nearly all of it. 
Elder Kimball came over soon after to see if he could not 
get some of it. While we were talking President Pratt 
and his company arrived and reported that their teams 
have had no corn since yesterday morning neither could 
they get any. Heber- remarked that he would say no 
more about us letting him have any although we had only 
enough to feed five ears a feed every three days, and a 
journey of about fifty miles before we can get any more 
with bad roads. We let Parlev have one load. Heber 


came with me to our camp and handed me a letter from 
President Young requesting us all to go on which I read 
to the company. I felt very unwell again and went to 
bed early. 

THURSDAY, 9iH. This morning we concluded to 
pursue our journey, President Kimball and his company 
started out about seven o'clock. President Pratt started 
out with his company. Our company waited for the lat- 
ter to start in its place till after eight o'clock and then 
we went on. The roads were very bad indeed. About 
noon it commenced raining heavily which made the roads 
still worse. We had calculated to go about eight miles to 
timber but after toiling till about four o'clock and having 
traveled only about five miles and our teams being en- 
tirely worn down we turned out of the road to a little 
branch of water to camp. Several of my teams stuck 
and we had to work till dark to get part of them to 
camp and two wagons we were compelled to leave over 
night. Quite a number were obliged to stay back on the 
prairie and Charles Hale did not come more than a 
quarter of a mile from where we started this morning. 
Elder Kimball has camped one and a half miles farther 
on the open prairie and many of his teams are yet be- 
hind. P. P. Pratt's company are here with us as well a<= 
George Miller's company except those behind on the 
prairie. It continued to rain very heavily until night. We 
could not make a fire and had little for supper, our pro- 
visions being in one of the wagons back. This is the 
most severe time we have had but yet the camp seems 
in good spirits. 

FRIDAY, lOra. The weather is yet very wet and 


gloomy. I spent the morning- talking to Margaret. At 
seven o'clock a gale struck up and blew our tents over. 
We then concluded to move a few rods lower out of the 
wind. Before we got moved the wind moved to the west 
and it grew very cold. Our teams are gone back to fetch 
some of the wagons left last night. It rains and blows 
very badly and is very severe on our women and teams. 
Margaret and Lidia are out all the time and continually 
wetting both feet and all over. We expect Robert Bur- 
ton's, one of Peck's, Peart's and my wagons in to-night. 
One of mine was fetched early in the morning. Our 
teams fare hard with wet and cold, having very little corn. 

SATURDAY, HTH. This morning rode with Egan to 
help to get Brother Peart'.s wagon out of the slough. It 
took five yoke of oxen and twelve men to -draw it out. 
The roads are yet very bad but it is fair and very cold. 
We sent twelve yoke of oxen to bring up Peck's and 
C'harles Hale's wagon. They got in late at night. 

SUNDAY, 12iH. This morning before I got up, P. 
P. Pratt called and said that President Young wants the 
council to meet at Heber's camp at ten o'clock. I started 
out with Captain Egan on foot and arrived in season. 
Had some conversation with Ellen Sanders Kimball and 
then went to council. It was decided to change our route 
and take a more northern one to avoid ttie settlements. 
We will go to Grand River and there enclose a space of 
land about two miles square and put up some twenty 
log houses for a resting place for the companies. A com- 
pany starts out in a day or two to seek out the location 
amongst whom are the President, Heber and others of 
the twelve. A company will also be sent west to Judge 



Miller's to go to work for feed, etc. After council I book 
dinner with Heber, the President being with us. I then 
wrote a letter to the trustees and returned with Captain 
Egan to our camp and soon after went to bed. The day 
has been fine but cold. 

MONDAY, 13xH. Finished my letter to Diantha and 
then went over to Peck's blacksmith shop. We had con- 
cluded not to leave till morning-. While there a message 
arrived saying that Haws has sent eight yoke of cattle to 
help us on. We then concluded to start forthwith, being 
noon. But although we had so many extra teams, we 
bad to leave three wagons in camp over night. Four of 
my folks walked all the way but .still it was hard for me 
to get along. Keller had to stay back over night. I ar- 
rived at Locust Creek, being about four miles journey, 
about six o'clock and sent the cattle back for Peck and 
Steven Hales but they did not return till morning. In 
the evening the band played some. James broke his 
wagon tongue. We camped a little north of President 
Heber's camp. 

TUESDAY, HTH. The weather is again very fine. Be- 
cause some of the wagons did not come, Egan and I con- 
cluded to go and meet them and not start farther until to- 
morrow. We met the teams close by and then took a 
northern course a hunting. We saw only squirrels and 
I got five of them. About noon we returned and found 
the camp mostly gone. Orders had come from the Presi- 
dent for the whole to move to his camp today. Charles 
Terry and Henry were gone a hunting which detained 
me till about three o'clock. James and I then started 
with the four wagons. They overtook us when we had 


got about one half mile. We found the road very bad 
and had to double teams, our horses being so badly worn 
down. Charles Terry broke a wagon tongue. 

WEDNESDAY, ISxn. Last night I got up to watch, 
there being no guard. The cattle and horses breaking 
into the tents and wagons. I tarried up then called S. 
Hales and Kimball. This morning Ellen Kimball came 
to me and wishes me much joy. She said Diantha has 
a son. I told her I was afraid it was not so, but 
she said Brother Pond had received a letter. I went over 
to Pond's and he read that she had a fine fat boy on 
the 30th ult., but she was very sick with ague and 
mumps. Truly I feel to rejoice at this intelligence but 
feel sorry to hear of her sickness. Spent the day chiefly 
reading. In the afternoon President Young came over 
and found some fault about our wagons, etc. In the 
evening the band played and after v/e dismissed the fol- 
lowing persons retired to my tent to have a social chris- 
tening, viz. William Pitt, Hutchinson, Smithies, Kay, 
Egan, Duzett, Redding, William Gaboon, James Clayton 
and Charles A. Terry and myself. We had a very pleas- 
ant time playing and singing until about twelve o'clock 
and drank health to my son. We named him William 
Adriel Benoni Clayton. The weather has been fine but 
rains a little tonight. Henry Terry's horses are missing 
and have been hunted today but not found. This morning 
I composed a new song "All is well." I feel to thank 
my heavenly father for my boy and pray that he will 
spare and preserve his life, and that of his mother and 
so order it so that we may soon meet again. O Lord 
bless thine handmaid aad fill her with thy spirit, make 


her healthy that her life may be prolonged and that we 
may live upon the earth and honor the cause of truth. In 
the evening I asked the President if he would not suffer 
me to send for Diantha. He consented and. said we 
would send when we got to Grand River. 

THURSDAY,, 16xH. This morning prepared to pro- 
ceed on our. journey but a span of horses in our com- 
pany in care of Henry Terry being missing we concluded 
not to start. I sent out three men to hunt them. Soon 
after they were brought into camp by another person. I 
then sent Henry Terry to hunt for the men but it was after 
two o'clock before they returned. We fed a little corn and 
then started. The company is far ahead of us. We 
traveled very slowly our teams were so weak. However, 
we soon came into sight of the camp but it was six o'clock 
before we got there, having traveled about seven miles. 
The camp was formed on a beautiful prairie, President 
Young's camp being on a little eminence. President 
Kimball's about three quarters of a mile north of his and 
ours about a quarter of a mile east. There is some little 
grass for our cattle here, but little. We sent those of our 
company about a mile southeast and had a guard over 
them through the night. President Haws, Captains Egan 
and Kay and Jackson Redding went out a hunting. 
George Hale's cattle were so worn down that they could 
not get along and when within about a mile of camp 
about fifteen of the brethren went to help. They took a 
rope and fixed it on the wagon, loosed the cattle and 
brought it in themselves, singing all the way. At night 
the band played and then I retired to bed. 

FRIDAY, I7xn. This morning very fine. Some of 


the camp started very early on the way. I was ready 
about eight o'clock but was detained on account of Cap- 
tain Haws, Egan and others having gone hunting. I left 
Margaret to drive my team and sent them on and I drove 
the cattle on foot. We formed our encampment on a high 
dry place. 

SUNDAY, 19xH. While the rest are gone to meeting 
I turned to unpacking and took an inventory of church 
property. It took till about four o'clock to get through. 
Daniel Spencer's company had arrived about five o'clock. 
Porter Rockwell and Edwin Cutler arrived with the 
mail. Received a letter from Diantha confirming the 
birth of my son, also a letter from A. W. Babbit on some 
business. Went to see the President to show him the in- 
ventory but could not find him. About dark he sent for 
me and I went again but he was gone and I did not see 
him. My mare got in a mud hole last night and is very 
badly strained. Evening went to council and read many 
letters and wrote one to Elder Hyde. 

MONDAY, 20TH. At nine o'clock went to council. 
Had to read some letters and several pieces from papers. 
A report was read of all those who are able to fit them- 
selves for the mountains. A law was made on motion 
of President Young that any person who interrupts the 
council hereafter by talking or otherwise, shall be de- 
prived the privilege of the council till the council see 
proper to admit him. The public teams being brought 
together, the bishops took a list of them to be disposed 
of at Grand River. After council I went to work to assort 
the articles to be sold, etc. Wrote to Diantha. 

TUESDAY, 21 ST. This morning the main body of the 


camp are gone, but I am obliged to tarry and pack up 
the public goods again and re-load my wagons. I 
weighed most of our loads and it took until night to get 
through. Charles Terry's horse and one of mine are un- 
able to drag any. 

WEDNESDAY, 22ND. I had intended to start early 
this morning but our horses were away which detained us 
till nearly nine o'clock. About that time we started and 
traveled slowly about four and a half miles. We then 
stopped at 11:30 and thought we would rest our teams 
and get them cooled off. The sun was very warm and 
they sweat considerably. Word came that O. P. Rock- 
well was on his way and would call for letters. We in- 
tended to wait until he came. I wrote a short letter to 
A. W. Babbit and one to father but Porter failed to call, 
and at two o'clock we started again. We traveled until 
about three o'clock when we passed Orson Pratt who had 
concluded to stay a piece east of where the camp had 
tarried last night. He said all the grass was eaten up for 
several miles around. We concluded to go beyond the 
timber where the main camp stayed last night but tried 
to find grass for our teams. We started onward. At 
the creek watered our teams and rested awhile. We 
then went on about a mile and a half and found good 
grass and much of it. We at once concluded to tarry 
there. We had put a little wood into our wagons to cook 
with. We arrived on the ground about six o'clock and 
then got the best camp ground we have had for some 

Three of our teams were behind when we arrived. 
Horlick got in about a half an hour after us and then 


afterwards Swap and Jones arrived at 7 :30 o'clock. We 
are all comfortable but very tired, having traveled about 
ten miles. My wife Ruth walked all the way and' myself 
also. The rest walked by turns. We have seen many 
rattlesnakes today. The weather is very fine. 

THURSDAY, 23RD. This last night has been very 
stormy with heavy thunder, hail, rain and wind. The 
thunder and lightning was very loud and the rain fell 
in torrents. The weather continues cold and cloudy with 
some fine showers. There appears some heavy rain in 
the east and north. Grass looks green and the cattle have 
filled themselves well. We started about ten o'clock and 
soon found that last night's rain had made the roads much 
worse. After traveling about four miles we stopped to 
graze our teams, being one o'clock. While resting Elders 
Taylor and Orson Pratt passed on horseback. At three 
o'clock we started again and about four came to the 
President's camp. He was just returning from an ex- 
ploring tour to find out better roads. His camp was on 
the east of a piece of timber. He gave orders to move 
to the other side of the timber about a mile from where he 
then was. We concluded to move on and finally camped 
on the next ridge .southwest of his. Our teams are tired 
and there is not much grass. A number of the horses 
have been bitten by rattlesnakes and one is dead. There 
are a great number of these snakes on these prairies. 
The President says the road to the next timber is all 
ridges and hollows and will be hard on teams. We got 
camped about 5 :30 p. m,, and before we got fixed a 
thunder storm came on with heavy rain but it was soon 
over and the evening afterwards was fine. 


FRIDAY, 24rn. This morning the President's com- 
pany made a bridge over a creek and started again on 
their journey. Four of my horses were missing and I 
sent men to hunt them and went myself. They were found 
about ten o'clock. We tarried until about twelve to rest 
and then .started. We went about two miles and stayed 
until four o'clock to graze our teams and then went on 
again and about six o'clock got to timber. I went to 
hunt a camping spot with Egan. We saw some women 
who told us Grand River was only a mile ahead and that 
the other companies were required to go down there. 
We started and soon arrived at the main body of the 
camp. We formed on the south side of the camp. The 
ground here is rich, timber good, and the prospects good 
for heavy crops. Here we calculated to tarry a while, 
fence in a piece of land and those who are not prepared 
to go through to tarry and raise crops. Wild onions grow 
in abundance. The weather has been fine today. Even- 
ing those of the band who are here went to Bishop Mil- 
ler's tent and played for the President and a Mr. Bryant 
who lives about thirty miles from here. Pitt, George, 
Charles and Steven Hales and William F. Cahoon art 
way back as yet as well as Heber's company. 

SATURDAY, 25TK. This morning started by daybreak 
fishing. About 7:30 .the President sent for me. I came 
back but he was gone. President Haws is regulating the 
company to watch our teams and also go to making 
rails etc. The morning is fine. About nine o'clock Ken- 
dall one of my teamsters, brought one of the horses he 
drives into camp which had been bitten by a rattlesnake. 
His nose had begun to swell badly. We got some spirits 


of turpentine and bathed the wound, washed his face in 
salt and water and gave him some snakes master root 
boiled in milk. He yet seems very sick. Our men have 
made a pen for the cattle at night. I feel quite unwell to- 
day. Spent the day chiefly reading. Evening Kennedy 
came to look at our horse and says they have given suf- 
ficient of the master root to kill four well horses. The 
horse looks very sick and is already scarcely able to stand. 
The band played a few tunes at night. About nine o'clock 
it rained somewhat and continued to shower through 
the night. Pitt arrived in camp this afternoon. 

SUNDAY, 26rH. The first news I heard this morning 
was that the horse was dead. This is a very unlucky 
circumstance for me for I am already very deficient in 
teams. Moreover, three of my teams leave me here, viz. 
Horlick, Chas. A. Terry and Jones with their wagons 
and teams. I shall then have about quarter teams enough 
to draw the loads. I have about three thou- 
sand pounds of church property besides my own goods. 
I see little chance of my moving from here at present. 
The morning was wet but it cleared off and continued so 
all day. I spent the day reading and writing while the 
rest went to meeting. Evening was sent for to go to 
council. Read a letter from O. Hyde stating that they 
had had an offer of two hundred thousand dollars for 
the temple. He writes of hard times in Nauvoo. The 
council selected one hundred men to make rails, forty- 
eight to build houses ; twelve to dig wells ; ten to build a 
bridge and the rest to go to farming 1 . 

Steven Markham, C. C. Rich, L. C. Wilson, James 
Pace to oversee the rail cutting. Brigham Young, Heber 


C. Kimball, P. P. Pratt and Geo. A. Smith the house 
building 1 . A. P. Rockwood to boss bridge building. Presi- 
dent Young to boss him and the whole camp and Jacob 
Peart to boss well digging. The council decided to wait 
until morning to decide relative to selling the temple. 
After we adjourned I went into my wagon. I wrote a 
long letter to Diantha. It was about ten o'clock when T 
got through. 

MONDAY, 2?TH. Rained all day. At 6:00 a. m., 
went to meeting. The men were divided out to work and 
commenced operations and had to quit on account of rain. 
After breakfast went to council, when it was voted to 
sell the temple, signifying as to the reason, it will be more 
likely to be preserved. It is as lawful to sell it to help the 
poor saints as to sell our inheritance. We do it because 
we are compelled to do it. I was ordered to write an 
answer to Elder Hyde's letter which I did. saying finally, 
if the temple was sold, $25,000 must be sent for the benefit 
of the camp. The balance to be left at the disposal of 
elder Hyde, Woodruff and the trustees and to be appro- 
priated to help away those who have labored hard to 
build the temple and the faithful poor of the saints. Spent 
the balance of the day packing up china and crockery to 
be sent by Egan. 

TUESDAY, 28TH. Weather very wet. Moved up on 
higher ground. Spent the morning unpacking chests 
for files and supplies. Afternoon unloading wagon to 
send a-trading. The weather very wet until night. 
President Young called over and said we had better not 
send Egan until the weather settles. The quadrille band 
have gone to give concerts in the Platte. They had to draw 


their wagons across the river by ropes the water was so 

WEDNESDAY, 29TH. It still continues to rain and the 
ground is getting quite soft and muddy. Spent the day 
setting men to fixing yokes and bows. Walked out about 
a mile to the bluff west of us. It ceased raining about 
eleven o'clock and continued fair through the day. 

TH/TRSDAY, 30rH. Unpacking and re-packing chests 
all the day. It continues to rain more or less and the 
weather looks bad. Ruth is quite unwell. 

FRIDAY, MAY 1. 1846. This month brings the 
damp wet weather. Chas. Shumway and George Lang- 
ley start for George Herring this morning being instruc- 
ted to bring him on to Council Bluffs. Spent the day 
preparing for Egan to start trading. He has gone with 
Jackson Redding and has taken $288.00 of church prop- 
erty besides two span of horses and harness and near 
$60.00 of mine. Afternoon packing chests, etc. The 
weather finer and fairer. 

SATURDAY, 2ND. The day is fine. Preparing some 
for Horlick's return to Nauvoo on Monday. Wrote to 
Diantha. Selling shoes. 

SUNDAY, 3RD. The morning fair, windy and cloudy, 
southeast wind. Spent the morning making a list of all 
the company who have made their reports, also fixing 
tents. At ten o'clock went to meeting. O. Spencer talked 
a while and was followed by President Young who ex- 
horted the camp to diligence in getting in crops for that 
will be our salvation the next winter. He said no com- 
pany should start from here until the south field was 
made and some houses built. It commenced raining as 


the meeting . closed and about three o'clock a thunder 
storm came on which lasted till near five o'clock. I spent 
the afternoon reading. Soon after five it cleared off some 
and the sun shone again. While at supper President 
Young called and stated that he wished that I should 
go to council with him. I started and the council met 
opposite his tent. It was decided that his- fifty build the 
bridge tomorrow and all the rest to make rails and also 
that Sherwood and Orson Pratt go about twenty-five or 
thirty miles southwest to seek out another section. 

MONDAY, 4xH. Finished my letter to Diantha and 
sent it by John Richards. Horlick has concluded to tarry 
till my wagons are fixed. I spent the day examining my 
flour and crackers and helping to fix the tent as consider- 
able of my crackers and flour are damaged on account of 
having poor wagons. I dreamed last night that I saw 
Diantha and her babe. Her babe was dressed in white 
and appeared to be lying down with its eyes closed. She 
was bent over it apparently in sorrow. When I went to 
her she flew to me earnestly but the babe seemed to be 
kept still and asleep, and I awoke. This dream has troub- 
led me considerably. Evening met the clerks of 50's in 
my tent and instructed them how to make their reports, 

TUESDAY, STH. The weather very fine. I spent the 
day preparing to enter the reports on the record. Went 
over to J. D. Lee's and learned that some of the clerks 
had been to the President and told him that I had or- 
dered that they should include in their reports each wife 
a man has. I did not do any such thing, only re- 
quested each name should be in full according to the 


order of a previous council. The President said it did 
not matter about the names being in full but I think in 
after days it will prove it does. Dr. Richards thinks as 
I do. The President, I understand, appeared quite angry. 
Many of the band are entirely destitute of provisions 
and my flour is so nearly down I have fconcluded to eat 
biscuit. I have given the band considerable of my bis- 
cuit already. At nine o'clock fixing my wagons. Ex- 
pected a storm which soon afterwards commenced, rain- 
ing and thundering very hard. Raining most of the 

WEDNESDAY, 6TH. Writing in the camp record. In 
the afternoon a storm arose emitting very violent wind, 
thunder, lightning, rain and hail. Many tents blew over. 
One of mine blew over and most of our articles were 
wet and some nearly spoiled. I have been informed 
that Esther Kay has been offering bitter complaints be- 
cause they do not fare as well as some others. The hint 
was thrown at Margaret and she understood that it was 
for me. I have today let Miss Kay a pair of shoes and 
took down a large bag of biscuits and divided it amongst 
those who are needy. I have all the time let them have 
flour, sugar, bacon and other things as I had them and to 
hear of dissatisfaction because I will not let them have 
the last I have grieves me. I have given to the band 
as near as I can estimate, twelve hundred pounds of 
flour, about four or five hundred pounds of bacon besides 
much of other things. Towards evening it did not rain so 
. much but continued hard after we went to bed. The 
wind was very severe, almost as bad as I ever saw it for 
about a half an hour. 


THURSDAY, 7xH. This morning it is dull, cloudy and 
cold. About nine o'clock commenced raining again. I 
have again given Sister Kay a quart cup full of sugar. 
I have spent the day entering reports on record. 

FRIDAY, STH. The weather fine and pleasant. Spent 
the day fixing wagon covers and wagons. Andrew Ca- 
hoon arrived from Nauvoo with the mail but no letter 
from Diantha or father. He says the troops arrested 
O. P. Rockwell last Thursday evening and took him to 
Carthage and thence to Quincy jail. It is doubtful 
whether he will now escape their cruel vengeance. This 
morning the mare had a colt. I have felt quite unwell all 
day. Evening went to President Young's to get records 
to look for a deed from Hiram Kimball to Ira S. Miles. 
Searched till near ten o'clock but the deed is not on rec- 
ord. Kimball seems disposed to take all the advantages 
he can from everyone. 

SATURDAY, 9xn. Morning fixing wagon cover, 
counseling with Wm. Cahoon and then was called aside 
by the President to read two letters from Sister Harris 
and her son. Dr. Richards, John Smith and Heber were 
present. Afternoon went fishing. The weather fine and 
no wind. 

SUNDAY, lOra. Wrote a letter to Diantha, one to 
trustees, one to father, one to Brother Burdick, one to 
Thos. Moore and one to John Everett. Keller returned 
with thirteen bushels of meal and 250 pounds of bacon 
from the guard, having been gone twelve days. Evening 
went to council to Heber's tent. Samuel Bent having 
been appointed at today's meeting to preside over those 
left on his arm, he chose David Fullmer and Ezra T. 


Benson for counselors. P. P. Pratt was advised to start 
as soon as possible for Platte River to take all who were 
prepared to go. 

MONDAY, HTH. Morning distributing meal and 
bacon to the band. Afterwards the President, Heber, 
and Dr. Richards came and took some cordage. After- 
noon weighing and loading. 

TUESDAY, 12-TH. Sent Keller and Corbite to the 
mills to try and get flour, meal and two cows. Weigh- 
ing and packing. About nine was sent for to go to coun- 
cil. I waited about two hours before anything was 
done. The vote for Ezra T. Benson to stay as counselor 
for father Bent was rescinded and it was voted to take 
Aron Johnson in his place. A letter of authority was 
written for father Bent by Dr. Richards but he made me 
copy it, and afterwards when the President spoke to him 
to write to O. P. Rockwell he favored me to do that al- 
though I left three men waiting to weigh my loading 
and load my wagon. The fact is I can scarcely ever go 
to council but Dr. Richards wants me to do his writing, 
although I have more writing to do as clerk of the camp 
than I can possibly do. Moreover I have to unpack the 
chest and wait on all of them with the public goods in 
my charge which keeps me busy all the time. Presi- 
dent Young, Heber, Dr. Richards and Bishop Whitney 
have all made out to get lumber sawed to make their 
wagons comfortable but I can't get enough to make a 
hind board for one of my wagons, which has none. They 
are tolerably well prepared with wagons and teams but 
I am here with about five tons of stuff and only six wagons 
and five voke of oxen to take it. I have dealt out nearlv 


all of my provisions and have to get more before I can 
go on. It looks as if I had to be a slave and take slave's 
fare all the journey for it has worked that way so far. 
After council I was weighing and loading, etc., until night. 
We had some rain at night. 

WEDNESDAY, 13xH. The morning fair, but cloudy. 
Still loading my wagons and preparing to move. Presi- 
dent Young and Heber's companies have gone and left 
me. I asked Jones and Terry what provisions I should 
have to leave them while they put in the crops. They 
concluded that 25 Ibs. of corn meal each, and from 25 
to 50 Ibs. of bacon for three of them would be enough for 
twenty days. I think so, for we do not use as much meat 
in the same time in my whole family and as to 25 Ibs. of 
corn meal each for so long a time, it is far more than my 
family can have. I have also to supply Horlick with 
provisions to take him back to Nauvoo and have kept 
four of them since they came here while they are to work 
for themselves. All this continues to weaken my hands 
for the journey. I have to get three new teamsters and 
also feed them while the others are living on my food. 
Markham came in the evening and said the President 
had sent word to father Bent to raise cattle enough to 
take my load to the new place tomorrow morning but I 
cannot go because my horses have gone to the mill for 
meal. Evening it commenced raining again and rained 
nearly all night. 

THURSDAY, 14-TH. This morning is fair, but cloudy 
and like for more rain. Jones has concluded to leave 
for Nauvoo this morning and leave his son to plant for 
him. I have given him and Charles A. Terry a letter of 


recommendation. Jones asked me and said I would have 
to leave him some provisions while he put in his crops 
but I do not feel to do it for I think it is far more reason- 
able that the company for whom he has been working 
should supply him instead of me doing it out of the little 
provisions I have. I have left Charles and Henry 
Terry 50 Ibs. of meal and 14 Ibs. of bacon besides board- 
ing them two weeks while they have been working on 
their farm. I went to see Brother Bent about the teams 
and from him learned that he could only raise three yoke 
of oxen and no wagon. I went to see Crisman who had 
promised two yoke and told him I should start in the 
morning then went and spent the day fixing the loads, 

FRIDAY, 15'fH. This morning Crisman called and 
said he should not let his cattle go until Brother Miller 
returned. I then concluded to take what teams I had 
and take my wagons and go on a few miles. I borrowed 
two yoke of oxen from Sister Kay and started. We got 
the wagons over the river and on the bluff about a mile 
and then stopped to let the teams feed. I walked on and 
met Brothers Miller, Pitt, Kay, and Hutchinson with a 
large drove of cows and cattle. I told Brother Miller 
my situation and the request of the President but I could 
get no satisfaction. We moved on with half of the 
wagons and T selected a spot over a quarter of a mile 
from timber. They then went back for the otKer wagons 
and got them all up about six o'clock. Reddings have come 
here also, and Sister Egan with one or two others. 

SATURDAY, 16TH. This morning is fine but the 
weather doesn't look like being fair long. I have 



concluded to send two wagons through and wait until 
the teams return before I can move farther. Swap and 
Conrad are gone with all the teams I have and I 
have sent A. Johnson's cattle back because they were 
useless unless I could have more. The day was very 
warm. I spent the day mostly reading. Afternoon Du- 
zett, Hutchinson and Pitt arrived with their wagons. 

SUNDAY, I?TH. Spent the day mostly reading. 
Weather very warm. Afternoon Bishop Miller's com- 
pany passed but he did not leave me any cattle although 
he has plenty and many cows. This agrees with his 
course, for from about two months before we left Nauvoo 
to the present, he has done nothing but for himself. 

MONDAY, ISxn. Morning went on the road about 
two miles to see if I could meet Keller and Corbitt. It 
rained and thundered ,some and continued cloudy through 
the day. 

TUESDAY, 19TH. Spent the morning reading, after- 
wards went fishing. Some teams returned from camp 
and said that some from Nauvoo had arrived there which 
started two weeks ago last Saturday and that Elder Hyde 
had advised all the saints to move over the river as fast 
as possible from Nauvoo, and they have their ferry boats 
constantly employed. A number are already on their 
way here. 

WEDNESDAY, 2Qrii. This morning is very rainy and 
cold. Spun twenty yards of fish line and tied on eleven 
hooks. Swap and Conrad returned soon after eleven 
o'clock. They say the camp is about thirty miles ahead. 
They confirm the report of some having arrived from 
Xauvoo and say they were told that my father is on his 


way here. The roads are lined with teams, etc., on the 
other road north of this. Horlick came this afternoon 
for more victuals. Although he is a good wagon maker 
and carpenter, he is either unwilling to work or the camp 
at the farms is unwilling to board him for his work which 
I hardly believe. It .seems as though teamsters are re- 
solved to live on me till they eat all I have and I now 
lack about three thousand Ibs. of provisions to proceed 
with. I can learn of no one who has fed his teamsters 
as long as I have after they stopped teaming and more- 
over, the teamsters .started with church property but I 
have sustained them out of my own provisions. Towards 
evening it was fair but still threatens to rain again. I 
cannot yet learn a word from Diantha but think she must 
be on her way. My family is yet in good health except 
Margaret who looks sick but doesn't complain. 

THURSDAY, 21sr. Continued raining this morning 
but about noon it began to be fine. About five o'clock a 
heavy thunder storm came up and it started raining 
heavily. Storm after storm kept coming far into the. 
night. Wilham F. Gaboon called on his way up between 
the two companies. He wanted some salt but I had none 
for him. 

FRIDAY, 22ND. This morning fine but cloudy, 
ground wet and soft. Wrote some in the camp record. 
About nine o'clock started on the road to look for a good 
camp ground. James started at the same time on horse- 
back to see if he could meet Keller. I went about three 
miles and waited till he returned but no news from Kel- 
ler. I concluded to move my camp about three miles and 
sent James back to load up and come on. I waited until 


they came. It was after five o'clock before they came up, 
the loads being heavy and the teams weak, the loads being 
too heavy for them. We are now camped on a very pleas- 
ant spot not far from timber. We have camped near the 
summit ,of a ridge where we can ,see a long way on both 
the roads leading to Miller's mill and to trie next camp. 
Soon after we arrived Horace Whitney passed. I sent 
word to the President to send me more teams. I told 
Horlick we could not board him any longer and gave 
him a line to father asking him to board him until he re- 
turns. Have borrowed some meal from Edward Martin 
to get along. If Keller doesn't come soon we shall have 
to obtain something to eat somewhere or go short. We 
have nothing left to eat but some corn, and being short 
of milk we can not cook it to our advantage. James and I 
were consulting just at dusk as to the wisdom of one of 
us starting out to try and meet Keller and Corbitt or see 
if we could learn something of them. We both felt positive 
they had lost their horses. While we were talking we saw 
Keller and Horlick riding up from the first farm. From 
Keller we learned they had got horses and loads and were 
coming on the other road and would wait till we came up 
to meet them if we thought best. He said the guard had 
all returned and were with the wagons. This was joyful 
news to us and I felt my heart much relieved. 

SATURDAY, 23RD. James started out early to meet the 
wagons. After breakfast we started on the road and 
while standing Keller came up and said it was about 
four and a half miles to where the other road joins the 
main road. I started ahead on foot and after traveling 
about three miles came up to the teams where they had 


waited on the road. When I got up the guard seemed 
pleased to see me. Captain Allen had bought about 
thirty-six bushels of meal and 200 Ibs. of bacon. They 
would not receive any pay for it. They have been faithful 
and diligent and have done much. There is yet $12.00 due 
them from the meal and they are determined I shall have 
that too. When my teams came up we put the meal in 
the wagons and started on. We went about a mile 
farther to Peter's Bridge where we concluded to camp 
for the night. We arranged our loading and I concluded 
to let Brother Allen have the wagon and team in his 
hands which is church property to send back to Nauvoo 
for his family. The guard made out a list of provisions 
which they wished me to leave them which was indeed 
very little. I gave them four pairs of shoes and prob- 
ably three bushels of meal which is all the remuneration 
they would accept for all they had brought. They 
seemed well satisfied. 

SUNDAY, 24rH. This morning I gave certificates 
of discharge to A. Keller, John Horlick, Orville Allen, 
M. A. Dodge, Tollman, Starks, Mecham, Bartlet and P. 
R. Wright. Keller and Horlick started immediately for 
Xauvoo and Wright and Dodge soon after. I concluded 
to move on about two miles to where Hutchinson and 
Duzett were in camp. I started out on foot and most of 
my family soon after. It soon began to rain and rained 
till I was wet through. I traveled on about four and 
a half miles but could see no camp near timber. I 
stopped to rest at a post put up by Stewart where the 
Racoon fork led off. While there Josiah Arnold passed 
on his way to Miller's. From him I learned that there 


was a camp ground about a half a mile farther. I went 
on and waited. Before any of the wagons arrived James 
came up. Soon after news arrived that Swap had broke 
his wagon tongue. I sent James to help bring on the 
loads. We only started with three wagons and left three 
back with Corbitt and Martin. The teams worked hard 
all day and at half past nine the last team arrived having 
taken all day to travel about five miles. 

MONDAY, 25TH. This morning I sent James and 
Corbitt to go and trade three horses and some harness 
for cows. About noon I started out with two wagons 
and left ,one and about three loads of stuff in care of two 
of the guard. After we had traveled about three miles I 
met a messenger from the camp who handed me two let- 
ters, one was from Diantha and one from Brother Whit- 
aker concerning a piece of land. We went on about a 
mile and crossed a creek where we waited to rest our 
teams. When I read Diantha's letter it gave me painful 
feelings to hear of her situation. After resting about an 
hour we went on about four miles farther and camped 
near Father Baker's camp on a creek. It was night be- 
fore we got supper over. I found several men going back 
to Nauvoo for their families. 

TUESDAY, 26xH. Wrote an answer to Whitaker's 
letter and also one to Diantha. We started on about eight 
o'clock and found the road bad and many bad creeks 
where the bridges had been washed away. After travel- 
ing two miles one of my wagons loaded with corn meal 
was upset in a hole. But after about an hour's labor we 
got the loading in. The wagon was not much damaged. 
We proceeded about three miles farther and met two 


men with six yoke of oxen which President Young had 
sent to meet us. This was a great relief to us for we saw 
that we could not get to camp to-day because of our 
teams being so worn down. We rested our teams about an 
hour and then started on at a good pace. We found 
several more very bad creeks to pass but we did not have 
much difficulty. Duzett and myself drove the cows. Ed- 
ward Martin drove his horses. About sundown we ar- 
rived in camp, having traveled about thirteen miles. This 
place is called Mt. Pisgah and is a very beautiful situa- 
tion, the prairie rolling and rich, skirted with beautiful 
groves of timber on the main fork of the Grand river. 
Soon after we arrived Elder Kimball came to welcome us 
to camp and then came Elder Richards and family and 
President Young who all seemed glad to see us in camp. 
WEDNESDAY, 27xn. This morning my horses and 
one cow and .several of the oxen are missing. I went to 
see Bishop Whitney about getting teams to send back for 
the loads remaining but could get no satisfaction from 
him. I went back and unloaded two wagons on the 
ground and about the same time saw the President who 
said he would send for them. Elder Kimball sent one 
wagon and the President sent two. President Young said 
they intended to take the church property in their wagons 
and take it on to Council Bluffs but I must go with them 
and leave James and Corbitt and Egan to bring on the 
wagons they have, etc. I cannot think they under- 
stand my situation in regard to the teams or they would 
make some definite move about it. They intend to start 
in a day or two and T tried to fix the wagons in good 
order but had no chance to get even one fixed. Spent 


the day fixing up my tent and had to get a new pole. 
Heber took my other one. Afternoon it commenced 
gathering for a storm and we had barely time to get the 
tent up and the things tinder it before it began to rain 
and continued till I went to sleep. George Herring and 
Snumway arrived here last night. I spoke with them to- 

THURSDAY, 28TH. The morning dull and foggy, 
ground wet, etc. Went fishing some. Evening played 
with Hutchinson and Pitt. All my oxen, horses and the 
cow were found. I went out this morning hunting for 
them on foot. Evening raining. 

FRIDAY, 29TH. The weather fine, cool, and windy. 
Talked with Heber some. He says I shall have teams. 
One of my wagons came in this morning. 

SATURDAY, SOrn. Went and borrowed a robe and 
ornaments from Aaron Farr then rode with Dr. Richards 
about three miles on the prairie. There were five others 
and among them President Young. Two tents were 
brought and we fixed them up and then met and clothed. 
There were President Young, P. P. Pratt, J. Taylor, Geo. 
A. Smith, A. Lyman, John Smith, N. K. Whit'iey. D. 
Spencer, O. Spencer, C. C. Rich, E. T. Benson, Wm. 
Huntington and myself. Clothed and having offered up 
the signs, offered up prayer, Heber C. Kimbal- being 
mouth. We then conversed awhile and appeared again, 
Geo. A. Smith being mouth A. P. Rockwoocl and Wm. 
Kimball were guarding the tent. Prayers were offered 
that we might be delivered from our enemies and have 
teams to go on our journey, etc. About two o'clock we 
returned to camp. Many of the teams w r ere coming in 


and among- the rest, the teams sent back for my loading 
which all arrived tonight. 

SUNDAY, 31sr. Having- heard that Egan was near I 
started out to meet him. The morning was fine but about 
eleven o'clock it began to thunder. I went about two 
miles and before I got back without seeing Egan it rained 
heavily. I was wet through. I called at the meeting 1 while 
President Young was speaking. It rained nearly all the 
afternoon. Noal Richards died. 

MONDAY, JUNE 1, 1846. Was wet in the morning 
and windy all day. The council got me four wagons and 
seven yoke of oxen to take church property. 

TUESDAY, 2ND. Still windy but fair. President 
Young has again stated I lack some cattle yet. Fixing 
my wagon, etc. Have about teams enough but lack 

WEDNESDAY, 3RD. Fixing my wagons. Concluded 
to start on. My teams were scattered but we .started with 
what we had. We got over the river at three o'clock, 
one yoke of cattle still missing. I sent the men hunting 
for them but they were not found. 

THURSDAY, 4TH. Again sent the men hunting cat- 
tle. The day was very cold and windy, almost as cold as 
winter. I spent the day fixing a wagon for Diantha ex- 
pecting her on in about two weeks. Lucy Walker called 
in this afternoon and expressed sorrow on account of the 
treatment of Heber's family toward her. Amos Fielding 
called on his way to the President's camp. Towards 
evening it rained and there was one of the most beautiful 
rainbows I ever saw in my life. We could see its bril- 
liant reflection within a few rods of us. In the evening 


Douzett came for his cow which had tarried with ours. 
He concluded to stay over night. My teamsters returned 
without finding" the cattle. 

FRIDAY, STH. Sent all the men expect James Doug- 
las to hunt the cattle. About nine o'clock my adopted 
son Thomas Corbich returned with them. I then waited 
till two o'clock for the men to return, three of them being- 
still absent. I have now eleven wagons, sixteen yoke 
of oxen, six cows, five horses, and six teamsters, besides 
my brother James, whose names are Conrad Neil, Levi N. 
Kendall, James Douglas, Milton F. Bartlett. Willard 
Smith, and A. E. Hinkel, four of the latter are new to me 
and do"ot seem to know much about teaming. At two 
o'clock I concluded to start on and after about an hour's 
preparation we started. The men took two teams each. 
I drove the cows on foot. The roads are a great deal bet- 
ter. We traveled about six miles and camped on a hill 
beyond nice timber. Pitt is here and Brother Taylor's 
camp. Amos called on his way back to England. He 
stayed and conversed a while. I will here say that the 
oxen put in by Brothers Olive and Rich to take church 
property are very poor and some of them scarcely of any 
use. We arrived here about half past six o'clock. The 
day has been cold, fine and fair. 

SATURDAY, 6rH. The morning very fine. We started 
out at eight o'clock: Pitt joined with us. I went on 
foot to drive the cows. About ten o'clock we had a little 
rain. After traveling about seven miles we arrived at a 
piece of timber where the patriarch John Smith was rest- 
ing. We concluded to rest our teams here and stopped 
at half past eleven. At one o'clock we started again and 


soon after had a heavy thunder shower. I was about a 
mile ahead of the wagons and having no shelter was soon 
completely drenched with rain. It got very cold while 
raining. As .soon as the wagons came up we stopped 
till the shower was over which did not last long. We then 
pursued our journey and at six o'clock camped on the 
open prairie a long way from timber, having traveled 
about sixteen miles. After the shower the day was fine. 
I was very tired and wet and after eating a little went to 
bed. Vilate Ruth is weaning from the breast today which 
makes her cry. 

SUNDAY, ?TH. Inasmuch as we were not near tim- 
ber we concluded to travel on till we found some. We 
started at eight o'clock and traveled till two, being about 
nine miles, when we came to a little grove of timber and 
just beyond a bad bottom of prairies. I concluded to pass 
this and camp on the adjoining ridge. I drove the cows 
all day on foot.' My feet were sore and blistered. The day 
was very fine. Sometime after we arrived Father John 
Smith came and camped just below us. 

MONDAY, STH. The weather fine. Traveled about 
ten miles, the roads being very hilly and uneven. We 
camped on a bottom near timber. I went fishing and had 
good success. I drove the cows till noon then rode with 

TUESDAY, 9xn. Weather fine and hot. Went fish- 
ing at daybreak with James and had good luck. At nine 
we went on. I rode again. Afternoon three Indians over- 
took us and begged some bread. We camped on a bot- 
tom beside Coleman and others, having traveled about 
twelve miles. Two Indians are here and we have learned 


their camp is only three miles from us. President Young 
left word to go in companies from here to avoid being 
plundered by the Indians. We had our cattle tied up 
and a guard over them through the night. 

WEDNESDAY, lOrii. Went fishing at daybreak and 
caught thirty-six. Weather hot. We started about nine 
o'clock and found the roads good but over hills and ra- 
vines all the day. At six o'clock we camped in sight of 
the Pottawattamie Indian village. When about two miles 
from it they discovered us coming and we soon saw a 
number of them riding towards us. Some had bells on 
their horses which frightened our horses and cattle. 
James and I took the horses and let the others take the 
oxen the best way they coukl. Some of the Indians fol- 
lowed our wagons and inquired often for whiskey. We 
had to pass some timber and a river before we arrived 
at their village which is situated on a very beautiful ridge 
skirted by timber and beautiful rolling prairie. Before 
we arrived at the timber it seemed that the whole village 
had turned out, men, women, and children, some on 
horses and many on foot. Their musicians came and 
played while we passed them. They seemed to escort 
our wagons and asked if we were Mormons. When we 
told them we were they seemed highly pleased. It took 
us some time to cross the bridge over the river and then 
we were perfectly surrounded by Indians apparently from 
curiosity and friendship. They watched us cross the 
bridge and others followed on with us. The boys seemed 
to learn the words our teamsters used to drive the cattle 
and would run and in their way help to drive. They mani- 
fested every feeling of friendship and nothing unkind 


or unfriendly transpired. Soon after we passed the 
bridge we were met by Jas. W. Cummings and the breth- 
ren from Shariton Ford with John L. Butler to bring 
Emmet's company to meet us. The cattle have been with 
Emmet's company from the time they left Nauvoo. The 
road leads within about two hundred yards of the In- 
dians and I wanted to go about two miles farther to save 
the necessity of having a guard but soon after we left the 
village we had to ford a stream which was -deep and bad 
to cross. I then concluded to camp on the ridge above 
the ford and in sight of the village, being about a half 
or three quarters of a mile from them. Many of them 
followed us, men, women and children and watched all 
our movements but about dark all departed in peace. 
They seemed well pleased with their visit. They 
certainly showed every mark of friendship ana 
kindness imaginable and treated us as brothers. We 
learned that the chief's daughter was buried today. We 
have, traveled about fifteen miles. From Cummings we 
learned that Emmet had left his things belonging to the 
company with him. Part of the company has crossed at 
St. Louis and are now on the line here. The agent of 
the U. S. refuses to let them pass. The other part of the 
company are thirty miles below the bluffs expecting u< 
to cross there. 

THURSDAY, HTH. Many of the Indians again came 
to the camp with the same friendly feeling. Some squaws 
came to trade. We started soon after nine, the weather 
being very hot. We traveled over about five miles of very 
uneven road. The rest was good. We had to travel till 
late before we came to water. We camped on a small 


creek where Coleman and Tanner were camped, having 
traveled about fourteen miles. 

FRIDAY, 12xH. Traveled about three miles, the 
weather being very hot. We camped on a beautiful ridge 
where the main body had evidently left but little before, 
beside a large rapid stream. I concluded to .stay here 
until Monday to rest our teams and give their shoulders 
a chance to heal, several of which were very sore. 

SATURDAY, 13iH. Fixing a wagon, etc. The 
weather very hot. Evening killed one of our cows. The 
mosquitoes here began to be very troublesome, there 
being so many of them and so bloodthirsty. 

SUNDAY, 14TH. The weather very hot and the mo- 
squitoes tremendously bad. This morning I weighed 
bread for each man at the rate of a half a pound a day. 
They seem very much dissatisfied and growl to each other 
very much. I weighed for my family of ten as much as 
I weighed for six teamsters. They were dissatisfied but 
we had some left. They have hitherto had all they wanted 
three times a day and above this have eaten up a bag of 
crackers unknown to me which I had reserved for the 
mountains. The mosquitoes being so bad, I concluded 
to go on a little piece. We started at 1 :00 P. M. and 
traveled until four when we arrived at a small clear 
stream having traveled about six miles. I camped here 
and in the evening told the men a part of what I thought 
of their conduct. 

MONDAY, ISxn. The morning cooler but mo- 
squitoes bad. Our horses were missing and we were de- 
tained till ten o'clock before we could start. The horses 
had gone back to where we left yesterday. We traveled 


till sundown before we came to water, being about twelve 
miles. We camped near to C. L. Whitney. 

TUESDAY, 16xH. Started at 7.30 and traveled about 
twelve miles when we came in sight of the Missouri river 
and the main camp about five miles farther. We soon 
learned that some of the camp were coming back to find 
water. There being no water where we were, we moved 
back about two miles to a spring and there camped ex- 
pecting to stay until we should learn what to do. 

WEDNESDAY, 17xH. This morning Kay and Du- 
zett rode up and said they were anxiously expecting us 
at the camp and wanted us to go immediately. I went 
to the camp with them to look out a place while my men 
yoked up and brought the wagons. When I arrived I 
saw Heber. He seemed pleased to see me and went with 
me to look out a place to camp. I fixed a spot between 
President Young's camp and Bishop Miller's. Heber 
said the twelve had an invitation to go to the village to 
the agent's to dinner and they wanted the band to go 
with them. I went back to meet the wagons which had 
been detained on account of some of the cattle being 
missing. As soon as my wagons arrived I got ready 
and started in Heber s carriage with Heber, Bishop Whit- 
ney, and Smithies. Edward Martin, Pitt, Hutchinsoo, Kay 
and Duzett rode in the other carriage. When we arrived 
at Mr. Mitchell's, the agent's place, we were introduced 
to him one by one. We then played and Kay sang until 
about five o'clock when we returned. This Village is sit- 
uated but a little distance from the river, probably fifty 
rods. It is composed of twelve or fifteen blocks, houses 
without glass in the windows, and is tfie noted place 


where the Lamanites for years held their council. The 
inhabitants are composed of Lamanites, half breeds and 
a few white folks. I had an introduction to Sarrapee an 
Indian trader. We arrived home just at dusk. 

THURSDAY, 18-m. Fixing a wagon all day. Even- 
ing went fishing. Spoke to Bishop Whitney about some 
more teams. 

FRIDAY, 19rii. Fixing wagons and preparing to 
send off some things to trade. Evening went fishing'. 
Went with the band to hold a concert at the village. Many 
went from the camp. The Indians and half breeds col- 
lected $10.10 and gave it to us an<] the agent Mr. Mitchel 
gave a dinner to all that came. 

SUNDAY, 21 ST. At home until evening. At 5 :00 met 
with the brethren of the camp and acted as clerk while 
they selected men to build the boat. 

MONDAY, 22ND. Fixing my wagons. The day was 
windy and cold. I was informed yesterday that Diantha 
is twenty miles back from Mt. Pisgah with her father 
still farther back. They have sent her chest on to Pisgah 
and she is with Loren. I partly made up my mind to 
start in the morning and bring her. 

TUESDAY, 23RD. This morning I got my food 
ready to start after Diantha but Vilate Rutrl seemed quite 
sick and I concluded not to start. We took the teams 
and went to the village to pick gooseberries but it rained 
nearly all the time we were gone. I bought a scythe and 
some other" things and tried to trade a watch for a yoke 
of cattle. Major Mitchel offered me three yoke for the 
gold watch. We got home about 3 :00 o'clock. I then 
went and told the President about Mitchel's offer and he 


told me to sell it. It was so cold and wet and windy we 
went to bed early and soon after we got to bed, Heber 
and Dr. Richards came to my wag-on with two letters 
from Diantha, one dated Nauvoo, May 17, 1846, the other 
Big Prairie, June 18th. She tells that she is sent on by 
her father and is with Loren and is very anxious that I 
should bring her or send for her. I made up my mind 
to start tomorrow. The night was very stormy with 
strong winds and heavy rains. 

WEDNESDAY, 24xH. The morning wet and cold. I 
went over to President Young and told him where I was 
going and what for. He said he would get the cattle 
for me. I also spoke to Heber and he said: "Go and 
prosper." At 11:00 I went to council and President 
Young, Kimball and Taylor concluded also to go to 
Pisgah after the cannon. I started at two o'clock ; t 
then being fair. At five o'clock I passed Father Knowl- 
ton's company thirteen miles from camp and at seven 
passed Laharpe's company and inquired of Brother 
Burgharri and Freeman about Diantha but could not learn 
much from them. Brother Ezra Bickford was here on 
his way back to Nauvoo. He said he was tired from 
riding on horseback and asked if I would let him go 
with me to Pisgah and use his horse in the wagon. 1 
told him to come on. I soon found it made a difference 
in the load. We went on about two miles and stopped 
at dark on the middle of the prairie near no water. After 
feeding we lay down to rest. We had several heavy 
showers through the night. 

THURSDAY, 25xn. This morning arose at four 
o'clock and moved our wagon a little to fresh grass to let 


the horses feed, they being" tied to it. It is fair, but 
cloudy. We started again at 5 :30 A. M., traveled till 10 :00 
then rested till 2 :00 and then traveled until dark, making 
thirty-one miles. We camped just beyond the Indian vil- 
lage in the midst of a severe thunder storm. It rained 
most of the day and the roads were bad. 

FRIDAY, 26TH. Did not start until after seven. 
Morning fair, roads bad. After traveling about ,six miles 
we found Horace Clark and others camped on one 
side of a small stream and Orson Spencer on the other 
side. The creek was full of water to the bank and in the 
deepest place about six feet over the bridge and a part 
of the bridge washed away. We tarried until 3 :00 o'clock 
and then concluded to try to get over. Walter L. Davis, 
and Wm. D. Huntington volunteered to help us over. We. 
unloaded the wagon box for a boat, taking a few of our 
things over at a time. When we got them all over we 
swam the horses over, loaded up, and at 5.00 o'clock 
started again and went till near nine having traveled about 
sixteen miles. 

SATURDAY, 27xn. The day was fine and we traveled 
about thirty-eight miles and camped on the prairie about 
eight miles from Pisgah. During the day we passed some 
U. S. officers on their way to see President Young and the 
council. W r e afterwards learned that they professed to 
be going to the authorities of the church by order of the 
President of ihe United States to raise five hundred vol- 
unteer Mormons to defend Santa Fe, etc. 

SUNDAY, 28TH. At daybreak it rained again. W T e 
started at four o'clock and arrived at Pisgah at eight. 
Had some conversation with Father Huntington and C. C. 


Rich. We fed and at nine .o'clock started again. We 
soon ,saw Brother Woodruff. He was glad to see me and 
we conversed together some time. From him I learned 
that Missouri had sent up a committee to Pisgah to search 
for forts and cannon, etc. He says the Missourians are 
terrified and many are moving from the back to the in- 
terior settlements. He also stated that we have a 
friend in the British Parliament and the British had held 
a private council in relation to the treatment of the U. S. 
towards us. Britain is making great preparations for 
war. They have sent ten thousand troops to Canada and 
a fleet around Cape Horn to Oregon. They are intend- 
ing to arm the slaves of the south and have their agents 
in the Indian country trying to bring them in war to fight 
the U. S. After we left Elder Woodruff we passed on 
and soon met Sister Durpee and Brother Lott and his 
company. He said Diantha was back about four miles. 
Soon after we met Orville Allen and from him learned 
that Diantha was back at least twelve miles. We con- 
tinued on and at two o'clock fed. We arrived at Father 
Chase's between four and five o'clock. Diantha was very 
glad to see me and burst into tears. My little boy is far 
beyond all my expectations. He is very fat and well 
formed and has a noble countenance. They are both 
well and I feel to thank my heavenly Father for his mer 
cies to them and Father Chase and to his family and may 
the Lord bless them for it, and oh Lord, bless my family 
and preserve them forever. Bless my Diantha and my 
boy and preserve their lives on the earth to bring honor 
to Thy name and give us a prosperous journey back again 
is the prayer of thy servant William. Amen. At night 


we had a heavy thunder storm. It rained very heavily. 

MONDAY, 29xn. The morning is cool and cloudy, 
the ground very wet. Brother Bickford is gone to Nau- 
voo. Left Father Chase's company about 10.30 A. M. 
They kindly furnished us with bread stuffs sufficient to 
last us to camp. We arrived at Mt. Pisgah and .stayed 
near Father Huntington's. 

TUESDAY, 30rn. This morning in council with Pres- 
ident Huntington, Rich and Benson until nine o'clock A. 
M. Took breakfast with Elder Rich and then started on. 
We passed Brothers Woodruff, and Lott and their com- 
panies about twelve miles -from Pisgah. After traveling 
about twenty-six miles we turned onto the big prairie for 
the night. The weather fine and roads good. 

WEDNESDAY, JULY 1, 1846. P. P. Pratt passed 
about six o'clock. We afterwards learned that he was 
going on express to Pisgah to raise the 500 volunteers to 
go to Santa Fee. After traveling about seven miles \vc 
rested with Brother Weeks and ate breakfast, then went 
on till two o'clock and stopped to feed. We continued on 
till dark, having traveled about seventeen miles. 

THURSDAY, 2ND. Having lost the horses during the 
night I went back four miles to hunt them. I met some- 
one and enquired about them, asking if he had not seen 
them. Went back to camp and ate a little and afterwards 
found them about a mile west. We started about ten 
o'clock and at sundown passed the Indian village and the 
stream at which we previously camped. We camped 
about two miles west of the Indian village. 

FRIDAY, SRD. Started early and went about four 
n iles to a creek where we ate breakfast. The day very 


hot but we traveled about twenty-five miles. We met 
President Young, Heber Kimball, and Dr. Richards going 
back to raise volunteers. They feel that this is a good 
prospect for our deliverance and if we -do not do it we are 
downed. We went on and camped near Hiram Clark 
and took supper with him. 

SATURDAY, 4xH. This morning my horses were 
missing and five from Clark's company were missing. I 
found them a little west of the camp and started on. 
Diantha having eaten nothing this morning I tried to buy 
some bread but could not get it till I got home. I ar- 
rived at three o'clock and found my little Vilate sick, the 
rest all well. I went over to Council at Captain Allen's 

SUNDAY, STH: At home all day. Conrad has left 
and gone to Elder Hyde's. The weather is very hot. My 
traders have got back and brought twenty bushels of 
corn, but only one of wheat. 

MONDAY, 6xH. Spent the day fixing wagons. Day 
very hot. Bishop Whitney called to see us. They are 
getting over the river as fast as possible but it is slow 

THURSDAY, 9xH. Spent the two previous days fix- 
ing wagons and today \ went down to the river to see 
about crossing, etc. Took my family with me. 

FRIDAY, lOm. Fixing my wagons, also Saturday 
unpacked the dry goods wagon and repacked it. 

SUNDAY, 12TH. Went to the meeting at Elder Tay- 
lor's camp. In the evening President Young, Kimball 
and Richards returned. They requested me to go to 
Taylor's to council. I went and tarried till dark, wrote 


a letter to the Quadrille band to meet tomorrow also 
wrote orders for all the men in camp to meet. 

MONDAY, 13xH. Went to the general meeting and 
played with the band and then kept minutes. They got 
three companies of 43 each and half of a fourth com- 
pany. All my teamsters have enlisted. I am now desti- 
tute of help. Edward Martin is advised to go and leave 
his family in my charge. I have still four yoke of oxen 
missing and I do not know where to find them. Last 
night James was seized with a fit and is quite unwell to- 
day, mostly insensible. Yilate Ruth is quite sick and on 
the whole my situation is rather gloomy. The meeting 
adjourned at five till tomorrow at eight, after which the 
company danced till dark. 

TUESDAY, 14rH. I went over to meeting this morn- 
ing and told the President my situation. He consented 
for me to go back to my camp to see to things. I came 
back but feel very unwell. Martin's youngest child died 
at 1 :30 p. m. 

WEDNESDAY, ISxn. Went with Edward Martin to 
bury his child on a high bluff south of the camp. We 
buried it between two small oak trees, a little east of 
them, the babe's head to the east. After returning Heber 
sent word for us to cross the creek to the other bluff 
where Elder Taylor is camped. We got some of the 
cattle together and took part of the wagons over and 
then returned for the remainder. As soon as we got 
there a message came that the President wished the 
band to go to the village. We accordingly started but 
when we got there we found nobody there and after a 
little trading we returned home. 


THURSDAY, 16TH. Hunting my horses to take 
Diantha to see her father's folks who arrived yesterday. 
In the afternoon we started out and went about three 
miles from here. They appeared very glad to see us. We 
got home again at dark. 

FRIDAY, I/TH. Went fishing. 

SATURDAY, 18TH. Went to the village to play with 
the band for the volunteers. They danced till near sun- 
down when we returned home. 

SUNDAY, 19xH. In the wagon till evening. Sister 
Farr came to see us. Diantha and I went home with her 
in the evening. 

MONDAY, 20rn. In the morning fixing for our con- 
cert. Afternoon the band came with their wives and we 
played and danced till dark. President Young made some 
appropriate remarks exhorting the saints to prayer, etc. 

TUESDAY, 21sr. This morning it rained very heavily. 
Went to council at Elder Pratt's camp. The council ap- 
pointed a council of twelve to preside here, viz. Isaac 
Moreley, Geo. W. Harris, James Allred, Thos. Grover, 
Phineas Richards, Herman Hyde, Wm. Peck Andrew H. 
Perkins, Henry W. Miller, Daniel Spencer, J. H. Hales 
and John Murdock. I wrote a letter informing them of 
their appointment also instructing them not to let any pass 
over the river unless they could be in time to go to Grand 
Island and cut hay, to watch over the church, establish 
schools for the winter, etc. I spent the remainder of 
the day at the creek. I asked the President what I should 
do but could get no answer. I have not been able to get 
any satisfaction from any of the council as to what I 
should do and am totally at a loss to know whether to 


tarry here or go on. My provisions are nearly out and 
my teamsters all gone and nearly all the cattle strayed 
away, and no one to hunt them except James and Corbitt 
and they are sick. 

WEDNESDAY, 22ND. Fixing a wagon for Margaret 
and re-loading some wagons. 

THURSDAY, 23RD. Unpacking church property. 
Found considerable of it very much damaged with wet. 
I put it out and dried it well and repacked it. Evening 
went with Diantha to see her folks. 

FRIDAY, 24xn. Regulating the loading, etc. 

SATURDAY, 25TH. Bought 357 pounds of flour HI 
$2.50 per hundred and carried it about three hundred 
yards to my wagons then spent the day fixing wagon 
covers. Evening went to Brother Farr's. About 11 :00 
o'clock a storm arose and it soon began to rain heavily 
and a while after blew a perfect hurricane. The thunder 
was awful and the rain poured in torrents for about a half 
an hour. 

SUNDAY, 26'fH. This morning the tent is down, 
wagons drenched and everything looks gloomy enough. 
Scarcely a tent in the camp was left standing and many 
wagon covers torn. A report is circulated that a cow 
was killed by lightning. Much damage is done to wagons, 
provisions, etc. The cow was killed about 200 yards 
west of my wagons. There was a tent struck also but 
no persons hurt. I went to meeting and heard Benson 
and Taylor preach. Afternoon at my wagons. Even- 
ing Bishop Whitney, President Young and Kimball 
called. I made out a bill of goods for them to send east 


by Robert Pierce. They ordered me to go down to the 
river tomorrow. 

MONDAY, 2?TH. Loading wagons, packing, etc., 
preparing to start. Last night I engaged Pelatiah Brown 
as a teamster. We started soon after noon. I drove the 
cows and James, Corbitt and Brown the teams with twelve 
wagons. We had to leave one cow four yoke of oxen 
and two horses on the ridge, being missing. We got 
down about six o'clock. Bishop Whitney passed anr] 
said I should not get over the river tomorrow and I sup- 
pose we shall have to wait some days. James and Cor- 
bitt are both sick and discouraged on account of having 
so little help and so many cattle, etc., to look after. They 
have a hard time of it but I can see no prospects of its 
being better. 

TUESDAY, 28xn. James and Corbitt started back to 
hunt the cattle. I went to the village and received $12.00 
of Larpey for the cordage I sold to Allen, $3.50 is yet 
my due. I then went and bought some flour of Tanner. 
While we were weighing it a storm arose and it rained 
and thundered and lightninged throughout the day and 
nearly all night. I have not seen more rain fall in a long 

WEDNESDAY, 29xn. Got the balance of the flour 
making 889 Ibs., most of it at $2.50 and 200 Ibs. at $2.00. 
Afternoon went to 'the village with Alice, Diantha. and 
Margaret. There saw President Young and Heber. They 
have just bought a pony and some cloth, etc., and seem 
to have money enough but there is none to buy me flour. 
T yet lack about a ton. 

THURSDAY, 30iH. At home all day. Unpacked 


mother's wagon and found many things wet and dam- 

FRIDAY, 31sT. Attending to wagons, cattle, etc., all 

SATURDAY, AUGUST 1, 1846. This morning I went 
to the river to see how soon we could cross and learned 
there was a prospect of our crossing this evening or to- 
morrow morning. I then went back to my camp and 
we started with the wagons a few at a time. My brother 
James is lame in bed. Pitt is lame. Brown is lame and 
Corbitt nearly spent. About noon we got all the wagons 
to the river and Corbitt returned to take the cattle to 
grass. I went to Larpey's and got the balance of the 
money then went to Mitchel's to try to trade my music 
box for a cow but did not succeed. 

SUNDAY, 2ND. Preparing to cross the river. Pelat- 
iah Brown went swimming all the forenoon and when 
Corbitt asked him to help with the teams he swore he 
would not if Jesus Christ would ask him. I told him 
if he did not feel like helping us he could go somewhere 
else, I did not want him. He went and I am again left 
without a teamster. I will here say that Brown will not 
work only when he has a mind to and during the last 
week when James and Corbitt and Pitt were all gone 
he would go to the river swimming instead of attend- 
ing to the cattle and I may as well be without a teamster 
as have a man who will go away in a cramp. About noon 
we crossed three wagons over and kept to work until we 
had got them all over which took us till dark. We had 
to crowd our wagons together in the road just above the 
river on account of its being stopped up by other wagons. 


We could not get our cattle to grass and they have had 
none since last night, but having a few bushels of corn 
we gave them five ears a piece. After supper I went 
fishing with Wm. F. Cahoon and others until two o'clock 
but had very poor luck. 

MONDAY, SRD. Started this morning to get our 
wagons on the prairie. The road is very narrow and bad, 
up steep bluffs and very muddy. It took four yoke of 
oxen to take a very light load. When we had got four 
of the wagons up eight yoke of Bishop Whitney's cat- 
tle came to help us and afterwards nine yoke of President 
Young's and Kimball's. We got to the prairie about noon 
and stopped to feed our cattle. I sent on five wagons 
with the teams sent to help us and after feeding about an 
hour started with the remainder. I drove the spare cat- 
tle and horses. We got the wagons to camp about six 
o'clock. One of President Young's oxen killed himself 
when going to drink, being so eager he pitched into the 
creek and broke his neck. When we got to camp we 
were all completely tired. My feet were sore and my 
limbs ached and had to go to bed. We camped on the 
north end of Heber's company. We have left nine head 
of cattle over the river yet and there is little prospect of 
being able to find some of them. 

TUESDAY, 4xn. This morning Heber's company have 
moved on about two days journey and again left me 
here alone. I loaned C. L. Whitney three yoke of oxen 
to help him through. They are gone to find a place 
within thirty miles of here to winter. I spent the day do- 
ing little, being so unwell. 

WEDNESDAY, STH. Moved down a little nearer 


water. There spent the day fixing Ruth's wagon. Cor- 
bitt has gone over the river to hunt cattle and in the 
evening returned with one yoke. 

THURSDAY, 6xH. Putting covers on Margaret's and 
mother's wagons, etc. Afternoon writing copy of the re- 
turns of companies. 

FRIDAY, ?TH. Spent the forenoon writing copy of 
return of companies of the U. S. army. About noon two 
of Heber's teamsters came with some cattle to help me 
to the main camp. I left off writing and went to putting 
the wagons in order. While fixing a chicken coop I 
struck my forehead with a hammer which disabled me 
from work the remainder of the day. 

SATURDAY, STH. This morning we arose about three 
o'clock and while some took the cattle to graze the rest 
got the wagons loaded, etc., ready to start. We got 
away soon after sunrise. I rode a mule and drove the 
cows. We traveled about nine miles before we came to 
any water. Here we took the teams from the wagons to 
a spring about a quarter of a mile from the road. The 
cattle seemed tired but one of the teamsters said it was 
only about three miles farther and should soon be there. 
We concluded to go on without stopping to feed. But 
before we had proceeded far some of the cattle gave out, 
the day being very hot, and before we got to camp sev- 
eral yoke gave up entirely and were left on the road and 
brought afterwards. One of the cattle died almost as 
soon as they took him from the wagon, being about a 
mile from camp. Two or three others were not ex- 
pected to live. When we arrived Heber wanted us to 
form on his north line but we could only get half of our 


wagons into the space left for the whole of them. I then 
moved over to the south side and formed next to D. Rus- 
sell. We got our tent up but can have no fire until Mon- 
day. The cattle are so tired we will not use them. I 
feel about sick myself. Heber's camp is formed in a kind 
of parallelogram, each wagon camped in a perfect line 
with the others. The square in the center is about 
twenty-five rods long and fifteen rods wide. 

SUNDAY, 9TH. Writing copy of return of compan- 
ies of U. S. army all day. 

MONDAY, 10xH. Attending to various business about 
the wagons all day. 

TUESDAY, HTH. Last night I had a severe chill and 
felt sick all day mostly with high fever. Quite unable to 

WEDNESDAY, 12xH. Quite sick, very bad fever all 

SUNDAY, 16TH. Since We.dnesdav have scarcely 
even been out of bed, but kept with raging fever ail the 
time. Twice Heber has rebuked my fever but it has re- 
turned. Through fear and persuasion of my family I 
have taken some pills and medicine given by Dr. Sprague, 
but seem to grow worse all the time. Today I have been 
very sick. Towards evening my folks concluded to get 
me out of the wagon into 'the tent where they had pre- 
pared a bed. Soon after I got into the tent President 
Young, Dr. Richards, G. A. Smith, Orson Pratt, Lorenzo 
Young and others called to see me. When they had been 
in a few moments President Young called O. P. Rock- 
well into the tent and the feelings we had on seeing him 
cannot be described. He has been in prison some time 


but when his trial came on there was no one to accuse 
him and the judge discharged him. The brethren all laid 
hands on me and rebuked my disease in the name of the 
Lord, President Young being mouth. I immediately felt 
easier and slept well all night being the first sleep I had 
had of any account for three days and nights. 

SUNDAY, 23RD. During the past week I have gained 
slowly and have been able to walk about some. I, how- 
ever, feel very weak and broken down. 

MONDAY, 24-TH. Reading some and fixing a little 
at my violin. Feel very little better but have a better 

TUESDAY, 25xH. We had a thunder storm last night. 
I do not feel so well this morning but took a walk into 
the woods.' I had a very sick day all day 

WEDNESDAY, 26TH. The morning very cool and 
cloudy. Let T. Corbitt have a pair of shoes. 

THURSDAY, 2?TH. Diantha was taken very sick and 
continued for four or five days. 

SATURDAY, 29rH. At night I was seized with fevei 
again and very sick. 

SUNDAY, 30TH' Had chill and fever, the chill held 
me four or five days. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER, 10m. I still continue very 
weak and troubled with pain in stomach, etc. President 
Young and Dr. Richards called and brought me a letter 
from David; also said they had got me employment writ- 
ing at a dollar a day or 3 c. on every hundred words copy- 

SATURDAY, 12TH. Still quite unwell. President 
Young brought me $8.00 in money, one half dollar bogu? 


and soon after Dr. Richards sent me some letters to copy 
which I did. 

TUESDAY, ISxn. This evening I copied a letter to 
Joseph F. Herring and having no one to send it by I took 
it to council myself. Before I got half way there my knees 
failed me and it was with great difficulty I got there and 
home again. When I got back to Pitt's shanty my spirit 
failed me for I was not aware of my weakness. 

SATURDAY, 19xH. Since Tuesday I have scarcely 
been out of bed, but today I feel somewhat better again. 

SUNDAY, 20rH. A little better. I have been told 
that President Young has virtually cursed all who have 
gone to Missouri or those who shall go hereafter. 

MONDAY, 21sx. This evening about ten o'clock all 
the men of the camp were ordered up armed to meet in 
this square forthwith. I got up and after a very little 
while quite a company of the brethren got together. Presi- 
dent Hales informed them that the President had received 
a letter from Mr. Sarpey informing him that two gentle- 
men from Missouri had informed him confidentally that 
the Missourians had got out writs for the twelve and 
others and were coming with a large force on the west 
side of the river to attack the camp by surprise, etc. He 
advised the brethren to have their arms clean and their 
ammunition ready at a moments warning, to pray with 
their families, keep dogs tied up at nights, etc., etc. The 
company was then dismissed except a guard for the camp. 

TUESDAY, 22ND. This morning the brethren were 
ordered to meet at the springs below here at nine o'clock. 
At the sound of the drum the brethren met and here or- 
ganized into four battalions, one of artillery, and three of 


infantry. There were about three hundred brethren pres- 
ent. The President then stated that he had received a 
letter from Sarpey informing him that two gentlemen, 
confidentially, from Missouri" had informed him that the 
Missourians were collecting with the sheriff of Missouri, 
their head designing to attack the saints, that they had 
writs, etc., for' the twelve and others. He had ordered 
out the brethren that they might be ready in case of 
necessity and advised them to organize and be prepared. 
Markham was elected Colonel over the batallions Hosea 
Stout, Lieutenant Colonel over the battalions and over 
the first battalions and over the first battalions of in- 
fantry. John Scott was elected 1st major and major over 
the artillery. Henry Herriman 2nd major to take com- 
mand of the 2nd battalion of infantry and John S. Glea- 
son 3rd major over the 3rd battalion of infantry. After 
organizing the President addressed the companies and 
then dismissed them. It was advised to quit leaving and 
move the encampment to the fort on the river. A num- 
ber of teams moved this afternoon. 

WEDNESDAY, 23RD. This morning President Young 
and many others have moved down to the river. Heber 
told me to wait till the lots were selected and he would 
let me know when to move. My health is improving. 

THURSDAY, 24-TH. Very cold all day. I did not feel 
so well. I have been told that Daniel H. Wells and Wil- 
liam Cutler have arrived in camp and brought a report 
that there has been a battle fought in Nauvoo and some 
of the brethren killed. 

FRIDAY, 25xH. I learned today that the mob had made 
it known that they were coming to drive out the "Mor- 


nions." The Governor sent an officer to raise volunteers 
to disperse the mob, but the mob learning this they came 
sooner than they had calculated. The brethren being ap- 
prised of the intentions of the mob prepared to meet them 
as well as their circumstances would permit. Some of 
the new citizens also made preparations to join the breth- 
ren. They made five cannon shot of an old steam boat 
shaft. They also filled- some barrels with powder, old 
iron, etc., which were buried in the pass to the city which 
could be fired by a slow match but this was of no avail 
as some traitors informed the mob of it, hence they did 
not come into the settled part of the city. On Saturday 
the 12 inst., the mob made their appearance being about 
twelve hundred in number. The brethren and some of 
the new citizens in the whole about one hundred and sixty 
went to give them battle, but many of the new citizens 
and some of the brethren when they saw the numbers of 
the mob fled and left about one hundred, nearly all breth- 
ren to fight the enemy. The mob had pieces of cannon. 
They met near Boscow's store on Winchester street. 
The cannon of the mob were two blocks from the breth- 
ren and the other part of rifle men one block from them. 
The mob. fired a number of times into Barlow's old barn 
expecting many of the brethren were concealed there but 
in this they were disappointed, the brethren chiefly lying 
down on the ground behind some shelter and fired in that 
position. They fought one hour and twenty minutes when 
the mob offered terms of compromise which were these, 
that all the "Mormons" should leave the city within five 
days leaving ten families to finish the unsettled business. 
The brethren consented to this inasmuch as they had been 


well informed that 1500 more were coming to join the 
mob and they had nothing to expect from the authorities 
of the state. Lyman Johnson, one of the twelve, headed 
a party of the mob from Keokuk, Iowa territory. Three 
of the brethren were killed, viz. William Anderson, his 
son, and Norris, a blacksmith. Three others wounded. 
The mob would not own to any of their party being killed 
but one person saw them put sixteen men into one wagon 
and handled them more like dead persons than wounded. 
The ground where they stood was pretty much covered 
with blood, so that there is no doubt they had many slain 
or wounded. They had 150 baggage wagons. Esquire 
Wells took command of the brethren and rode to and 
fro during the whole battle without receiving injury, al- 
though the balls whistled by him on every side. Amos. 
Davis fought bravely. While running across a plowed 
field he stumbled and fell on his left arm which formed 
a triangle with his head. As he fell a cannon ball passed 
through the angle of his arm between that and his head. 
Hiram Kimball received a slight wound with a musket 
ball on the forehead. The mob fired sixty-two shots with 
the cannon and ten rounds with the muskets making 12, 
000 musket balls only killing three and wounding three. 
The brethren did not fire so much in proportion but did 
much more execution. Truly, the Lord fights the battles 
of his saints. The cannon of the brethren was not of 
much service, they would not carry more than a quarter 
of a mile, whereas those of the mob would hold well a 
half a mile. They shot nine balls through a small smith 
shop, one through Wells' barn and one at his house 
but the ball struck the ground in front of his house and 


glanced through the well curb. The mayor of Quincy 
watched the battle from the tower of the temple and 
owned that history never afforded a parallel. The breth- 
ren then began to get their families and effects over the 
river where they remain in a suffering and destitute con- 
dition until wagons and means are sent from the . saints 
to their relief. On the Thursday following, the mob 
1200 strong, entered the city. Tis said from good 
authority that such is the distress and sufferings of the 
saints as actually to draw tears from this mob. 

SATURDAY, 26TH. Russell told me that he had se- 
lected three lots for us and we could go as soon as we 
had a mind to. He saw Heber on the subject. I made 
up my mind to start on Monday for Winter Quarters. 

SUNDAY, 27xn. This morning Brother Smithies 
came with six yoke of Heber's cattle and said we must 
be ready to start in five minutes while he went to water 
his cattle and although we had everything unprepared we 
were ready before he got back. I felt well enough to drive 
a team. We took six wagons down and camped on the 
same block with Heber in Cape Disappointment. James 
and Pitt went back to wait for Corbitt who was herding 
cows and in the evening returned with three more wagons. 

MONDAY, 28TH. Got the balance of the wagons and 
poles, etc. down. I copied three letters for Dr. Richards. 

TUESDAY, 29xn. Corbitt has started down into the 
country to fetch potatoes, etc. 

SUNDAY, NOVEMBER. IST, 1846. During the last 
month several times I have been very sick and then again 
would be somewhat better. I still continue to be feeble 
and unable to work. I have one house nearly finished 


and shall in a few days occupy it. Thomas Corbitt has 
been down the river to fetch a load of corn on shares but 
President Young told me to take the whole of it for which 
I feel very grateful. I have sent my cattle to the rushes 
to be wintered, having but eight tons of hay although 
James and Corbitt worked from twenty-six to thirty days 
but Russell and Rolfe have contrived to work it into their 
hands, taking as Rolfe said, half of Corbitt's hay for herd- 
ing my cattle while he was in the hay field. I think this 
is as wrong a piece of business as has been played on me 
through the journey. 


FRIDAY, JANUARY 1, 1847. Morning at the store. 
At 2 :00 P. M. went with Diantha to her father's and par- 
took of a roast turkey for dinner. At 4 :00 met the band 
at the Basket Shop and played about an hour and a half. 
The basket makers made each of us a present of a new 
basket and showed their gratitude various ways. At 
6:00 met with the band at Father Kimball's and played 
for a party till after one o'clock. President Young and 
Kimball danced considerable and all seemed to feel well. 

SATURDAY, THE 2ND. At the store regulating the 
books and making out Whitney and Woolley's account 
current, etc. About 2 :00 P. M. Sarah came and said her 
mother wanted me. Moroni had fallen into the fire and 
burned himself very badly. I went home and found as 
she said. All over the left side of his head burned, hfs 
face very badly burned, large blisters round his left eye. 
I immediately applied some consecrated oil and ordered 
them to keep it on all the time. I then returned to the 
store. Evening President Young came and took his hard- 


ware bill, domestic drilling, etc. About 8 :00 P. M. I went 

SUNDAY, SRD. Moroni's face seems much better, all 
except around his left eye which looks very bad. I was 
at the store all day working- at Whitney's account current 
which seems very bad to regulate. Evening Heber, his 
wife Ellen, Sarah Ann and Sister Whitney came in to 
trade and remained till about ten o'clock. 

MONDAY, 4-TH. At the store all. day. Evening wait- 
ing on Orson Pratt and Amasa Lyman. Paid my tax to- 
day, %2.\7y 2 to I. C. Wright. 

TUESDAY, STH. At the store all day. Evening the 
band met at my house. 

WEDNESDAY, 6xH. At the .store all day, the weather 
extremely cold. 

THURSDAY, 7TH. At the store, the weatner still colder 
than yesterday. Evening went to Sister Buel's and took 
supper of turkey. Afterwards went to Leonard's and 
played for them with Hutchinson and Smithies till 12:00 

FRIDAY, STH. At the store again, the weather still 
colder. Evening the band met at my house and played 

SATURDAY, 9TH. At the store all day. Quite unwell 
till 9:00 P. M. 

SUNDAY, lOxn. At home mostly all day. About 
2 :00 P. M. went to Hutchinson's to dinner. 

MONDAY, HTH. At the store all day, the weather 
more moderate. Margaret and her boy doing well. Last 
night Pitt returned from Missouri. 

TUESDAY, 12rH. This morning Ruth began to feel 
unwell. I went to the store and continued settlements as 


usual. Brothers Lee and Russell returned from Missouri, 
having obtained change for the checks. About 4:00 P. M. 
President Young and J. D. Lee came to Bishop Whitney's 
and I received in gold $496.17, and in silver $1,080.52 out 
of three checks which Lee took value $2,447.32, the bal- 
ance to be accounted for hereafter. Soon as I was through 
receiving the money, I was informed that my folks had 
sent for me and I went home soon after, found that Ruth 
had brought forth a son twenty minutes after 5.00 P. M. 
She had a pretty hard time, but feels comfortable as can 
be expected. The boy is named Newel Horace. Even- 
ing I met with the band at Johnson's and played till about 
11 :00 p. m. The house was very much crowded and not 
much room to dance, but they kept it up freely. 

WEDNESDAY, 13TH. This morning Ruth feels more 
comfortable. At the store all day waiting for Lee and 
Russel to settle. Evening Russel came and I received 
from him in gold $177.50, and in silver $363.19. He 
also accounted for $150.00 paid to Heber and $30.00 to 
Daniel Russel out of a check value $732.53 leaving him 
deficit $11.84. Spent the evening at home. 

THURSDAY, 14xH. At the store paying out a pair of 
the money, expecting before I made final payments to 
settle with Lee and Egan. 

FRIDAY, 15TH. Spent an hour with Lee and Egan 
at my house but did not accomplish much towards a set- 
tlement. Afterwards at the store paying out money set- 
tling, etc., filled bills for Pisgah & Garden Grove. 

SATURDAY, 16TH. At the store again paying, set- 
tling, etc., all day. The weather very cold. My folks do- 
ing well. 


SUNDAY, 17xH. At home mostly all day. 

MONDAY, 18TH. At the store all day, mostly paying 
money to the soldiers' wives. 

TUESDAY, 19xn. At the store paying money, etc. 

WEDNESDAY, 20TH. At the store paying money, ecc. 

THURSDAY, 21sx. At the store paying money, etc. 

FRIDAY, 22ND. At the store paying money, etc. 
Evening went with Hutchinson to Packer's party and 
played for the party in the smoke till near midnight. 

SATURDAY, 23RD. At the store all day paying money, 
etc. Evening met with Pitt and Hutchinson at the council 

SUNDAY, 24xH. Headache all day having taken cold 
last evening. Mostly at home. A few hours at the store, 
over the river and back. Night played with Pitt awhile. 

MONDAY, 25xH. At the store, very busy paying 
money, etc. Snowed some and is cold. Whitney let me 
have some goods. Evening walked alone. 

TUESDAY, 26xn. At the store till 2:00 p. m. After- 
ward went with the Quladrille Band to the Council 
House agreeably to previous notice and played for a 
party of men (70's) and their families who had assisted 
in building the house. They danced till about midnight. 
We had plenty to eat and drink through the interview 
and a very pleasant party. 

WEDNESDAY, 27xn. At the store again till noon. At 
2:00 p. m. at the Council House with the Quadrille Band 
and played for another company of those who had as- 
sisted in building the house. We had plenty of refresh- 
ments and a very sociable party as on yesterday. Broke 
up again about midnight. 


THURSDAY, 28TH. At the store till noon, and then 
at the Council House with the Quadrille Band playing 
for the third party of those who had assisted in building 
the house, together with the poor basket makers. 

FRIDAY, 29xH. At home and the store. Felt quite 

SATURDAY, 30ra. At the store all day settling anJ 
paying money to soldiers' wives. 

SUNDAY, 31 ST. At home all day. Dined with 
Diantha, Ruth, Margaret and mother Farr on a turkey. 

MONDAY, FEBRUARY IST, 1847. At the store all day 
settling accounts, paying money, etc. 

TUESDAY, 2ND. At the store till noon. Afterwards 
at the Council House with the Quadrille Band playing 
for Brigham's family generally. 

WEDNESDAY, SRD. At the store till noon. After- 
wards at the Council House with the Quadrille Band to 
play for a family meeting of the Young family. Presi- 
dent Brigham Young was quite sick and seemed very 
low spirited. After the meeting had been opened by 
prayer, the President called on his brothers to stand up 
by him in the center of the room which they did accord- 
ing to age. John Young took his place at the head, then 
Phineas, Joseph, Brigham and Lorenzo. The President 
then called on Heber to take his place in the line inasmuch 
as he had been recognized about fifteen years as a member 
of the Young family. He took his place between Joseph 
and Brigham. The President then said this was the first 
time that father Young's boys had been together in the 
same capacity for a number of years, etc. After a few 
remarks the remainder of the evening was spent by par- 


taking of a good supper and cheerful dancing till about 
two in the morning, when the party broke up in the best 
of spirits and good feeling. 

THURSDAY, 4xH. At the store mostly, evening at 

FRIDAY, STH. At the store till noon, then with the 
Quadrille Band to play for the Silver Greys till midnight. 

SATURDAY, 6TH. At the store all day. 

SUNDAY, ?TH. At home. 

MONDAY, STH. At the store all day. 

TUESDAY, 9TH. At the store till 10:00 a. m. Then 
went with the Quadrille Band in Eldridge's carriage to 
play round the city, but the weather was so cold we could 

not play much. At 2:00 p. m., met with (no pages 

from here until April.) 

into camp from England which will probably detain the 

camp a few days. 

FRIDAY, APRIL 9TH. Went with the Quadrille Band 
over the River as the twelve do not start for the Horn 
today. We played in the boat as we crossed, but in re- 
turning the wind was high, the boat heavily loaded with 
cattle and dangerous crossing. 

SATURDAY, 10TH. At home nearly all day. 

SUNDAY, HTH. At home and Farr's. I told Winslow 
Farr concerning Hosea Stout's threats to take my life 
after the Twelve are gone, etc. He called at night on his 
return from the Council and told me to be on my guard. 

MONDAY, 12TH. At home all day. Thomas and 
James had planted a number of garden seeds on Satur- 
day. Today, they are cutting wood and preparing to go 


to the farm tomorrow. I have no hay, neither can I get 
any for my cows and horses. 

TUESDAY, 13TH. At home most of the day. Thomas 
and James started for the farm. Evening went to the 
store and told Brigham and Heber about Hosea Stout's 
calculations, etc. 

WEDNESDAY, 14xH. This morning severely pained 
with rheumatism in my face. At 11 :00 a. m. Brigham 
and Dr. Richards came. Brigham told me to rise up and 
start with the pione'ers in half an hour's notice. I de- 
livered to him the records of the K. of G. and set my 
folks to work to get my clothes together to start with 
the pioneers. At two o'clock I left my family and started 
in Heber's carriage with Heber and Wm. Kimball and 
Ellen Sanders, Bishop Whitney and Lyman went out with 
us in another wagon. We went about 19 miles and 
camped on the prairie. After supper Heber prayed and 
we retired to rest. 

THURSDAY, 15TH. After eating and prayers by 
Bishop Whitney, started at half past seven and got to 
the Elk Horn at 11 :30.' We were all across at 12:00 and 
there we overtook Brigham, G. A. Smith, E. T. Benson 
and Amasa Lyman. We arrived at the pioneers Camp 
about 3 :00 p. m. This camp is about twelve miles from 
the Elk Horn and about 47 from Winter Quarters. I 
spent the evening with Aaron Farr, Horace Whitney and 
Jackson Redding. 

FRIDAY, 16xH. This day is gloomy, windy and cold. 
About 8 :00 a. m. the camp was called together, and or- 
ganized two Captains of 100's viz. Stephen Markham and 
A. P. Rockwood were appointed, also five captains of 


50's and 14 Captains of 10's. There are 143 men and 
boys on the list of the pioneer company, three women 
and Lorenzo Young's two children. There are 73 wagons. 
C. P. Rockwell has gone back to camp with J. C. Little. 
Bishop Whitney, Lyman, Win. Kimball and J. B. Noble 
returned from here to Winter Quarters. The following 
is a list of all the names of this pioneer company. To 

Wilford Woodruff, John S. Fowler, Jacob Burnham, 
Orson Pratt, Joseph Egbert, John N. Freeman, Marcus 
B. Thorpe, George A. Smith, George Wardle, Thomas 
Grover, Ezra T. Benson, Barnabas L. Adams, Roswell 
Stevens, Amasa Lyman, Sterling Driggs, Albert Carring- 
ton, Thomas Bullock, George Brown, Willard Richards, 
Jesse C. Little, Phineas H. Young, John Y. Greene, 
Thomas Tanner, Brigham Young, Addison Everett, Tru- 
man O. Angel, Lorenzo Young and wife, Bryant String- 
ham, Albert P. Rockwood, Joseph L. Schofield, Luke 
Johnson, John Holman, Edmund Elsworth, Alvarnus 
Hanks, George R. Grant, Millen Atwood, Samuel Fox, 
Tunis Rappleyee, Harvey Pierce, William Dykes, Jacob 
Weiler, Stephen H. Goddard, Tarlton Lewis, Henry G. 
Sherwood, Zebedee Coltrin, Sylvester H. Earl, John 
Dixon, Samuel H. Marble, George Scholes, William 
Henrie, William A. Empey, Charles Shumway, Thomas 
Woolsey, Chancy Loveland, Erastus Snow, Andrew 
Shumway, James Craig, William Wordsworth, William 
Vance, Simeon Howd, Seeley Owen, James Case, 
Artemas Johnson, William A. Smoot, Franklin B. Dewey, 
William Carter, Franklin G. Losee, Burr Frost, Datus En- 
sign, Franklin B. Stewart, Monroe Frink, Eric Glines, 


Ozro Eastman, Seth Taft, Horace Thornton, Stephen 
Kelsey, John S. Eldredge, Charles D. Barnum, Alma M. 
Williams, Rufus Allen, Robert T. Thomas, James W. 
Stuart, Elijah Newman, Levi N. Kendall, Francis Boggs, 
David Grant, Heber C. Kimball, Howard Egan, William 
A. King, Thomas Cloward, Hosea Gushing, Robert 
Byard, George Billings, Edson Whipple, Philo Johnson, 
William Clayton, Appleton M. Harmon, Carlos Murray, 
Horace K. Whitney, Orson K. Whitney, Orrin P. Rock- 
well, Nathaniel Thomas Brown, R. Jackson Redding, 
John Pack, Francis M. Pomroy, Aaron Farr, Nathaniel 
Fairbanks, John S. Higbee, John Wheeler, Solomon 
Chamberlain, Conrad Kleinman, Joseph Rooker, Perry 
Fitzgerald, John H. Tippets, James Davenport, Henson 
Walker, Benjamin Rolfe, Norton Jacobs, Charles A. 
Harper, George Woodard, Stephen Markham, Lewis 
Barney, George Mills, Andrew Gibbons, Joseph Han- 
cock, John W. Norton, Shadrach Roundy, Hans C. Han- 
son, Levi Jackman, Lyman Curtis, John Brown, Mathew 
Ivory, David Powell, (Hark Lay, Oscar Crosby, blacks) 
Joseph Mathews, Gilbroid Summe, John Gleason Charles 
Burke, Alexander P. Chessley, Rodney Badger, Norman 
Taylor, (Green Flake, black) Ellis Fames. 

There were 72 wagons, 93 horses, 52 muTes, 66 oxen, 
19 cows, and 17 dogs, and chickens. 

The names of the females in this camp are : 
Harriet Page Young, Clarissa Decker, and Ellen 
Sanders. The names of the children are Isaac Perry 
Decker Young and Sabisky L. Young, making a total of 
148 souls who have started to go west of the mountains 
as pioneers to find a home where the saints can live in 


peace and enjoy the fruits of their labors, and where we 
shall not be under the dominion of gentile governments, 
subject to the wrath of mobs and where the standards of 
peace can be raised, the Ensign to nations reared and the 
kingdom of God flourish until truth shall prevail, and 
the saints enjoy the fulness of the gospel. 

The following are the names of the Captains of 50's 
as appointed at this organization, viz. Addison Everett, 
Tarlton Lewis, James Case, John Pack and Shadrack 
Roundy. The Captains of 10's are as follows : 

Wilford Woodruff, Ezra T. Benson, Phineas H. 
Young, Luke Johnson, Stephen H. Goddard, Charles 
Shumway, James Case, Seth Taft, Howard Egan, Apple- 
ton M. Harmon, John S. Higbee, Norton Jacobs, John 
Brown, Joseph Mathews. For the names of the guard 
and the gun division see under date of April 30th. 

Stephen was appointed the Captain of the 
Guard and ordered to select out of the camp, fifty men 
for guard, such as he had confidence in who are to be 
considered as a standing guard, to attend to the wagons 
each night, twelve of them to stand at a time, and to 
have two sets each night, that is, 12 each watch to stand 
half the night. In cases where the horses and cattle are 
tied some distance from the wagons at night, an extra 
guard is to be selected from the balance of the company 
or camp, the standing guard not being permitted to 
leave the immediate neighborhood of the wagons. After 
the organization was over, I wrote a letter to Diantha, 
and put it into the hands of Bishop Whitney, together 
with the one I received yesterday from father and I. 
McEwan, also the one from Ellen to James. Up to 12 :00 


a. m. I had no place to put my trunk and clothing, and 
did not know what to do with them. However, soon 
after Heber told me to put them in Appleton M. Har- 
mon's wagon, which was done. At 2 :00 p m. the camp 
started out to proceed on the journey. I bid farewell to 
to Bishop Whitney and his brother Lyman and son 
Joshua, who all returned from this place, also Wm. II. 
Kimball and Joseph B. Noble. We traveled about three 
miles and encamped in a line about six hundred yards 
from timber, where there is plenty of cottonwood an:l 
some rushes. This night I slept with Philo Johnson, 
but having only one quilt, and the night severely cold, 
I suffered much, and took a very bad cold. The country 
in the neighborhood of the Elk Horn is one of the most 
beautiful I ever saw. The bluffs on the east are nicely 
rolling and beautifully lined with timber, and some very 
nice cedar groves. From these bluffs a little above the 
ferry you can see the meanderings of the Platte River, 
and the beautiful level bottom on the north of it, about 
fifteen miles wide for many miles up the river. The Horn 
is a beautiful river about 150 feet wide and about four 
feet deep. 

SATURDAY, 17TH. This morning the weather Is 
severely cold, with a strong wind from the north and 
northwest. We started out at nine o'clock and traveled 
till near 12 :00 the distance being about seven miles. We 
camped close by a cottonwood grove, and the brethren 
fell hundreds of them to feed their teams and save corn. 
There is a small lake close by but the water is not good 
and the brethren go to the river about a half a mile. At 


5 :00 p. m. the camps were called together and organ- 
ized in military order as follows : 

Brigham Young, Lieutenant General. 

Stephen Markham, Colonel. 

John Pack and Shadrack Roundy, Majors. 

The Captains of 10's to be captains of 10's in this 
order, except John Pack, who being appointed major, 
Appleton M. Harmon \vas appointed captain in his stead. 

Thomas Bullock, clerk of the camp. Thomas Tan- 
ner captain of the cannon with the privilege of choosing 
eight men to manage it in case of necessity. The Presi- 
dent then said : "After we start from here, every man 
must keep his loaded gun in his hand, or in the wagon 
where he can put his hand on it at a moment's warning. 
If they are cap locks, take off the cap and put on a little 
leather to keep wet and etc. out. If flint locks, take out 
the priming and fill the pan with twine or cotton," etc. 

The wagons must keep together when traveling, and 
not separate as they have previously done, and every 
man to walk beside his own wagon, and not leave it only 
by permission. A while before evening one of the trad- 
er's wagons came from the Pawnee village, loaded with 
furs and peltry, and camped about one quarter of a mile 
below us. At night Eames and Hanson played some on 
their violins. All peace and quietness. At night I slept 
with Egan in Heber's wagon, Heber being gone to sleep 
with President Young. 

SUNDAY, ISxn. This morning I wrote a letter for 
Heber to his wife Vilate, which was sent by Brother 
Ellis Eames who has concluded to go back on account 
of poor health, spitting blood, etc. He started back with 
the trader's wagon about eight o'clock a. m. The wind 


this morning east and southeast and very cold, with a 
slight shower of snow. At 10:00 a. m. seven more trad- 
ers' wagons came in and stopped about one quarter of 
a mile below us, soon after six mules loaded with robes 
and furs. These traders say they have come from the 
Pawnee village in two days. Brother Roundy got some 
Buffalo meat from them and gave me a little, which I 
thought tasted very good. I commenced writing Heber's 
journal and wrote considerable. He wants me to write 
his journal all the journey. I also wrote considerable in 
this book. Afternoon the weather more moderate and 
pleasant, the wind has changed near south and the sun 
shines. I walked with Horace Whitney to the river 
which is about a half a mile. At 4 :30 p. m. father James 
Case was cutting a cottonwood tree to brouse his horses, 
and just as it fell the wind struck it and threw it directly 
contrary to the direction he intended it to fall. The con- 
sequence was, one of the limbs struck an ox on the neck 
and knocked him down. His right eye was knocked 
down in the socket out of sight. The ox doesn't seem 
seriously hurt otherwise. About 10 minutes after it was 
done, the eye turned back to its place, and the ox seems 
to have sustained little injury. At 5 :00 p. m., the officers 
of the camp met with President Young, and he told the 
order for traveling and camping hereafter, which was 
communicated to the companies by the Captains of 10's 
as follows: 

At 5 :00 in the morning the bugle is to be sounded as 
a signal for every man to arise and attend prayers be- 
fore he leaves his wagon. Then cooking, eating, feed- 
ing teams, etc., till seven o'clock, at which time the camp 


is to move at the sound of the bugle. Each teamster to 
keep beside his team, with his loaded gun in his hands 
or in his wagon where he can get it in a moment. 
The extra men, each to walk opposite his wagon with his 
loaded gun on his shoulder, and no man to be permitted 
to leave his wagon unless he obtains permission from his 
officer. In case of an attack from Indians or hostile 
appearances, the wagons to travel in double file. The 
order of encampment to be in a circle with the mouth of 
the wagon to the outside, and the horses and stock tied 
inside the circle. At 8 :30 p. m. the bugle to be sounded 
again at which time all to have prayers in their wagons 
and to retire to rest by nine o'clock. Tonight I went to 
bed about seven-thirty o'clock suffering severely with 
pain in my head and face. I slept with Philo Johnson. 

MONDAY, 19xH. At 5 :00 a. m., at the sound of the 
bugle I arose, ray face still paining me very badly. After 
eating breakfast, I started out on foot, before the wagons 
started, with my rifle on my shoulder. At 7 :15 the wagons 
began to move -and at 7 :30 were all formed in double 
file and proceeded on. After traveling about eight miles 
we arrived at a number of small lakes, where were many 
ducks. A number of the brethren shot at them and killed 
several. At 1:15 p. m. we arrived at a bend in the river 
where a small stream runs around an island. 

We stayed here to feed awhile, having traveled about 
fifteen miles mostly a western course with the wind south. 
The roads very good and the country very level on these 
flat bottoms of the Platte river which bottoms appear to 
be from ten to fifteen miles wide. Soon after the camp 
was formed, O. P. Rockwell, Jackson Redding, and J. C. 


Little came in from Winter Quarters. They arrived at 
2:10. They have found Dr. Richard's mare which was 
lost east of the Elk Horn and brought her to camp. They 
brought me a line from Diantha and one from Ruth and 
Margaret. In the last was a very gentle piece of informa- 
tion which has caused me to reflect much, and proves 
to me that Ruth and Margaret's virtue and integrity have 
for the last year been far superior to mine. In my letter 
to them I requested them to attend to family prayer in 
my absence, a thing which I have neglected since leav- 
ing Nauvoo. They informed me that they had done that 
when I was at home but unknown to me, and they had 
then, and still continue to bear me up before their Heav- 
enly Father. Oh, what integrity, what faithfulness. I feel 
unworthy to possess two such treasures, but still feel to 
try to reward them for it, and may my Father in heaven 
bless them, and all my family and let his angels guard 
them, and me during" my absence that we may all be per- 
mitted to meet again and enjoy each other's society in ihi? 
world for many years to come, and eternal in the world to 
come. O ! Lord, grant this prayer of thine unworthy ser- 
vant, and fill my family with peace and union, and open 
a way that they may have the necessaries and comforts 
of life, and Thy name shall have the praise, even so, 

I received by Porter, some few fish hooks and lines, 
a ball of fish line and three pencils, but no small hooks 
nor knives or wafers. At twenty minutes after 3 :00 p. 
m. the wagons began to move again, in the same ordei 
as this morning and traveled until 6:00 p. m. when we 
arrived at a very pretty open view of the Platte river. 


and the encampment was formed in a semi-circle on its 
banks, having traveled since noon, about five miles, and 
in the whole day 20 miles, over the same kind of dry, 
level, sandy bottom. The river here appears to be about 
a mile wide but very shoal. There is not much timber 
where we are camped, and the water is pretty muddy. I 
walked some this afternoon in company with Orson Pratt 
and suggested to him the idea of fixing a set of wooden 
cog wheels to the hub of a wagon wheel, in such order 
as to tell the exact number of miles we travel each day. 
He seemed to agree with me that it could be easily done 
at a trifling expense. After the encampment was formed, 
I went to Brother Luke Johnson and asked him to draw 
my tooth which has pained me so much for a long time. 
While I was speaking to him Stephen Markham came 
up, and wanted him to take his team and the Revenue 
Cutter the name by which the leather boat is called- - 
back about two miles, as they designed to seine in one of 
the lakes. Brother Luke Johnson drives the team which 
draws the boat and rides in the boat as in a wagon. I 
concluded I would go and watch them fish and started 
out on foot. I overtook Markham and John S. Higbee 
and in our conversation I mentioned to Brother John S. 
Higbee the same idea I had advanced to Orson Pratt, 
and he also seemed to coincide fully. After arriving at 
the lake they launched the boat and made three hauls. 
They only caught a snapping turtle, four small turtles, one 
duck, two small cat fish, and two creek suckers. They 
then concluded to return and I started on foot again with 
two rifles to carry. I got back to camp before they over- 
took me and being perfectly tired and very footsore, went 


to bed, but had no rest on account of the severe pain in 
my head and face. 

TUESDAY, 20x11. Arose at 5:30, my head and face 
very bad indeed. I ate but little breakfast, although we 
had a couple of ducks and a snipe. We started out at 
7:30, the morning pleasant except a strong west wind. 
At 9:15 arrived at Shell creek, which is about six or 
eight feet wide, and a poor bridge over it, but all the 
wagons got well over. This is about five miles from 
where we camped last night. We then passed through a 
small grove of timber, and entered again upon the wide, 
open prairie bottom. At 11 :30 we stopped beside a small 
slough or lake to feed and eat, etc., being five miles from 
Shell creek. While stopping here, three deer passed 
about half a mile west of the wagons. O. P. Rockwell 
and Thomas Brown chased them on horses four or five 
miles, but did not succeed in taking any of them. The 
wind has fallen considerably and it is very warm and 
dusty. At 1 :00 p. m. started again, the horse teams tak- 
ing the lead, traveled about ten miles farther and en- 
camped near a cotton wood grove on the banks of the 
river. The encampment was formed about half past five. 
Tanner's bellows and anvil were set up and a number of 
tires set before dark. 

John S. Higbee, Luke Johnson, S. Markham, and 
some others, started ahead of the camp about noon, and 
went about two miles farther than this place to a lake 
with the boat and seine. They took over 200 very nice 
fish, and arrived with them about the time the camp was 
formed. The fish were distributed around the camp 
according to the number of persons in each wagon, gen- 


erally two to a wagon, and the brethren enjoyed a good 
supper on fish. I went to the river and washed my feet . 
which were very dusty and sore. I also washed my socks 
as well as I could in cold water without soap. After 
Brother Luke Johnson had got through distributing fish, 
I went and asked him to draw my tooth. He willingly 
agreed and getting his instruments, I sat down in a chair, 
he lanced the gum, then took his nippers and jerked it 
out. The whole operation did not take more than one 
minute. He only got half the original tooth, the balance 
being left in the jaw. After this my head and face pained 
me much more than before. I ate but little supper and 
then lay down, but could not sleep for pain till near morn- 
ing. The evening was very calm and pleasant. 

WEDNESDAY, 21sT. Arose at 5:00, my face easier, 
but swollen and my gums raw. Took breakfast on fish 
and coffee, but ate no. bread, it being very dry and hard. 
I could not bear to put it in my mouth. At seven started 
on foot; the ox teams being gone ahead. Some appear- 
ances of rain, and a slight shower fell. Wind northeast 
and pretty cool. At ten minutes to nine an Indian rode 
up to the. first wagon and appeared very friendly. Soon 
after six or eight others came running on foot. They 
came from the timber about a mile to the left. At 10 :00 
we arrived at a fork in the road, the one on the left lead- 
ing to the new Pawnee village, and the one to the right 
leaving the village some distance to the south. A con- 
sultation was held by President Young with father Case 
relative to the roads crossing the river, etc., when it \vis 
concluded to take the right hand road. We proceeded 
accordingly and at 12 :00 came in sight of the new Pawnee 


village, in an open spot on the south bank of the Loop 
Fork, between two bodies of timber. The village appeared 
to be about three quarters of a mile south of the road we 
were on. At 12:30 we were opposite the village, and 
could then see distinctly upwards of 100 lodges set pretty 
close together, and appeared to be ranged in several lines, 
and set in good order. We proceeded until we arrived 
at a long narrow lake by the side of the timber and near 
to the river. At 1 :00 p. m. the encampment was formed 
on the bank of the. lake and a guard instantly placed at 
the passes, as many of the Indians had followed us, al- 
though they had to wade the river, but it is very shoal. 
One of the Indians presented several certificates from 
persons who had previously traveled through their vil- 
lage, all certifying that the Grand Chief of the Pawnees 
was friendly disposed, and they had made him presents 
of a little powder, lead, salt, etc. Heber gave them a 
little tobacco, and a little salt. President Young gave to 
the chief, some powder, lead, salt and a number of the 
brethren gave a little flour each. The old chief, however, 
did not seem to think the presents sufficient, and said he 
did not like us to go west through their country, he was 
afraid we should kill their buffalo and drive them oft". 
Brother Shumway told him we did not like buffalo, but 
this does not appear to give him much satisfaction. How- 
ever, there was no appearance of hostility. In fact, all 
that came to camp seemed highly pleased to shake hands 
with our brethren and would run from one side to another 
so as not to miss one. A number of the squaws w r ere 
on the opposite side of the lake with mattocks digging 
roots. Brother Shumway says there are about twelve 


thousand of the Pawnees in this neighborhood, and it is 
reported that there are five thousand warriors. We did 
not see many of them. Larpy is at their village trading, 
~aid it is uncertain whether he will endeavor to use an in- 
fluence for us or against us. We have no fear, however, 
because their only object appears to be plunder, and it is 
the calculation to be well prepared by night and day. Dur- 
ing the resting hour I spent the time writing in my 
journal. At 2:15 p. in. the ox teams started out again 
and the horse teams soon after. The weather had been 
calm and pleasant for a few hours, but about 2 :OU or a 
little before, some heavy clouds began to gather, ana 
thunder was heard at a distance. About 2 :30 the ram 
began to descend heavily, accompanied by heavy peals ot 
thunder and vivid lightning which continued till about 
4:00 o'clock. A strong north wind blew up, the rain 
and thunder ceased and the weather grew very cold. We 
traveled till 5 :30 and the encampment was formed on 
the Loop Fork of the Platte river. After the encamp- 
ment was formed and teams turned out, the brethren 
were all called together and some remarks made by 
President Young, advising them to have a strong guard 
round the camps tonight. He called for volunteers to 
stand guard and about 100 volunteered amongst whom 
were all the twelve except Dr. Richards. This guard was 
divided into two companies of fifty each, one company 
to stand the first half the night, and the remainder the last 
half. Those of the twelve who stood took the first watch 
till 1 :00 o'clock. Brigham and Heber both stood on guard. 
Out of the companies a party were stationed as a picket 
guard some distance from the camp, the balance stood 


near the camp. The night was very cold, with a strong 
wind from the northeast, and in the middle of the night, 
it rained considerable. Our course this morning was 
about west. This afternoon, northwest. We are now 
within three miles from the bluffs on the north. We 
have traveled today about twenty miles, the roads being 
good and very level. The grass here is short but looks 
good. The buffalo grass is very short and curly like 
the hair on a buffalo robe. The spring grass doesn't 
seem to be as early here as at the Elk Horn, and the last 
year's growth not being burnt off, will be rather a disad- 
vantage to the spring companies. I have noticed all the 
way on this bottom from the Elk Horn, that the ground 
is full of wild onions which appear far richer and larger 
than any wild onions I ever saw. I have no idea that 
corn would grow here for the land is very dry and loose 
and sandy, and appears poor. The country is beautiful 
and pleasing to the eye of the traveler, although you can 
only see one kind of scenery for several days. 

THURSDAY, 22ND. Arose soon after 5 :00 a. m., my 
face very painful again caused by the cold. There has 
been no trouble from the Indians and all is peace and 
safe. The cannon was prepared for action, and stood all 
night just outside the wagons. There was considerable 
joking this morning on account of two of the picket gviard 
having their guns stolen and Colonel Markham having his 
hat stolen. The owners were found asleep while on guard 
and those who found them so, took their guns to be a 
warning to them, but it is difficult for men to keep awake 
night after night after traveling 20 miles in the day, tak- 
ing care of teams, cooking, etc. At 7 :30 the camp pro- 


ceeded again. I went ahead on foot. About one quarter 
of a mile from where we camped is one of the prettiest 
beds of nettle I have seen for some time. Our road this 
morning lay beside pretty heavy timber, and about a 
westerly course. After traveling two miles, crossed Look- 
ing Glass creek, a small stream about a rod wide, but 
easily forded. I still went ahead on foot and at 9 :45 sat 
down on an Indian grave, on top of a mound from whence 
is a splendid view of the surrounding country for many 
miles. From southeast to southwest you can see the 
course of the Loop Fork for a number of miles. North- 
west a level prairie about four miles and then a range 
of timber. The bluffs on the north about seven miles 
distant, and on the east a level prairie for about twenty 
miles. At this place there is a range of what appears to 
be mounds about a quarter of a mile long, running from 
northeast to southwest. At 12:15 we arrived on the east 
bank of Beaver River, having traveled about ten miles. 
This stream is about twenty to twenty-five feet wide ; 
swift, clear water and pleasant tasting. The banks are 
tolerably well lined with timber. Here we stopped to 
feed. Some of the brethren went to fix the fording place 
a little, the banks are steep on each side and the water 
a little over two feet deep. At 2 :00 p. m. started again, 
the ox teams first. When passing the river a number of 
the brethren stood on the west bank with a long rope 
which was hooked to the wagon tongue and they assisted 
the teams up the bank. The wagon I rode in crossed at 
two minutes after 2 :00, and in a little while all were 
safely over. We proceeded on till half past five, when 
we arrived at the Pawnee Missionary station which is 


about seven miles from Beaver River. The country this 
afternoon was more uneven, there being many steep 
Ditches and rises. The grass appears longer and there is 
much rosing weed. The soil looks black and no doubt 
would yield a good crop of corn. This missionary sta- 
tion was deserted last fall, and Brother Miller's company 
being camped here, they carried the missionaries and their 
effects to Bellview on the Missouri river. This is a very 
beautiful place for a location. On the north and west it 
is surrounded by bluffs, on the south by Jhe Loop Fork at 
about there quarters of a mile distance. On the east by 
descending prairie. The Plumb Creek runs through it. 
and but a few rods from the missionaries' house. Its 
banks are lined with a little timber. There is also a steep 
bank on each side, and between these banks in the valley 
which is a few rods wide, the Sioux have practiced com- 
ing down when they have made their attacks on tne 
Pawnees. The ravine is certainly well calculated to 
shelter an enemy from observation when designing to 
make a sudden attack. There are a number of good log 
houses here, considerable land under improvement en- 
closed by rail fences, and a good quantity of hay and 
fodder, large lots of iron, old and new, several plows and 
a drag. All apparently left to rot. There are also two 
stoves, etc. The government station is a quarter of a 
mile below, or south where father Case lived as govern- 
ment farmer and received $300.00 a year ror it, but when 
Major Harvey learned at the last payday, which was 
last November, that father Case had joined the "Mor- 
mons" he very politely dismissed him from the govern- 
ment service. The Sioux came down sometime ago and 


burned up the government station houses, blacksmith 
shop and everything, but the missionary station they did 
not touch. This place according to my account is 134 
miles from Winter Quarters, and a lovely place to live. 
Before dark the President called the camp together, and. 
told them they might use the fodder and hay for their 
teams, but forbade any man carrying anything away, even 
to the value of one cent. He said he had no fears of the 
Pawnees troubling us here, but ^we had better be prepareo 
lest the Sioux should come down and try to steal horses. 
A guard was selected and a picket guard to watch the 
ravine to the north. The cannon was also prepared and 
Brother Tanner drilled his men to use it till dark. At 
9 :00 p. m. I retired to rest and slept well through the 
night. The variation of the compass is about 12 degree? 
at this place. 

I again introduced the subject of fixing machinerv 
to a was:on wheel to tell the distance we travel, describ- 
ing the machinery and time it would take to make it, 
etc., several caught, the idea and feel confident of its 

FRIDAY, 23nn. Arose this morning at 5 :30, my face 
bad again through sleeping cold. The air chilly but a 
very pleasant morning. President Young, Heber and 
others are gone to the river to ascertain where we can 
best ford it. There is a ford a little distance from here, 
and another about four miles above, but the latter is in 
the neighborhood of another band of the Pawnees and 
they are desirous to avoid it if possible. They started 
out on horseback at a quarter to eight and the camp re- 
mained here till they returned. Some are working, some 


fixing wagons, etc. The day is now warm and very pleas- 
ant. I went to Plumb creek and washed my feet which 
are very sore. The brethren returned at a quarter to 
12:00 and reported that we would have to go about four 
miles and there build a raft. Tarlton Lewis was ap- 
pointed to superintend the building of the raft. Presi- 
dent Young then stated in regard to the plows, iron, etc., 
which lies around here, for the government is owing- 
father Case considerable for services, and he has the priv- 
ilege of taking this for 'his pay. He will do it and if 
the brethren want the iron, etc., they can have by haul- 
ing it, one half, and father Case the other half, and he 
(Case) will write and inform them what he has done. I 
started on foot about 12:00 o'clock and viewed the ruins 
of buildings, etc., which the Sioux have burned. There is 
a large quantity of good bar iron, and a number of plows, 
which the brethren put into their wagons on the terms 
proposed by father Case. Two miles from Plumb creek, 
passed another creek not very good to ford, although it 
is narrow but sandy. Two miles farther arrived at the 
intended crossing place, but the prospect looks dull for 
rafting on account of sandbars and very rapid current. 
My feet were so sore and blistered I could not walk for 
some time after I got there. The sun is very hot and no 
wind. At 3 :20 the wagons arrived and prepared to ford 
the river. Luke Johnson was the first who went over, 
leaving the boat on this side, and although he had no 
load, nor even a wagon box, it was with difficulty he got 
over. Orson Pratt started next with a part of his load. 
When he had got in about a rod, his horses began to s'nk 
some in the sand and they could not draw. A number of 


the brethren jumped in and lifted at the wheels, etc., ti'l 
they got him to the bar in the middle. He then started 
for the other bar and about half way across his horses 
sank in the quicksand so badly that one of them fell down. 
A number of the men immediately went to his assistance 
and took them off the wagon and led them across to the 
sand bar. President Young went over in the boat and 
took the loading out of the carriage into the boat. The 
carriage was drawn to the sand bar by men with a long 
rope. The brethren then assisted Elder Woodruff's team 
over in the same way, also John Pack's and Words- 
worth's. President Young then ordered that no more 
wagons should go over that way, but move up the river 
about a quarter of a mile and camp until morning. The 
camp was formed about 5 :30 p. m. The river is not 
more than two feet deep, but there are a great many 
beds of quicksand which are dangerous to teams, and 
calculated to shake a wagon to pieces. They make a 
noise when crossing the quicksands as if they were going 
over a stone pavement. 

The country here is indeed beautiful and appears rich, 
but there is very little timber. After crossing Plumb 
creek, there is plowed land for nearly two miles on the 
right but not fenced. It apears to have yielded a good 
crop of corn. The land on the left to the river is level and 
beautiful for a farm. We are now camped about a 
quarter of a mile from the old Pawnee village on a splen- 
did table of land, level and pleasant as heart could desire. 
It is not much over three quarters of a mile wide and 
shielded on the north by beautiful rolling bluffs and on 
the south by the Loop Fork of the- Platte. From this 


bank can be seen the timber on the banks of the main 
Platte, the bottom from here to it appears very level. 
There is something romantic in the scenry around here, 
and the prospect cannot well be exaggerated. 

In the evening the captains of tens were called to- 
gether and a vote taken to build two light rafts, Tarl- 
ton Lewis to superintend one and Thomas Woolsey the 
other. As many loads of property as can be carried over 
in the boat will be done, and the teams with empty 
wagons will ford it. It is said that by going over several 
times with teams the sand will pack down and be good 
crossing, several of those who have been across believe 
this from today's experience and they calculate to give 
it a fair trial tomorrow. Amongst the rest of those who 
waded the river to help the wagons over, Brother Kim- 
ball joined and assisted one team to the other side, and 
then returned in the boat with President Young. 

SATURDAY, 24TH. Arose soon after 5 :00. Morning 
fine, but cool. One of Phineas Young's horses was 
choked to death last night. It appears he was tied to a 
stake with a chain near a steep hole in the ravine, and 
either stepped back or lay down and rolled over into the 
hole, and the chain being short he was choked to death, 
having no power to extricate himself. This is a grievous 
loss for there are no more teams in the camp than what 
are absolutely necessary, and in fact, there are hardly 
enough to get along very comfortably. By request of 
Brother Kim-ball, I went up to the old Indian village im- 
mediately after breakfast to take a view of it, and write 
a description as near as circumstances would permit which 
is as follows : 


This village is situated on the norrh bank of the Loop 
Fork of the Nebraska or Platte river, about four miles 
southwest of the mission station on Plumb creek and 138 
miles from Winter Quarters. The Pawnee nation is 
divided into four bands. The names of the bands are 
the Grand Pawnee, the Loop, the Tappas, and the Re- 
publican. When the nation settled in this region the 
Grand Pawnees and the Tappas located on the west bank 
of Plumb creek and the Loops located on this spot and 
were afterwards joined by the Republicans. When the 
Sioux made war on the Indians at the first settlement 
and destroyed their village, the Grand Chief saw that 
his party were unable to cope with their hostile foes alone, 
and it was concluded that the four bands should locate 
together on this spot, but notwithstanding this, the Sioux 
succeeded in burning this village last summer during the 
absence of the Pawnees when on their hunt. They re- 
built most of it again, but last fall the Sioux made an- 
other attack and burned the whole village except one 
dwelling or lodge, which is not harmed. There are three 
or four others but partially destroyed, the rest are en- 
tirely demolished and levelled with the ground. The 
Pawnees then moved to the place where we passed them 
a few days ago, and are dwelling in their lodges made 
of hides, etc. The name of the Grand Chief is Shef mo- 
Ian, who is also the superior chief of the Pawnee band. 
All documents or treaties made by the nation are signed 
by this chief and the nation is then bound by them. The 
head chief of the Loup band is named Siscatup, the 
other chiefs, father Case did not recollect their names. 
From him I obtained this information. There is a part 


of the Loup baud on the main Platte, some distance from 
here, who have never yielded to the government treaties, 
but stand out from the rest of the nation and spend their 
time mostly in plundering other tribes as well as travelers. 
They frequently go as far as the Cherokee nation to rob 
and plunder. All the Pawnee nation are noted for their 
love of plundering travelers of their horses and mules, 
but not often anything else. 

On the east and west of the village is a beautiful 
level bench of prairie extending many miles, and to the 
ridge of bluffs which run east and west touching within 
a mile of the village. On the top of the bluffs can be 
seen a number of Indian graves. To the northwest about 
a mile distant, and at the foot of the bluffs is an ex- 
tensive corn field, the stalks still standing. On the south 
is a beautiful view of the nice level prairie extending 
to the main branch of the Platte, the timber on the banks 
can be faintly, but plainly seen. The Loup Fork is prob- 
ably about 400 yards wide at this place and very shoal, 
except a narrow channel near the shore on this side 
which is probably three feet deep. The bottom is mostly 
quicksand and not safe fording. About half the surface 
from bank to bank is sand bars which appear above the 
surface of the water mostly on the south side. There 
are several small islands and a little timber to the right 
or west. The village occupies a space of about 40 acres 
of land, and is mostly enclosed by a ditch about five feet 
wide, and a bank inside the ditch about four feet high, 
running from the bank of the river around the village till 
it again strikes the bank, and when perfect, has formed a 
good fortification. A number of lodges are built outside 


the ditch on the east and on account of want of room in- 
side when the bands from the other village joined them. 
The village is composed of about 200 houses or lodges 
varying in size but all similiarly constructed, as appears 
from the remnants of some left standing. While I take 
this sketch, I sit in the one left unharmed, which it is 
said was owned by the chief Siscatup, and as the lodges 
are all constructed in the same manner, .only differing in 
size, I will endeavor to describe the way in which this is 
built. In the first place, the earth is dug out a little, 
slanting to the depth of about 18 inches in the form of 
a perfect circle about 44 feet in diameter. This forms the 
floor of the dwelling. Then there are 17 crotch posts 
let into the floor in a direction slanting outward so that 
the top of the crotch is about perpendicular with the out- 
side of the circle, the foot being set about 18 or 20 inches 
from the base of the circle. These posts are arranged at 
about equal distances from each other around the circle. 
In the crotches, poles are laid across from crotch to 
crotch, and are sufficiently high for the tallest man to 
stand upright under them. At the distance of 18 or 20 
inches from the outside of the circle are many smaller 
poles let into the surface of the ground, on an average of 
about a foot apart and leaning inward so that the top of 
the poles rest on the cross pieces which are supported by 
the crotcres. The space between the foot of these poles 
and the edge of the circle forms a bench for seats entirely 
around the house, and there is room sufficient for more 
than a hundred men to seat themselves on it very com- 
fortably. On the outside of these last mentioned poles 
are laid a number of still smaller poles horizontallv from 


bottom to top from about 9 inches to a foot apart, these 
are lashed fast to the upright poles by strings made of 
bark. On the outside of these is laid a thick layer of long 
prairie grass and occasionally lashed through to the up- 
right poles also. The whole is then covered with earth 
about two feet in thickness at the bottom and gradually 
thinner towards the top. This forms an enclosure when 
completed around the whole area about seven feet high, 
a place being left sufficiently large for the door. The 
next process is to place erect ten upright poles or crotches, 
very stout, being about a foot in diameter about seven 
feet nearer the center of the circle than the first crotches. 
These are set perpendicular, deep in the ground 
and also arranged at about equal distances from each 
other, and form a strong foundation which is 
the design and use to which they are appropriated. On 
the top of these pillars are also horizontal poles laid strong 
and firm, the top of the pillars being about eleven or 
twelve feet above the floor. Long small poles are then 
laid from the outside horizontal poles over the inner ones 
and sufficiently long to meet at the top within about two 
feet of each other, forming a hole for the smoke from 
the fire to ascend through. Th^sp long poles are laid 
pretty close together all around the building, and across 
them smaller ones are lashed with bark as in the first in- 
stance, only they are much closer together. The opera- 
tion of lashing on a layer of long grass and finally cov- 
ering the whole with earth, completes the roof of the 
building. The door or entrance is a long porch formed 
by placing in the earth four upright posts or crotches 
far enough apart to extend outwards from the circle, 


about 18 or 20 feet. There are four upright crotches 
on each side the porch and in the crotches, poles are laid 
horizontally as in the other parts of the building. The 
process of lashing sticks across, then a thick coat of long 
grass and lastly a stout coat of earth, is the same as the 
other parts of -the building. The roof of the porch is 
flat and is about seven feet high and six feet wide. The 
porch is dug down about half as deep as the main building, 
making a short step at the mouth of the. porch and' another 
one at the entrance into the house. The fire has been 
made in the center of the house directly under the hole 
in the roof. 

At the farther side of the building, exactly opposite 
the porch, is a projection of sod left about a foot from 
the outside of the circle which is said to have been the 
seat of the chief, and over which hung his medicine bag 
and other implements. 

The crotches are arranged so that there is a free 
passage to the center of the hall from the porch one 
standing on each side at the entrance about six feet apart 
and the others apppear to be arranged from them. The 
smaller houses have not so many pillars 2kS this one. Some 
have eight in the center and sixteen outside the circle. 
Others have four in the center and ten outside. The en- 
trances are also smaller in proportion, but all are con- 
structed on the same principle. It looks a little singular 
to note that nearly all the entrances to these lodges front 
to the southeast, except in one or two instances where 
they front in other directions for lack of room. It is 
probable that this is done to avoid the effects of the 
severe cold northwest winds so prevalent in winter. 


Adjacent to each lodge is a stable or pen, which has 
been designed for keeping horses in. These are 
mostly left unharmed. They are constructed by placing 
poles upright in the ground from two to three inches in 
diameter as close together as possible and about ten feet 
high. About five or six feet above the ground cross poles 
are laid horizontally, and each of the upright poles are 
firmly lashed to the cross poles by strips of bark, so as to 
make them firm and secure them from being moved out 
of their place. The stables are mostly built square, with 
a door left on one side sufficiently large to admit a horse. 
There are some circular stables but not so many as the 
square ones. The horses appear to have been penned in 
by placing loose poles across the doorway, for there is 
no other sign of a door visible. 

Around each lodge there are also several cachets 
where corn and other necessities are deposited. The 
cachets are large holes dug in the ground, or rather un- 
der the ground, the entrance being only just large enough 
to admit a common sized man. They are made pretty 
much after the shape of a large demijon. The cachets 
are generally about six feet high inside and about fifteen 
feet in diameter ; there is a gradual slope from the mouth 
to the extreme corner and a little bowing, which forms 
the roof. The surface of the earth above, at the mouth, 
is about two and a half or three feet -deep. Some 
of these are said to be capable of holding a hundred 
bushels of corn, and when filled there is a thick coat of 
grass laid on the top and the mouth then filled up nicely 
with earth, and when finished a stranger would not have 


the least suspicion tbat there was a storehouse full of 
corn under his feet. 

I finished taking the foregoing sketch soon after 
noon, and then had intended to go on the bluffs and ex- 
amine the Indian graves, but it being very warm, and 
perceiving the teams crossing the river very rapidly, I 
returned, and found most of the teams over. They com- 
menced crossing about eight o'clock, some unloaded their 
goods on the bank which were carried in the boat to the 
sand bar, the teams going down to the ferry to cross. 
After a few wagons had gone over, it was perceived that 
they went over with less difficulty, and by doubling teams 
they soon took over the loaded wagons without much 
difficulty. I prepared to wade over the river, inasmuch as 
the wagon I am with was gone over, and in fact, all 
Heber's wagons were over except one, but Jackson Red- 
ding brought me Porter Rockwell's horse to ride over, 
and I mounted and proceeded. I found the current strong 
indeed, and about as much as a horse could do to ford it 
without a load. I soon got over safe and wet only my 
feet. At 3 :00 p. m. the last wagon was over on the solid 
sand bar, and about four o'clock all the wagons and teams 
were safely landed on the bank on the south side of the 
Loop Fork without any loss or accident, which made the 
brethren feel thankful indeed. A little before four, the 
wagons started on to find a better place to camp and feed 
for our teams, where we can stay comfortable until Moiv 
day and give the teams a chance to rest, for they as well 
as the men are very tired by wading against the strong 
current on the quick sand. The bottom land on this side 


is more sandy than on the other side, but the grass ap- 
pears higher but not so thick on the ground. The bluffs 
on the other side look beautiful from here, and the In- 
dian graves show very plain. We went on about three 
miles and camped beside a small lake near the river. I 
traveled this on foot. Soon as we arrived Porter Rock- 
well discovered that there were many sun fish in the lake. 
I took a couple of hooks and lines, handed some to him, 
and went to fishing myself with the others and we had 
some fine sport. I caught a nice mess which Brother 
Egan cooked for supper, and although they were small 
they made a good dish. Many of the brethren caught a 
good mess each. Brother Higbee came down with the 
seine and made two hauls but caught none on account of 
the grass in the bottom of the lake. We have good rea- 
sons to suspect that we are watched by the Indians as 
their footsteps have been seen on the bluffs south, ap- 
parently very fresh, but the guard are faithful and we 
have no fear. The cannon was prepared again so as to 
be ready in case there should be an attack. Evening I 
walked over to Orson Pratt's wagon, and through his 
telescope saw Jupiter's four moons very distinctly never 
having seen them before. I went over to my wagon and 
looked through my glass and coukl see them with it, but 
not so distinct as with Orson's. The evening was very 
fine and pleasant. About ten o'clock retired to rest in 
good health and spirits, thankful for the mercies of the 
day that is past. 

SUNDAY, 25xH. Arose soon after five, shaved and 
changed some of my clothing. The morning very pleas- 
ant, wind west. Our course for the last seven miles has 


been about southwest. We are about 14 miles from the 
main branch of the Platte river and it is said that if we 
travel on this fork one hundred miles farther, we shall 
then be not over thirty miles from the main branch. This 
morning saw four antelope on the other bank of the river 
about a mile and a half northwest. Afternoon Elijah 
Newman was baptized by Tarlton Lewis in the lake for 
the benefit of his health. Brother Newman has been 
afflicted with the black scurvy in his legs and has not been 
able to walk without sticks, but after being baptized and 
hands laid on him he returned to his wagon without any 
kind of help seemingly much better. Soon after 5 :00 p. 
in. a meeting was called at the wagon of President Young, 
and remarks made by several, and 'instructions by Presi- 
dent Young chiefly in reference to the guard and the 
folly of conforming to gentile military customs on an 
expedition of this nature'. After dark the twelve and 
some others met together opposite the President's wagon 
to select men to go a hunting buffalo, etc., as we proceed 
on the journey. It was ascertained that there are eight 
horses in the company which are not attached to teams. 
Then eight men were selected to ride on horseback, viz., 
Thomas Woolsey, Thomas Brown, John Brown, O. P. 
Rockwell, John S. Higbee, Joseph Mathews. Then there 
were selected eleven men to hunt also on foot, viz., John 
Pack, Phineas H. Young, Tarlton Lewis, Joseph Han- 
cock, Edmund Ellsworth, Roswell Stevens, Ed'son Whip- 
pie, Barnabas L. Adams, Benjamin F. Stewart, Jackson 
Redding and Eric Glines. It was also voted that the 
twelve have the privilege of hunting when they have a 
mind to. After some remarks and cautions in regard 


to chasing the wild buffalo, the company was dismissed, 
and I retired to rest soon after nine o'clock, the evening 
being very fine and pleasant. 

MONDAY, 26xn. This morning about 3 :30 an alarm 
was sounded. I immediately got out of the wagon and 
learned that three of the guard who were stationed to 
the northeast of the camp had discovered some Indians 
crawling up towards the wagons. They first received 
alarm from the motions of one of our horses, and noticing 
this they went towards the spot and listening, heard 
something rustle in the grass ; they first suspected they 
were wolves and fired at them. Only one gun went off 
and six Indians sprang up and ran from within a few 
rods of where they stood, another gun was then fired at 
them and the camp alarmed. A strong guard was placed 
all around, and a charge of cannister put in the cannon. 
The day was just breaking' when this took place and 
the moon had just gone down. The air being extremely 
cold and fires put out, I retired into the wagon till morn- 
ing and arose again at half past five. After daylight, 
the footsteps of the Indians could be plainly seen where 
they had come down under the bank and sometimes 
stepped into the water. No doubt their object was to 
steal horses, and they had a fair privilege if the guard 
had been found asleep, for the camp was only formed hi 
a half circle and some horses were tied outside. How- 
ever, the prompt reception they met with will have a 
tendency to show them that we keep a good watch and 
may deter them from making another attempt. Orders 
were given for the tens to assemble for prayers this morn- 
ing, instead of two in each wagon, which was done. Presi- 


dent Young told me this morning that as soon as my 
health will permit, he wants me to assist Brother Bullock 
in keeping minutes, etc., as Brother Bullock is hard run, 
having to take care of a team and attend to other chores. 
The camp started out about 8.00 A. M. I started 
at 7.30 on foot and traveled four miles, then waited for 
the wagons. There is no road here, consequently, Presi- 
dent Young, Kimball, G. A. Smith, A. Lyman and others 
went ahead on horseback to point out the road. The horse 
teams traveled first to break the strong grass so that it will 
not hurt the oxen's feet. The hunters started out in dif- 
ferent directions keeping only a few miles from the wa- 
gons. We traveled about seven miles and then stopped at 
1 1 :30 o'clock beside a few little holes of water to rest and 
feed teams, etc. From this place which is somewhat ele- 
vated, can be seen the remains of an old village or Indian 
fort, over the river about northwest from here. The 
country looks beautiful, somewhat rolling and bounded by 
uneven bluffs. The land looks poor and sandy. The sun 
is very hot and not much wind. I find it has a great ten- 
dency to make sore lips, parched up and feverish. At 1 :45 
all the wagons were on the way again. We traveled 
about seven miles. We crossed two slough or soft places 
though not very bad. They are the first since we left 
Winter Quarters. The roads are more uneven than on 
the other side the river. We had to make a new road all 
day. At 6:15 the encampment was formed on the east 
banks of a small creek with a very gravelly bottom. The 
\vagons are formed in a deep hollow and so low that they 
cannot be seen at a quarter of a mile distance. There is 
no fresh grass here, neither has the old grass been burnt 


off. We have crossed a number ,of trails today which 
some say are buffalo trails. They all run towards the 
river, and in some places there are 8 or 9, others, not 
more than two, and so on, together running" about a half a 
yard apart. The hunters have seen no buffalo. Woolsey 
killed a goose. There is no timber here, only a few small 
willows. We are about a half a mile from the river, and 
there doesn't seem to be much timber on the river. Our 
course today has been about southwest. About a mile 
back from this place situated on a high bench of land on 
the banks of the river is the remains of an Indian village, 
the houses or lodges being all down and no appearance of 
timber left. The entrances to these lodges all face to the 
southeast, the same as those back at the other village. 
There has evidently been a garden around the village as 
the land has been broken and bears marks of cultivation. 
This morning Brother Benson discovered that one of the 
iron axles of his wagon was broken, and he moved the 
load so that there was no weight on the part which was 
broken, and traveled with it all day. This evening the 
wagon was unloaded, the axle taken off, Brother Tanner's 
forge set up, and the axle welded and fixed ready to put 
to the wagon again. This was done in the short space of 
one hour after the encampment was formed. The welding 
was performed by Brother Burr Fost. About eight 
o'clock Joseph Mathew.s came into camp from seeking his 
horses and stated that an Indian had rode a horse off 
a little before and he supposed it was Brother Little's 
horse, which was missing. Dr. Richards' mare was also 
missing. Brother Mathews stated that he went out to 
seek for his black man who was out watching his teams. 


and as he arrived he saw Brother Little's horse as he 
supposed going towards the river. He ran towards it to 
turn it back to camp, but as soon as he commenced run- 
ning the horse sprang to a gallop, which made him sup- 
pose there was an Indian on him although he could not see 
the Indian. As soon as he gave the alarm five or six of 
the brethren mounted their horses, and pursued on tho 
course pointed out to the river, bjit could neither see nor 
hear a horse or Indian. When they returned, President 
Young and Kimball and a number of others went out on 
horseback and searched till near eleven o'clock, but like- 
wise proved unsuccessful. The brethren have been re- 
peatedly warned not to let their horses go far from their 
wagons, but every time we stop they can be seen around 
for more than two miles. These are two good horses and 
the owners feel bad enough, but it will be a warning to 
others to be more careful. 

TUESDAY, 2/TH. Arose soon after five. The morn- 
ing fine an-d pleasant. During the night the guard fired 
twice but they supposed they were wolves they fired at. 
I went back to the old Indian village before breakfast, 
and also with O. P. Rockwell, to see if any tracks of the 
lost horses could be found. He followed one track some 
way into a bunch of willows, but having no arms we re- 
turned. At 7 :45 the wagons commenced moving and trav- 
eled till 2:15 being about twelve miles nearly a south 
course, the design being to go to the main branch of the 
Platte. President Young, Kimball and others went for- 
ward again to point out the road. O. P. 'Rockwell and 
some others started back to hunt the horses about the 
time we .started. The land today has been very rolling 


and uneven. It is also very sandy and dry. After travel- 
ing about four miles through dead grass we found a large 
space where the grass had been burned off. Here it is 
quite green, and there are quantities of buffalo dung, 
which proves that we are not far distant from some of 
them. The hunters have been out again but have not dis- 
covered any. There are a great many lizards on these sand 
ridges, but they are of a small size. President Young and 
Kimball discovered a dog town a piece back, and many 
little prairie dogs. In one hole was a very large rattle- 
snake, and around the holes many small owls which seem 
to correspond with what travelers have said previously 
that the prairie dog, rattlesnakes, and owls all live in the 
same hole together. The sun is very hot but there is a nice 
west wind although it is dry and parches our lips. When 
we stopped at noon the brethren dug several holes and 
obtained a little water, as there is none here above the 
surface. They could not obtain any for the cattle anci 
horses. At 3.15 the teams commenced to move again. 
Just as they started, John Brown, Rosewel Stevens and 
Brother Woodruff all shot at an antelope. They all hit 
him and killed him. Having .skinned it, they .put it into 
one of the wagons. The afternoon was very hot and the 
roads very dusty. After traveling about two miles some 
of the ox teams gave out and had to stop and feed. The 
rest went on till they found a small branch of water and 
the grass being very good we stopped for the night at half 
past five, having traveled about four miles, course about 
south. President Young and several others went back 
with mules and horses to assist the teams up which are 
behind. Luke Johnson shot a very large rattlesnake and 


brought it to camp for the oil. Roswel Stevens killed 
a hare, the nearest like the English hare of any I have 
seen in this country. Soon after we arrived here it began 
to lightning and thunder and we had a light sliower with 
a very strong wind. There is an appearance of more rain 
which is very much needed indeed. At 6.30 O. P. Rock- 
well, Joseph Mathews, John Eldridge and Thomas Brown 
returned from hunting the two lost horses. They re- 
ported that they went back to within about two miles of 
where we encamped on Sunday and looking off towards 
the river they saw something move in the grass at the foot 
of a high mole. They proceeded towards it thinking it 
was a wolf, when within about twelve or fourteen rods 
Porter stopped to shoot at the supposed wolf. The mo- 
ment he elevated his rifle, fifteen Indians sprang to their 
feet, all naked except the breech cloth, and armed with 
rifles and bows and arrows. Each man having a rifle 
slung on his back, and his bow strung tight in his hand 
and about twenty arrows. The Indians advanced towards 
them but the brethren motioned and told them to stop and 
held their rifles and pistols ready to meet them. When 
the Indians saw this they began to holler "bacco ! bacco !" 
The brethren told them they had not tobacco. One of the 
Indians came close beside J. Mathew's horse to shake 
hands with Mathews but kept his eye on the horse's bridle. 
When nearly within reach of the bridle, Brown cocke'l 
his pistol and pointed at the Indian shouting if he did not 
leave he would kill him. At which, the Indian seeing the 
pistol ready to fire, retreated. The Indians made signs to 
get the brethren lower down the river, but the brethren 
turned their horses to come to camp, thinking it unsafe to 


go near to the timber where they expected more Indians 
lay in ambush. When the brethren turned to 'come back 
the Indians fired six .shots at them with tneir rifles and 
the brethren immediately faced about at which the Indians 
fled towards the timber below. The brethren did not 
shoot at the Indians, even when the Indians shot at them. 
They saw the tracks of the horses which are missing and 
returned satisfied that Pawnees have g,ot them, and no 
doubt intended to get the horses on which the brethren 
ro-de, but they met with too stern a reception to risk an 
attempt. Some of these same Indians were amongst those 
who came into camp when we stopped for dinner near 
their village, and proves that they eyed the horses pretty 
close, and also proves that they have followed us close 
ever since. The brethren ran great risks indeed, but got 
back safe to camp without harm. 

About the same time the brethren returned, a gun ac- 
cklently went off and broke the nigh fore leg of Brother 
Mathew's horse. Those who saw the accident state that 
when the rain came on, some of the men put their guns in 
John Brown's wagon, loaded and with the caps on. 
Brother Brown threw his coat on the guns, and soon after 
went to get his coat and plucking it up, some part of the 
coat caught the cock of the gun and raised it so that 
when the coat slipped off, the gun went off, and the ball 
struck the horse's leg on the back side about half way 
between the knee and- upper joint. The bone was broke 
entirely off. There were several men and horses close 
by the wagon at the time. The wagon was ,set on fire, 
but soon put out with little damage. This makes four 
of the best horses lost within the last four days, but the 


last circumstance is by far the most painful, and breaks 
up Brother Markham's team. Brother Brown made Heber 
a present of a little antelope meat. About dark the wind 
moved to the north and blew strong a little while and we 
had a little more rain. 

WEDNESDAY, 28xH. Morning fine and pleasant, no 
Indians. The wind blew strong from the northeast 
which makes it much cooler. There are many wolves 
and antelope around here, but no buffalo have been seen 
as yet. Orders were given this morning for no man to 
leave the wagons except the hunters. The brethren had 
to make a road down to the small creek near which we 
camped. This occupied till about nine o'clock, when the 
wagons commenced crossing; the last wagon crossed at 
ten o'clock and then the camp proceeded on. President 
Young, Kimball, and several others going before to point 
out the road while the wagons were crossing the creek. 
Brother Luke Johnson shot the horse dead which had his 
leg broke last night. The horse belonged to Brother 
Barney, but was in Markham's team and was a good one, 
but they concluded it was better to shoot her than leave 
her alone to the mercy of the Indians. Our course for 
the first seven miles was a little east of south over a very 
level prairie and green with grass. The largest wild on- 
ions grow here I have ever seen. After traveling about 
seven miles we turned southwest, being within a mile of 
the main Platte and opposite to Grand Island. We trav- 
eled till 2 :30 and then stopped to feed, having come about 
eleven miles today. The road.s are extremely dusty ana 
the strong wind blows it into the wagons and everything 
is covered. We are now near to timber and a good chance 


for grass for. the cattle. At 4.00 P. M. we moved again 
and traveled till six, having traveled about four miles, 
and during the day, about fifteen miles. We have campea 
about a quarter of a mile from the timber and there is 
plenty of grass to fill the stock tonight. The water is also 
clear and cool and good tasting. The evening is cloudy 
and very cool, which affects my head some. Slippered on 
some antelope and went to bed early. 

THURSDAY, 29xn. The wagons started at five o'clock 
this morning before breakfast, to find more grass as this 
is all eaten off. We traveled till 6:30 being about three 
miles, and then turned out the teams to feed. The morn- 
ing very cool. There seems to be very little rain in this 
country and no clew. Breakfasted on goose and mouldy 
bread. At twenty minutes after eight, the teams .started 
again and after traveling about two miles came to a very 
pretty stream of good water, (Wood River) about ten 
feet wide on an average, but at the fording place about 
a rod wide. We were detained some here, but all got 
over safely. We then traveled on a table or prairie gently 
ascending for four or five miles but very even and good 
traveling. At 1.00 P. M. we stopped beside a small lake 
to rest and feed teams, having traveled about ten miles 
today. The wind south and .strong. One of Orson 
Pratt's horses is very sick, supposed to be the bots. He 
has lain down several times in the harness within the last 
three hours. I am not astonished, as the wagons and 
everything else is sh'rinking up, for the wind is perfectly 
dry and parching; there is no moisture in it. Even my 
writing desk is splitting with the drought. At 2 :30 P. M. 
we started again and traveled till about 6:30 over toler- 


able level prairie, distance about eight miles, and nearly 
a southwest course. The wind was strong from south- 
west till sundown and then turned to northeast. The 
clouds .of dust were almost sufficient to suffocate every- 
one. I rode Heber's horse this afternoon and went before 
the wagons. Saw many antelope, and the brethren had a 
good chance to kill one, but they missed it, although three 
of them shot at it. We camped at night close to Grand 
Island where there is an abundance of rushes for cattle. 
There is also a white substance that seems to ooze out of 
the ground around here, and tastes like salt, but not so 
strong as common salt. Brother Orson Pratt's horse is 
better and the day has passed without accident. 

FRIDAY, 3Ora. Arose at half past five. Morning 
cool and pleasant. The teams have filled themselves with 
rushes. Started at 7 :40 and soon after the camp started, 
I started ahead on foot and have traveled about five 
miles. The prairie level and green with grass. We 
travel on the first bench about three quarters of a mile 
north of the timber on Grand Island. There are many 
wild geese on the prairie, also buffalo dung, but none 
very recent. There are immense patches of blue grass 
which from appearances, the buffalo are fond of. There 
are also numerous patches of buffalo grass which is very 
short, thick on the ground, and curly like the hair on a 
buffalo's hide, and much resembling it, except in color. 
About a mile from where we camped last night, we passed 
a place where the Indians have camped no doubt dur- 
ing their hunt. They must have been very numerous for 
their camp has covered a number of acres of ground. 
President Young, Kimball and Lyman are gone ahead 


on horseback to look out the road. We have thus far fol- 
lowed the Indian trail, but it is now so grown over and 
so old it is scarce discernible. The wind blows strong 
from the north and the dust is very bad. The atmos- 
phere is dull and cloudy. Our course today has been 
about west. At a quarter to twelve we stopped to feed 
beside a small creek of clear, good, water, having trav- 
eled about eight miles. The grass along this creek is 
long and plentiful. We are about a half a mile from 
Grand Island. 

Having the privilege of copying from Brother Bul- 
lock's journal, I will now record the names of the stand- 
ing guard as organized April 16th, also the men selected 
by Brother Tanner to form the gun division as ordered 
Saturday, April 17th. 

Tarlton Lewis, Stephen H. Goddard, Seeley Owens, 
Thomas Woolsey, John G. Luce, Horace Thorton, 
Charles D. Barnam, Sylvester H. Earl, George Scholes, 
Rufus Allen, William Empey, John Holman, George R. 
Grant, William P. Vance, James Craig, Datus Ensign, 
William Dykes, - John Dixon, Samuel H. Marble, Art- 
emus Johnson, Norton Jacobs, Addison Everett, William 
Wordsworth, John W. Norton, Francis M. Pomroy, Ly- 
man Curtis, Horace M. Frink, Erastus Snow, Hans C. 
Hanson, William C. A. Smoot, Barnabas L. Adams, Rod- 
ney Badger, Charles Burk, Alexander P. Chesley, Ap- 
pleton M. Harmon, David Powell, Joseph Mathews, John 
Wheeler, Gillrid Summe, Mathew Ivory, Edson Whipple, 
Conrad Klineman, Joseph Rooker, Nathaniel Fairbanks, 
Ozro Eastman, Andrew S. Gibbons, William A. King, 
Thomas Tanner, Hosea Gushing, and John H. Tippets. 


The names of the gun detachment are as follows : 
Thomas Tanner, Captain ; Stephen H. Goddard, 
Seeley Owens, Thomas Woolsey, John G. Luce, Horace 
Thornton, Charles D. Barnam, Sylvester H. Earl, George 
Scholes and Rufus Allen. 

At twenty minutes after ten o'clock started again, 
the wind blowing from the north tremendously strong, 
and clouds of dust arose from under the wagon wheels. 
It has turned very cold and gloomy. We traveled again 
over a level prairie some distance from the river and 
turned off to camp under the bench soon after 5 :00 p. 
m. having traveled about eight miles, our course a little 
southwest. The wagons were formed in an imperfect 
circle in such a manner as to have all the wagon mouths 
from the wind, which took near an hour to form the en- 
campment. We are about a mile from water and a mile 
and a half from timber, with very little grass for our 
teams. It is now so cold that every man wants his over- 
coat on and a buffalo robe over it. We have had no acci- 
dent and the brethren fell well, some are wrestling to 
keep themselves warm. Some have had the good luck 
to bring a little wood with them but it seems as if many 
will have a cold supper. And some perhaps little or 
nothing as they have no bread cooked. Eight p. m., the 
camp have found a good substitute for wood in the dried 
buffalo dung which lies on the ground here in great 
plenty, and makes a good fire when properly managed. 
Brother Kimball invented a new way of building a fire 
to cook on and which is well adapted to the use of this 
kind of fuel. He dug a hole in the ground about 8 
inches deep, 15 inches long and 8 inches wide. Then 


at each end of this hole he dug another about the same 
dimensions as the first leaving about 3 inches of earth 
standing between the middle and two end holes. At the 
end of these partitions he made a hole through about 3 
inches in diameter to serve as a draught. In the bottom 
of the middle hole the fire and fuel was placed, and 
across the top two wagon hammers to set the pots and 
pans on, so that the fire could have free circulation un- 
derneath. By this method much cooking was done with 
very little fuel. To save the trouble of carrying water 
so far a well was dug in a short time about 4 feet deep 
and good water obtained. After supper I went and 
gathered some dried buffalo dung, (politely called buffalo 
chips) to cook with in the morning. Brother Hanson 
played some on his violin and some of the brethren danced 
to warm themselves. I went to bed early to get warm 
but having only one quilt for covering, I suffered much 
with cold. Brother Kimball rode ahead again on horse 
back and suffered some from cold. 

SATURDAY, IST OF MAY. The morning very cold in- 
deed. Inasmuch as there is little grass for the cattle, 
the camp started out at 5 :40 and traveled till a quarter 
after eight, six miles before breakfast. Soon after we 
started this morning three buffalo were seen grazing on 
the bluff about six miles distance. I could see them very 
plain with my glass. O. P. Rockwell, Thomas Brown 
and Luke Johnson started on horseback to try to kill 
some. Soon after they went, another herd of buffalo 
were seen to the northwest at the foot oi the bluffs about 
eight miles off. I counted with my glass, 72, and Orson 
Pratt counted 74. Three of the brethren went on their 


horses after the latter herd. I watched the movement 
with the glass and saw that sometime before the brethren 
got to them, the buffalo fled and were soon after out of 
sight. We stopped for breakfast close to Grand Island 
and at 10:15 proceeded again. After traveling four miles 
we arrived at a small lake on our right at twelve o'clock 
which evidently connects with the river in high water. A 
little previous to this time the hunters returned and re- 
ported that Luke Johnson shot at one and dropped him 
on his knees, but he got up again and ran after the herd. 
They did not get any, but saw more farther west and 
went to give chase to the latter herd. When they got 
near them, they turned down under the bluffs and joined 
the herd chased by the last hunting party. Luke lost his 
cap and could not find it again. Brother Higbee said he 
could have shot one, but Woolsey told him to hold on and 
pick out a good one. They being pretty near, selected a 
cow and designed both to shoot at her, but while they 
were making their plans the herd started and they missed 
their chance. About the time the hunters returned, an- 
other still larger herd was discovered still farther west, 
also at the foot of the bluffs. The President stopped 
near the above mentioned lake and selected eleven men 
to go and give chase to the last seen herd and he gave 
them their instructions. Although they were at least 
eight miles from us, I distinctly counted 101 with my 
glass and amongst them many calves. This being the 
first day buffalo has been seen on our journey and in fact 
the first ever seen by any except about five or six of the 
brethren, it excited considerable interest and pleasure in 
the breasts of the brethren, and as may be guessed, the 


teams moved slowly and frequently stopped to watch their 
movement. When the hunters were within a mile or two 
from the herd, two of the dogs gave chase to an antelope, 
which made directly towards the buffalo. One of the 
dogs chased it till it went into the midst of the herd and 
when the buffalo saw the dog, they commenced to canter 
into a closer huddle. The dog, however, evidently fright- 
ened with their savage appearance, stopped and retraced 
his steps. About this time Elder Kimball seemed to get 
inspired with the idea of chasing the buffalo and he im- 
mediately called for Egan's fifteen shooter and started 
with it on full gallop. After the dog returned the buffalo 
did not move much from, the place and the hunters moved 
gently along till they got pretty near them, at which time 
Heber joined, just as the herd discovered them and com- 
menced galloping off. The brethren's feelings who were 
left with the wagons were now strung up to the highest 
pitch, a feeling of exciting interest appeared to prevail 
throughout the camp, they having heard and read so 
much of the mad ferocity of the buffalo when hotly pur- 
sued, and knowing that all the hunters were inexperienced 
in regard to hunting the wild buffalo. While they felt 
for the safey of the hunters, they still desired to see as 
much of the chase as the distance would allow, and were 
wishful that the chase might be successful as a number 
have no meat and a piece of fresh meat would taste good 
to all men and save our bread stuff, and the desire to 
taste the much famed buffalo meat created a longing 
desire to see some of the herd fall. Soon as the herd 
commenced galloping off, the hunters followed in pursuit 
at full gallop and soon closed in with them. At this tiine 


I got my glass and rested it on Brother Aaron Farr's 
shoulder, determined to see as much of the chase as pof- 
sible. I soon discovered O. P. Rockwell ride into the midst 
of the -herd which then appeared to number over 200, 
others having come in sight when the herd commenced lo 
run. Porter was soon enveloped in the cloud of du^t 
caused by the heavy tramp of the buffalo on the dry 
sandy ground, but in a very short time the herd began to 
separate and scatter in every direction, a small party 
coming down the bluff again and some running west un- 
der the bluffs, others going over. The hunters closed in 
on the first party and commenced their fire, especially 
at one cow which they finally succeeded in separating from 
all the rest, and determined to keep to her until they 
killed her, except Porter, who as soon as he had wounded 
her, left her with the hunters and pursued some of the 
rest. The cow was now in close quarters and after she 
had been shot through two or three times, Elder Kim- 
ball rode close to her with his fifteen shooter and fired 
over his horse's head, she dropped helpless and was soon 
dispatched. At the report of the gun which was very 
heavy loaded, Elder Kimball's horse sprang and flew 
down the bluff like lightning and he having let go the 
lines to shoot, her sudden motion overbalanced him and 
his situation was precarious to the extreme. The other 
hunters saw his situation and trembled for his safety but 
could render him no assistance. However, being a good 
horseman, he maintained his position in the saddle and 
soon succeeded in gaining the lines and by a vigorous ef- 
fort succeeded after some time in reining in his horse 
and returned to the rest unharmed and without accident. 


All this movement passed about as quick as thought, airl 
as soon as they saw the cow dead and all right they again 
followed in pursuit of the remaining buffalo. About this 
time three of the herd separated from the rest and came 
in a direction towards the camp on a gollop. President 
Young seeing this, ordered a halt, and the wagons to get 
close together lest the buffalo should, in their fury and 
excitement, venture to go between the wagons and do 
much mischief. However, they were discovered by some 
of the hunters nearer the camp and some foot men who 
gave chase to them changed their course when within 
about a mile from the camp. At this time I had a very 
good view of their shape, color and appearance when run- 
ning which I shall endeavor to describe hereafter. Elder 
Kimball arrived in time to aid in the chase of these three 
which lasted some time. The hunters made choice of a 
large and very furious bull, and worked with him some 
time, shooting him through several times but all this did 
not seem to impede his progress. O. P. Rockwell said he 
had heard it said that a buffalo could not be hurt with 
a ball shot at his head. Having a fair chance with this 
one, he determined to satisfy himself, and (previous to 
his being wounded) gaining a little in advance came right 
in front within about a rod of him and discharged his 
rifle pistol which struck the center of his head, but with 
no other effect than to make it smoke a little, some dust 
fly and the raving animal shake savagely. The brethren, 
John S. Higbee and John Pack, soon after succeeded in 
dropping him and laid him dead at their feet, John Pack 
being the one that dropped him. During all this, other 
scenes were passing of equal interest. One of the cal- 


ves was discovered within a few rods of the wagons, a 
shot fired at it and it was soon caught by the dogs, killed 
and put into a feed box. Porter chased another calf to 
within a mile of the camp previous to his chasing the bull. 
Some of the footmen surrounded and dispatched it, and 
soon after brought and put it in one of the wagons. Other 
brethren were still away at the bluffs, but we had no 
certainty of their success until Elder Kimball, John Pack, 
and several others came up to the camp after dispatching 
the bull and reported two other cows killed and three 
calves. This was a little before 5 :00 p. m. When it was 
ascertained for a certainty that one was killed, the rev- 
enue cutter was unloaded and sent to fetch it to camp. 
It was reported that two other cows and three calves 
were killed. When Elder Kimball and others came up 
to the camp, President Young requested some of the 
brethren to unload their wagons and go and fetch the 
others reported to be killed, while the wagons would 
strike towards the river and camp for the night. The 
chase lasted from soon after 1 :00 until 4 :00 p. m. Soon 
four wagons were unloaded, the brethren having their 
loads on the ground in ,care of a guard, and were ready 
to start out. Having a great desire to see a buffalo in 
his natural state, my feet being very sore, and the dis- 
tance to the bluffs being over three miles, I got into 
Brother Aaron Farr's wagon, he being one who unloaded 
to fetch in the meat, and we started for the one shot 
down by Elder Kimball. He and O. P. Rockwell fol- 
lowing on horseback. On our route, we met Luke Johnson 
and two other hunters returning. Luke had a calf tied 
on his horse, himself on foot. When we arrived at the 


cow, we found that three of the brethren had come on 
foot and had already got the hide off, except the head. 
She was soon cut in two, put in the wagon with the rest 
of the meat, hide and head, and we started for the next 
cow which was about three quarters of a mile distant. 
This cow would probably weigh on foot, about 700 
pounds. She was not very fat, but the meat looked nice 
and clean. When we arrived at the next cow, we found 
several of the brethren at work with her, they had got 
her hide off and soon had her in the wagon. We then 
proceeded to camp and got in soon after sundown. The 
meat was unloaded in the semi-circle opposite the Presi- 
dent's wagon and placed on the hide which was spread on 
the ground for the purpose of keeping it clean. The 
brethren's faces beamed with joy to see the meat begin to 
come into camp, and with some astonishment to view 
the size and ferocious appearance of the head, which still 
had the hide on. Soon after the other wagons came in 
and each deposited its load in the same place. Joseph 
Mathews came in about the same time and reported that 
he had killed another calf after chasing it three miles, 
making the totol number killed in the first day's buffalo 
hunt by the Camp of the Latter-day Saints, already re- 
ported as follows : one bull, three cows and six calves, a 
circumstance far exceeding our expectations and best 
hopes, and all without the slightest accident or loss to 
man or property, except Luke Johnson's cap and a ram- 
rod to a rifle. There is, however, one shade of suspense 
caused by the intelligence that Joseph Hancock has not 
returned to camp. He started out on foot when the three 
buffalo were first discovered this morning and has not 


been seen or heard of for sometime. Considerable fear 
is entertained for his safety from the fact that he is lame, 
and it is evident, or at least considered so, that there are 
Indians near because a large smoke as of prairie burning 
has been seen all the afternoon within some six or eight 
miles to the west and must have been set on fire by some- 
body and the probability is, it is Indians, although none 
has been seen for several days. The meat was cut up 
into quarters and distributed one quarter to each com- 
pany of ten, leaving some to be distributed in the morn- 
ing, and in a short time every fire was loaded with it, 
and the camp had a good feast on the fruits of today's 

Soon after the hunters started out at noon we came 
to a long range of dog towns and saw many of the little 
prairie dogs playing around their holes. The extent of 
this dog town is yet unknown, for we have traveled over, 
and paralled with it about five miles this afternoon, and 
they seem to extend still farther west. In some places 
the town is nearly two miles broad, in others not so much, 
and must contain thousands of the little dogs. I could 
not get near enough to see their form distinctly, for they 
are so quick into their holes when anything approaches, 
you can only have a partial view of them. They appear 
to be about as long as a common grey squirrel but more 
chunky, a larger body and chubbed head. The tail is 
short, more resembling that of a dog, their color light 
brown. Their bark resembles the chirp of an English 
throstle, and something like the chirp of a squirrel. They 
appear to live on grass as it is all eaten off close to the 
ground throughout the extent of their dog town, and 


the ground looks naked and barren as a desert. Several 
of the brethren shot at the dogs but failed in killing any. 
We had a north wind this afternoon and cold weather, 
our course being nearly west over a level prairie, not far 
distant from the island. Since noon we traveled about 
eight miles, and the encampment was formed at half past 
six o'clock near a small lake about a mile above the head 
of Grand Island. The grass is not so good here as it 
has been back, and but a poor chance for the cattle, etc., 
to fill themselves. 

The appearance of the wild buffalo at a distance is 
somewhat singular. The color of the back and about half 
way down the sides is a light brown, the rest is a very 
dark brown. The shoulder appears slightly rounding 
and humped. When running, the large shaggy head 
hangs low down, about half way in height between the 
ground and the top of the shoulder. They canter like 
any ox or cow, but appear far more cumbersome and 
heavy, especially about the fore parts, which look larger 
than they really are on account of the long, thick matty 
hair. They run tolerably fast, but a good horse will 
easily gain on them. They will run a long time without 
diminishing their speed. Their meat is very sweet and 
tender as veal. 

SUNDAY. 2ND. This morning is fine but cold. Tee 
about half an inch thick. Sometime in the night a buffalo 
and calf came within a short distance of the wagons. The 
guard discovered them and shot at the calf, wounding 
it in the hind leg. They caught it alive and tied it up 
near the wagons but concluded finally to kill and dress 
it. About six o'clock we were gladdened to see Joseph 


Hancock come into camp with a piece of buffalo meat. 
He reported that he killed a buffalo yesterday back on 
the bluffs, and there being no one with him he concluded 
to stay by it over night. He made a fire and scattered a 
little powder around his buffalo to keep off the wolves. 
Some visited him during the night, but were awed by 
the fire. After he had told his story and taken breakfast, 
Brother Hancock started in company with four or five 
other brethren to fetch in the meat on horseback, as no 
wagons could get over the bluffs to it. They found that the 
wolves had devoured much of it, but the balance they 
brought along with them. They also killed two antelope 
and brought them into camp. The total number of buffalo 
now caught is five large ones and seven calves. Edmund 
Ellsworth killed one of the prairie dogs, and brought it 
to camp. It looks much like a squirrel, only the body 
is thicker and the tail short and no bush on it. The day 
grew pleasant till about noon, when it became cloudy and 
cold. President Young, Kimball and others started out 
to look out a camp ground where better feed can be 
obtained for our stock. They returned a little after two 
and gave orders to go on a few miles. There have been a 
number of buffalo seen in different directions, one graz- 
ing within three quarters of a mile from camp, but orders 
were not to hunt or shoot today. At three-fifteen the 
camp started and traveled two miles over dog towns as 
yesterday. At a little after four p. m. we camped beside 
a long lake of shoal, clear water near the banks of the 
Platte. This lake is about three rods wide and connects 
with the river. The Platte appears about two miles wide at 
this place but very Jioal and muddy. There is no timber 


but plenty of grass, mostly last year's growth. The 
weather is more temperate and the wind ceased. Presi- 
dent Young, Kimball and others went on to look out a 
crossing place over this lake, etc. On their way, they 
fell in with a buffalo cow and calf and chased them some 
to get a view of them but not to kill. On their return 
they said we should tarry here tomorrow and have some 
blacksmith work done and probably hunt some. Half of 
the hide off the bull's face was brought into camp. On 
examination I found the mark where Porter shot at his 
head. The ball made a small hole, barely cutting through 
the outer' surface or grain of the hide which was near 
an inch thick. The hair near the top of the head is about 
a foot long. 

MONDAY, SRD. (This morning cold and ice in the 
water pails. The hunters are going out on foot. Tanner 
and Davenport are fixing their forges to do some re- 
pairing, shoeing, etc. At about nine the hunters, twenty 
in number, started out with two wagons which had been 
unloaded for the purpose. At the same time, fifteen of 
the brethren on horseback started west to examine the 
route, etc. At two-thirty the party who went to look out 
the route returned and reported that Brother Empey had 
discovered a large war party of Indians while he was 
chasing an antelope. The Indians are in a hollow about 
twelve miles distance and about three hundred in number, 
some on their horses and some standing beside them hold- 
ing the bridle. The company also saw nearly twenty 
scattered Indians about four miles from here. When this 
report was made, orders were given to dispatch a num- 
ber of the brethren on horses, well armed to warn the 


hunters and tell them to come to camp. In about half 
an hour, twenty-three men started out on this mission. 
Before they reached the bluffs which are about four miles 
from here, some of the hunters were on their way to 
camp, having seen only one buffalo during the day. In 
a little time all the hunters were notified and were on 
their way back. They arrived about six o'clock, having 
got three antelope, and the horsemen who. went after 
them got two calves which were all brought in and the 
day passed without accident. Some of the brethren saw 
some objects at a distance, which, by their motions they 
were satisfied were Indians. The day has been fine but 
cool and cloudy, with occasionally a few drops of rain. A 
number of wagon tires have been set and other blacksmith- 
ing, washing, drying meat, etc., done. The wind near 
south. The cannon was unlimbered at night and pre- 
pared for action in it should be needed. 

TUESDAY, 4xn. The morning fine but cool, wind 
about southwest. Two horses ran east as much as six or 
eight miles and were pursued by the brethren and brought 
back. William Smoot was thrown from a horse and 
his senses knocked out of him by the fall. He soon re- 
covered and appears to have sustained no injury. 

At seven-thirty the camp was called and received in- 
structions from President Young, especially in regard to 
leaving the wagons and scattering off hunting without 
counsel. He strongly urged the brethren not to do it any 
more and said if they did, some of them would be caught 
by the Indians and if not killed would be severely abused. 
The instructions and regulations given April 17th -were 
read and enjoined upon the camp to be observed more 


strictly. It was decided that the cannon wagon should be 
unloaded, the box put on another wagon so that the can- 
non can be always ready for action. An addition of ten 
volunteers was made to the standing guard and ordered 
that all horses and mules should be tied inside the circle 
at night, and the cattle and cows outside within a few 
rods of the wagons. A guard to be placed around the 
cattle when .turned out to graze. It is thought best to 
travel with the wagons four abreast and the cannon to 
go in the rear. 

At nine o'clock the wagons commenced moving and 
passed over the lake near its junction with the river, at 
which place, it is about ten or twelve feet wide. 

After traveling about a half a mile the camp stopped 
some time, waiting for some wagons behind. While 
stopping, three wagons were discovered on the opposite 
bank of the river, considered to be traders going back to 
Council Bluffs. The river is about two miles wide and 
no person here acquainted with it, consequently no one 
attempted to go over, which many desired. About eleven 
o'clock we proceeded, five wagons abreast so as to be 
better prepared for defense should the Indians attack 
us. After traveling about two miles, one of the men 
from the wagons on the other side the river overtook 
us and we halted to see him. He said there are only nine 
of them. They have been to Fort Laramie for furs and 
are going to Council Bluffs. This is the sixteenth day 
since they left the fort with ox teams. He says the road 
is good on the other side and the river easily forded, 
being- not more than knee deep in the deepest place and 
a good bottom. He cheerfully agreed to carry letters 


hack for us but could not wait long. I wrote one to my 
family and in about half an hour a pretty large mail was 
made up to send back to Winter Quarters, and may the 
Lord grant that it may arrive safely. Brother John- 
son bought a buffalo robe of the man for about a pound 
and a half of coffee, and another brother bought one for 
a pound of sugar and a little pork. I feel my mind re 
lieved by thus unexpected privilege of writing back to 
my dear family and hope they will have the pleasure of 
perusing the contents. 

At twenty minutes after one the bugle sounded for 
a march, and the messenger is returning with the letters 
and a bag of provisions on his shoulder which the breth- 
ren have given him for carrying the letters. We trav- 
eled about four miles farther and at three-thirty, stopped 
to let the teams feed on a ^mall spot where the fire has 
not touched, the rest having all been' burned off within a 
few days. We have traveled today only about six miles, 
having stopped much. The country is still very level 
and nice traveling only for the dust: The wind south and 
our course nearly west. When the trader went back over 
the river, Thomas Woolsey, John .Brown and John Pack 
accompanied him on horses to speak with a person whom 
Brother Woolsey is acquainted with. They returned soon 
after we stopped to feed and say that the river is very 
good to cross, not being more than two feet deep in the 
deepest place, and the bottom good. The horses broke 
through but very little. The traders say furthermore, 
that if we continue on this side, we shall have to cross 
the river twice where the water is much deeper and can- 
not be crossed only in a ferry. There is a good trav- 



eled road also, which would be an advantage we have not 
got on this side. During the time we stopped to feed, a 
guard was placed around the cattle and horses to keep 
them from straying far from the wagons. Then men 
were called out and drilled with their loaded guns in the 
circle formed by the wagons. Some objects are seen 
grazing about four miles west of us thought to be buffalo. 
Thirteen in number. Some of the hunters ^re going out 
to give them a chase, and try to kill some of them. At 
a quarter after five o'clock, the camp was called together 
and Brother Brown reported what the traders said about 
the route, etc., as above. The subject was then talked 
over and "when it was considered that we are making a 
road for thousands of saints to follow, and they cannot 
ford the river when the snow melts from the mountains, 
it was unanimously voted to* keep on this side as far as 
Fort Laramie at le'ast. Soon after this we started on 
again. Saw a lone buffalo but a short distance from us 
but it galloped across the river. Saw also a number of 
antelope and some deer. About seven o'clock we passed 
a spot where the Indians have camped and must have 
been many of them. A while after sundown we arrived 
at a creek of good water and camped for the night, hav- 
ing traveled about nine miles today. The prairie level 
but all the grass burned off, except in small patches. We 
have camped on a small spot which has escaped the 
fire. Elder Kimball, who was one of the hunters who 
started out at four o'clock, said the objects seen from 
camp were antelope, but he had seen a herd of buffalo 
about a mile ahead of where we now are. He named this 
creek, Buffalo creek. 


WEDNESDAY, STH. The morning fine and very pleas- 
ant. Saw two small herds of buffalo a few miles from 
camp. At seven-thirty continued our journey. I went on 
foot about two miles and then stopped to count the 
horses, mules, oxen, etc., and afterwards walked on again 
to the first wagons. Here Elder Kimball offered me his 
horse to ride. I then went ahead with the horsemen. 
We soon after came to a very bad slough and had to 
bear off to the north to find a place to cross it. The 
prairie after we crossed this slough about a mile wide 
from the river was very soft and it was necessary to bear 
still farther to the north. The horses feet cut through 
the sod and the ground appeared wet under, although 
there has been no rain for some time. At eleven-thirty 
we stopped to feed on a small patch of unburnt grass, 
having come about nine miles, course about west, with a 
very strong south wind. There were two buffalo within 
about a half a mile from camp, grazing. Some of the 
brethren went to view them, but the orders of the day 
are not to kill anything which the men cannot carry to 
camp. There are no appearances of Indians near except 
the prairie which is still burning ahead of us, supposed 
to be set on fire by them. About one p. m. continued our 
journey and traveled till three p. m., when some of the 
hunters came in, bringing a live buffalo calf, also one they 
had killed. They reported that John Brown, Jackson 
Redding and John S. Higbee, Luke Johnson had each 
killed a calf. The one killed by Brother Higbee having 
previously been shot by Amasa Lyman. Joseph Mathews 
killed a cow and Elder Kimball, O. P. Rockwell and John 
S. Higbee chased the one brought in alive until a dog 


seized it and Porter left his horse and caught it without 
shooting at it and led it to camp. The revenue cutter 
was unloaded and sent after the cow and calf left, they 
being about three miles off. We traveled on about a half 
an hour and found the prairie all in a blaze. President 
Young and Kimball thinking it unsafe to risk the wagons 
near the fire, ordered the camp to go back a half a mile 
to an island where we can have water for our teams 
and be secure from the fire. The prairie is all burned 
bare and the black ashes fly bad, making the brethren 
look more like Indians than white folks. There is some 
feed on the Island, and the cattle easily ford the stream 
to it. The calf is tied in the circle. When a dog goes 
near it, it will attack the largest and they flee from it, 
though not more than six or eight weeks old. About 
half past six the revenue cutter arrived with the meat, 
which was fatter than any we have had. They also 
brought in another calf which they killed while out for 
the cow, making a total of one cow and six calves brought 
into camp today. The meat was divided amongst the 
companies of ten, each having either a calf or half a 
quarter of a cow. 

THURSDAY, 6xH. This morning at five-fifteen, Presi- 
dent Young called to the camp and proposed to go on to 
where we can find feed for the teams. The brethren as- 
sented and he gave orders to start as quickly as possible. 
However, some must feed their teams a little corn, some 
milk their cows, etc., and it took till near six-thirty to 
get started. During the night the Lord sent a light 
shower of rain which has put the fire out except in one 
or two places and made it perfectly safe traveling. We 


have had a strong southeast wind through the night but 
the morning is calm and pleasant. We traveled about 
two miles and stopped on the unburned grass to feed at 
a quarter to seven. Several antelope were surrounded 
by the brethren and some shot at them, killing one. The 
rest made their escape. We can see several large herds 
of buffalo, within about two miles of the camp and many 
calves amongst them. President Young and Kimball 
rode ahead to find a place to stop for feed. The ground 
is hard and good traveling. At a quarter to nine, pro- 
ceeded on, President Young and Kimball going ahead 
to point out the road. Our course about northwest, the 
wind strong from west. We traveled near the river. Saw 
thirteen elk together, also many antelope and numerous 
herds of buffalo on both sides of the river. Jackson Red- 
ding shot an antelope which Luke Johnson chased near 
the wagons. 

A young buffalo calf followed Luke to camp, but 
the President advised him to leave it as it is only a few 
days old. We stopped near the river at a quarter to 
twelve, having traveled about six miles. We find a little 
more grass here, but the numerous herds of buffalo keep 
it eaten off close to the ground nearly all the way we have 
traveled today. The President gave orders that no more 
game should be killed until further orders. It appears we 
have got as much meat in camp as can be taken care of. 
While we were stopping for noon, some of the cows 
moved off towards a large buffalo herd, and when Presi- 
dent Young and Kimball started ahead after dinner they 
discovered the cows near the buffalo. Brother Woolsey 
went to turn them back, but he had to run his mule some 


distance before he could prevent the cows from ming- 
ling with the buffalo. They brought the cows back to 
the wagons and then proceeded ahead again. One part 
of the horsemen's business today has been to drive the 
buffalo out of our track, judging it unsafe to risk them 
between the wagons and the river. The camp proceeded 
on at one-thirty and in about two miles distance found a 
lake of clear water. Here we discovered the horsemen 
coming back, and found that the President had lost his 
large spy glass, while chasing the cows from the buffalo 
herd, a second time. He did not find it. We traveled 
slowly this afternoon, some of the horses and oxen having 
given out in consequence of lack of feed to sustain them. 
We traveled till six-thirty and camped near some islands 
in the river, having traveled about seven miles this after- 
noon and fifteen through the day, our course a little west 
of northwest. Wind about west. Some think we have 
traveled eighteen, some twenty and some even twenty-five 
miles today, but from the number of times we stopped 
and the slowness with which the teams moved, I feel sat- 
isfied that fifteen miles is plenty. About three quarters of 
a mile back we saw a buffalo cow which appears to be 
sick. She fought the dogs some time and then lay down, 
and the brethren went close to her, some venturing to 
feel and handle her. I was within six or eight feet of 
her and had a good view, as much as I wanted. She has 
lost all her hair and looks very poor and weak. The 
President ordered that the brethren leave her and not 
disturb her and she was left lying down, but it is doubt- 
ful the wolves will kill and eat her before morning. When 
the brethren \vent back to hunt the spy glass they found 


that the wolves had killed the calf and nearly eaten it up. 
What they had not eaten, they carried off with them. 
We have never been out of sight of herds of buffalo to- 
day, and from where we are camped, I am satisfied we 
can see over five thousand with the glass. The largest 
herd, we have yet seen is still ahead of us. The prairie 
looks black with them, both on this and the other side 
of the river. Some think we have passed fifty, and some 
even a hundred thousand during the day, or have seen 
them. It is truly a sight wonderful to behold, and can 
scarcely be credited by those who have not actually seen 

FRIDAY, 7in. This morning the wind northwest and 
almost as cold as winter. The buffalo vastly numerous 
all around. About eight a. m. the camp was called to- 
gether and measures taken to raise more teams to put to 
the canyon as some of the horses and even cattle have 
given out. The President chastized Elder Snow for not 
attending to the cows yesterday causing the President to 
loose his spy glass, it being Brother Snow's turn to drive 
the cows according to his own voluntary agreement. At a 
little before eleven o'clock, Porter Rockwell, Thomas 
Brown and Joseph Mathews started back to hunt the 
spy glass, and soon after they left, the camp roceeded on- 
ward. The day was cloudy and very cold. Our course 
about northwest. We traveled about seven miles and 
camped at two-thirty near several small islands, on the 
banks of the river. About four p. m., Porter and the 
others returned, having found the spy glass which was 
a source of joy to all the brethren. At six-thirty the 


companies were called out to drill. I have been very sick 
all day with a complaint and have suffered much. 

SATURDAY, STH. Morning cold but fine. Started out 
at nine o'clock and traveled till one p. m., distance seven 
and a half miles, course a little west of northwest. The 
prairie on both sides of the river is literally black with 
buffalo, and to try to say as to what number we have seen 
this morning would be folly. I should imagine that at a 
moderate calculation, we have seen over fifty thousand. 
They are more tame than they have been, and will stand 
till the wagons come within two hundred yards of them. 
Porter has shot one about two years old, the meat looks 
nice. There is no difficulty in getting meat enough. It 
is with some difficulty that the horsemen can drive them 
away from the track as fast as the wagons come up. It 
is very warm today, and no wind. I have counted the 
revolutions of a wagon wheel to tell the exact distance 
we have traveled. The reason why I have taken this 
method which is somewhat tedious, is because there is 
generally a difference of two and sometimes four miles 
in a day's travel between my estimation and that of some 
others, and they have all thought I underrated it. This 
morning I determined to take pains to know for a cer- 
tainty how far we travel today. Accordingly I measured 
the circumferenc of the nigh hind wheel of one of Brother 
Kimball's wagons being the one I sleep in, in charge of 
Philo Johnson. I found the wheel 14 feet 8 inches in 
circumference, not varying, one eighth of an inch. I then 
calculated how many revolutions it would require for 
one mile and found it precisely 360 not varying one frac- 
tion which somewhat astonished me. I have counted the 


whole revolutions during the day's travel and I find it 
to be a little over eleven and a quarter miles, twenty 
revolutions over. The overplus I shall add to the next 
day's travel. According to my previous calculations we 
were two hundred eighty-five miles from Winter Quarters 
this morning before we started. After traveling ten miles 
I placed a small cedar post in the ground with these 
words written on it with a pencil. "From Winter Quarters, 
two hundred ninety-five miles, May 8, '47. Camp all well. 
Wm. Clayton." Some have past the days travel at 
thirteen and some fourteen miles, which serves to con- 
vince more strongly that the distances are overrated. I 
have repeatedly suggested a plan of fixing machinery to 
a wagon wheel to tell the exact distance we travel in a 
day, and many begin to be sanguine for carrying it into 
effect, and I hopfe it will be done. Our course this after- 
noon has been northwest, no wind and the prairie as bare 
as a poor English pasture, the grass being eaten off by 
uncountable herds of buffalo. No pen nor tongue can 
give an idea of the multitude now in sight continually, 
and it appears difficult to keep them away from the 
wagons. Two calves have been killed and brought to 
camp and multitudes would be killed if the President 
did not prohibit the brethren from killing them only as 
we need the meat. Truly, the Lord's cattle upon the 
thousand hills are numerous. We are now camped on 
the banks of the river within a quarter of a mile from 
where the range of bluffs, which have appeared exceed- 
ingly ragged all day strike the river, and when we move 
again we have got to cross over them. President Young 
and Kimball have been back on the bluffs on foot some 


distance and report that as far as they can see the grass 
is eaten perfectly bare and the prospect for feed for our 
teams is poor indeed. There are several buffalo lying 
dead around here whether dead from old age, or by the 
hands of hunters or of starvation, it is unknown. Many 
of the brethren have to cook their victuals on dry buffalo 
dung, there being no wood near. 

SUNDAY, 9xH. The morning very cold with wind 
southeast. At seven-fifty we proceeded on three and a 
half miles, going a little around some of the bluffs until 
we turned down on a low bottom and very sandy. We 
have camped near some islands and can get wood and 
water, but poor feed for the teams. We arrived here at 
nine-fifty and shall stay till morning. Soon as the camp 
was formed, I went about three quarters of a mile below 
to the river and washed my socks, towel and handkerchief 
as well as I could in cold water without soap. I then 
stripped my clothing off and washed from head to foot, 
which has made me feel much more comfortable for T 
was covered with dust. After washing and putting on 
clean clothing I sat down on the banks of the river and 
gave way to a long train of solemn reflections respecting 
many things, especially in regard to my family and their 
welfare for time and eternity. I shall not write my 
thoughts here, inasmuch as I expect this journal will have 
to pass through other thands besides my own or that of 
my family but if I can carry my plans into operation, they 
will be written in a manner that my family will each get 
their portion, whether before my death or after, it mat- 
ters not. 

The dav is very warm and the wind has moved to 


the west. According to my calculations, we are now 
300 miles from Winter Quarters, lacking a few rods. I 
got a small board and wrote on it: "From Winter Quar- 
ters three hundred miles, May 9, 1847. Pioneer Camp all 
well. Distance according to the reckoning of Wm. Clay- 
ton." This was nailed on a post and in the everting I 
went and set it up about three hundred yards from here 
on a bend of the river. Spent the afternoon reading and 
writing in Elder Kimball's journal. At three p. m. a 
meeting was called and the camp addressed by several. 
President Young took tea with Elder Kimball, and after- 
wards they started out together with one or two others 
to look at the country ahead of us. They went a few 
miles and found a small stream which we shall have to 
cross. Here they saw multitudes of buffalo coming to 
water. Porter a*nd Phineas Young went within six or 
eight rods of them to try to get one, but in the whole 
herd, they could not find one fit to kill. They are very 
poor, for there is no feed for them, and in fact they are 
so numerous that they eat the grass as fast as it springs. 
There are, however, some good cottonwood groves and 
good water at the stream. After sundown the wind blew 
strong from the northwest and the evening was cold and 

MONDAY, lOrn. The morning fine but cool. The 
wind nearly ceased. Last night I dreamed that I was in 
company with the camp which was stopping beside a 
considerable river of deep water. Our horses and cattle 
were tied to stakes all around the camp to the distance 
of a quarter of a mile, some good timber thinly scattered 
around. I thought President Young, Kimball and sev- 


eral others started up the river in a flat boat without 
stating their object, leaving the brethren to guard the 
camp, cattle, etc. in their absence. When they had been 
gone sometime I thought a large herd of buffalo came 
on full gallop right amongst our horses and cattle, caus- 
ing them to break their ropes and fly in every direction. 
The brethren seemed thunderstruck and did not know 
what to do. Seeing a small skiff in the river, I sprang 
into it, and a paddle lying in it, I commenced rowing in 
pursuit of the President. It seemed as though I literally 
flew through the water passing everything on the way 
like a railway carriage. In a few minutes I overtook 
the brethren in the flat boat, took the skiff and threw it 
on shore and to my astonishment I saw that the skiff 
was made only of barks and cracked all over, and it 
seemed impossible to put it in the water without sink- 
ing it. The paddle with which I had rowed proved to 
be a very large feather and I had another feather in my 
left hand with which I steered the skiff. When I got into 
the flat boat, I made known what had passed in the camp, 
but the brethren seemed no ways alarmed. I awoke and 
behold, it was all a dream. Dr. Richards is going to de- 
posit a letter in a stick of wood prepared for the pur- 
pose near this place in such a manner that the next com- 
pany will discover it. He fixed it on a long pole and 
being assisted by President Young and others raised it 
and fixed it firm in the ground. His distance from Winter 
Quarters three hundred and sixteen miles. At nine five 
the camp proceeded onward. After traveling two miles 
we crossed a small creek which Elder Kimball named 
Skunk creek, easily forded, though the ground was soft 


on the west side. About this time the brethren at the 
head of the camp discovered a strange horse alone on the 
prairie. Porter and Thomas Brown gave chase to try 
to catch it. Brother John Brown states that when the 
Mississippi company passed on the other side last season, 
one of the brethren lost a. mare and two colts, and this is 
supposed to be the oldest of the two. When Brother 
Woolsey and Tippets came through from the battalion 
last winter they saw the same horse near here. We trav- 
eled till twelve five and finding a little better feed 
stopped for dinner having traveled a few rods over six 
males. The last two miles was over very soft prairie 
and although the last year's grass has not been burned, 
the wheels cut through the sod frequently. At the creek 
four miles back, some of the brethren shot a buffalo which 
was brought into camp in the revenue cutter. The meat 
is said to be good and the fattest we have had. At two 
we continued our journey. About the same time Porter 
and Brown returned having failed to catch the horse. 
After traveling about half a mile we crossed a very bad 
slough, and beyond that for a mile the ground was wet 
and soft. The teams began to give out, and at half past 
four o'clock, the President ordered the wagons to strike 
for the timber which was a little out of our course, but 
necessary to favor the teams and obtain wood and water. 
We arrived near the timber and camped at four fifty, hav- 
ing traveled since my last guide post a little over nine 
and three-fourths miles, the last two miles the ground 
being dry and good traveling. Some of the hunters killed a 
deer and we had some vension for supper. Our course 
a little north of west. Light wind from northwest. The 


day warm and pleasant. We have a little better feed for 
cattle, and on the island plenty of brouse for horses, better 
timber than we have had for some time past. It appears 
plain that vast herds of buffalo have wintered here, but 
have mostly left and gone eastward sometime ago, and 
we have the full growth of this year's grass which is 
small indeed. The grass evidently springs later the farther 
west we travel, and nature seems to have taught the 
wild cattle this lesson, hence their eastward progress. 
There are some scattering herds of buffalo around, but 
not nearly so numerous as they were some thirty miles 
back. The face of the country here is indeed bautiful, 
the soil rich on the bottoms, the ragged bluffs on each 
side of the river have a splendid appearance, and at about 
ten miles distance, west of where we now are, they seem 
to circle around until they form a junction. It appars 
evident also, that we are above the junction of the north 
and south forks of the Platte, the north fork running 
nearly northwest and the south fork southwest. Brother 
Woolsey says these are the forks in reality, but are con- 
nected some miles higher up by a slough, and consequently 
the land between is set down by travelers as the main 
land rather than as an island. 

TUESDAY, HTH. The morning cold. Wind east; 
camp well. At 7:00 a. m. went with a number of the 
brethren who were going to dig some wolves out of a 
hole about a quarter of a mile from camp. They dug 
out four and brought them alive to camp. They are 
probably six or eight weeks old and about the size of 
an English hare, very vicious. At half past nine the 
camp moved onward over a very nice level, dry prairie 


for five miles. Amongst the timber on the island could 
he seen many small cedar trees. At the end of five 
miles, we had to pass over a small ridge of low, sandy 
bluffs, which extended to the river. After .passing nearly 
over the bluffs we stopped half an hour to water the 
teams and eat a little dinner, then proceeded on three 
miles farther and passed over a creek of clear water, 
but this could not be very good in consequence of so 
many -dead buffalo lying in it. We proceeded on half 
a mile, and finding tolerably good feed, stopped for the 
night, having traveled eight and half miles today. 
Weather fine, wind south and southeast ; course a little 
west or northwest. We have seen few buffalo today, 
but there are signs of thousands having wintered in the 
neighborhood. The country looks beautiful, soil rich, 
only lacking timber. After the camp was formed, it 
being half a mile to water, the brethren dug two wells, 
ami about four feet deep found plenty of good water. 
One of the wells is reported to run a pail full a minute. 
Brother Appleton Harmon is working at the machinery 
for the wagon to tell the distance we travel and expects 
to have it in operation tomorrow, which will save me 
the trouble of counting, as I have done, during the last 
four days. Took supper on some duck presented to 
Elder Kimball by George Billings. 

WEDNESDAY, 12TH. Morning cool, weather fine. 
Brother Appleton Harmon has completed the machinery 
on the wagon so far that I shall only have to count the 
number of miles, instead of the revolution of the wagon 
wheel. We started at 9:10, the first mile pretty soft, 
the rest tolerably hard and very good traveling. We 


have passed over vast beds of salt, or rather dust with 
a salt taste. It looks something like dirty flour. Trav- 
eled eight miles in four hours and two minutes, and 
stopped at 12:48 to feed, nearly opposite two small 
islands. The feed tolerably good. Our course north- 
west. Considerable strong wind from southeast cov- 
ering everything in the wagons with dust and sand. No 
timber on the bank of the river and but little on the 
islands. The hunters report that they have seen many 
dead buffalo between here and the bluff with the hides 
off and tongues taken out, a strong proof that Indians 
have been here very recently, as the flesh looks fresh 
and lately killed. The range of bluffs on each side the 
river extend much farther apart, and near the foot of 
the south range can be seen timber scattering along, 
which is an evidence that the south fork ranges in that 
direction, although some are sanguine that we have not 
yet arrived at the junction. 

At half past three we moved on again and trav- 
eled four miles, camped at a quarter to six near a bunch 
of small islands, and a kind of bayou projecting from 
the river. Our course this afternoon a little south of 
west, having come around a considerble bend in the 
river. The land good and good traveling. Wind 
Southeast. Several of the brethren caught a number 
of small fish in the bayou or lake. The feed here is 
rather scanty. Heavy clouds are rising in the west and 
northwest, and a fair prospect for some rain which is 
much needed. It is now certain that we are about four- 
teen and a half miles above the junction of the north 
and south forks of the Platte, and although we have 



to make a new road all the way, we find no obstacles so 
far. Brother Woodruff reports that he has been be- 
yond the bluffs north of the camp and saw upwards 
of 200 wickeups where the Indians have camped very 

He found a cured buffalo skin and some pieces of 
other skins also. The hunters killed a two year old 
buffalo and brought it to camp. Brother Orson Pratt 
reports that when we were five and a half miles back, 
we were in latitude 41 9' 44". 

THURSDAY, 13TH. This morning cold and cloudy, 
cold enough for overcoats and buffalo robes. The buf- 
falo which was killed yesterday was cut up and divided 
this morning amongst the companies of tens. Some 
feelings are manifest this morning between Brothers 
Thomas Tanner and Aaron Farr on account of the 
former taking the latter prisoner and putting him un- 
der a guard part of the night. Perhaps Aaron was a 
little out of order in conversing loud after the horn 
blew for prayers, but I think Brother Tanner's angry 
spirit more blameable. At 9:00 we moved onward 
nearly a -west course four miles and at 11:00 stopped 
to feed teams at a spot which is a little better than we 
generally have. The wind strong from north and north- 

At half past twelve we proceeded on again and 
traveled till four o'clock, distance six and three quarters 
miles. At this distance we arrived at a stream about 
six rods wide which appears to come from the north- 
east, the water in appearance like the Platte, the bottom 
of the river quick sand. Water in the middle about two 


feet deep ; at the sides quite shoal. It appears that 
travelers have never discovered this stream for it is not 
noticed in any works that we have seen. We crossed 
it without difficulty and camped on its banks. The 
weather cloudy and very cold, with a strong- north wind. 
Presidents Young and Kimball rode ahead as usual to 
look out the road. They report that the bluffs half a 
mile west come clear to the river and are considerably 
high. They found several ranges of them and finally 
found a valley running between some of the ranges 
through which we can pass by going about a mile 
around from our course. This stream according to 
measurement, twenty-five and one quarter miles above 
the junction of the two forks and 341 miles from Winter 
Quarters, by estimation. President Young named it 
the North Bluff Fork. A while before we arrived here 
four of the brethren went to chase a few buffalo which 
were lying down at the foot of the bluffs, but they did 
not get any. Presidents Young and Kimball saw a very 
large rattlesnake near the river. Brother Kimball says 
the largest he ever saw in his life. I saw a small green 
snake today, very pretty, the back light green and the 
belly a pale yellow. Presidents Young and Kimball suf- 
fered severely with cold while riding over the bluffs to 
look for a road. Had to use buffalo dung for cooking, 
there being no timber. 

FRIDAY, 14TH. The morning cloudy and very cold. 
In the west could occasionally be seen streaks of light- 
ning and distant thunder heard. At 8 :00 a. m. the dark 
clouds having approached nearer, it commenced raining 
pretty hard, accompanied by lightning and thunder. The 


President ordered the horses -got up just before the rain 
commenced; and after the storm ceased, we started on- 
ward at a quarter past ten. After traveling about a 
mile we passed among and around the high bluffs, our 
course lying nearly in a north direction for some time, 
then turning south and on again approaching the river, 
nearly southeast. When within about three quarters of 
a mile from the river, we stopped to feed at twenty 
minutes to two, having traveled six and a quarter miles. 
We have got on the level bottom again and are probably 
not more than three miles in a direct line from where 
\ve started this morning. Presidents Young and Kim- 
ball went forward to point out the route, which is very 
good to travel, although considerably uneven. Brother 
Higbee killed an antelope and wounded another which 
made its escape while he was loading his rifle. We 
have better feed here than we have had for some time. 
We had a little more rain just as we came to a halt. We 
have not had much wind this morning but it is now in- 
creasing from the north. It is somewhat warmer than 
this morning. The atmosphere cloudy and looks as if 
we might have more rain. The land between the two 
forks for about 25 miles is perfectly flat and very level 
without timber. 

The bluffs there rise suddenly, apparently in a line 
from fork to fork. There are many buffalo back in 
the valleys between the bluffs, and although there is no 
sign of the prarie having been burned, it is evident the 
buffalo have kept it eaten clean off, but have moved 
back and east, probably since the Indians have been hunt- 
ing them. Some of the brethren have discovered fresh 


tracks where the Indians have gone up this north stream, 
evidently very lately. But we are satisfied the Lord 
hears the prayers of his servants and sends them out of 
the way before we come up to them. At three o'clock 
we proceeded on our journey, keeping above the lower 
prairie, which appeared soft and swampy. Our road was 
very uneven. We went two and a half miles and at half 
past four stopped to learn the report of those gone ahead 
to look out the road. There is another high range of 
bluffs about half a mile west of us, extending to trie 
river. Elder Kimball went across the several ranges 
of bluffs to the west side, and hunted for a road in 
various directions, but there did not appear to 'be any 
possibility of finding a road between the bluffs, with- 
out going many miles around. President Young and he 
concluded it would be best to camp where the wagons 
are and in the morning cross right over the bluffs by 
doubling teams. Accordingly the encampment was 
formed about five-thirty, the train having traveled eight 
and three quarters miles today. Our course this after- 
noon nearly west, wind southeast. The feed for our 
teams grows much better, and on one of these high 
sandy bluffs I saw a large bed of flowers, not unlike the 
violet, and very rich. The sand on the bluffs iri some 
places looks like large drifts of snow, and in other places 
seems to have deep chasms as if wasted by heavy 
rains. The atmosphere is still cloudy but not so cold 
as it has been. The hunters have killed two buffalo, 
three antelope and one badger during the day, which 
will be very acceptable. It was dark when the hunters 
returned to gfive the information. The revenue cutter 


was sent after the meat which was reported to be a mile 
and a half distant. It was late when they returned. 
There was an alarm made by the guard in the night 
supposing the Indians were near. The camp were 
aroused to secure their horses, but we had no further 
trouble about them. 

I discovered that Brother Appleton Harmon is try- 
ing to have it understood that he invented the machin- 
ery to tell the distance we travel, which makes me think 
less of him than I formerly did. ' He is not the inventor 
of it by a long way, but he has made the machinery, 
after being told how to do it. What little souls work. 

SATURDAY, ISxn. This morning is very cloudy and 
very cold, more like a January morning than a May 
morning. The wind blows strong from the northeast. 
The brethren who killed the buffalo did not bring it 
to camp last night, but put it in the boat and left it till 
morning. About half past seven they brought it in and 
divided it to the captains of ten. At eight o'clock it com- 
menced raining again but abated a little before nine. At 
nine o'clock we commenced moving and after traveling 
three-quarters of a mile began to ascend the sandy 
bluffs. It commenced raining again and it looks like 
rain for all day. It is very cold, the wind continues 
strong. The road was much of a zig zag over the 
bluffs, but only about a mile before we descended to 
the bottom. We traveled a piece farther and at half 
past ten o'clock it was considered best to turn out the 
teams until it ceases raining, after traveling two and a 
quarter miles. We found it unnecessary to double teams 
while crossing the bluffs and we got over without dif- 


ficulty, much better than we had anticipated. About 
noon it again ceased raining and the signal was given 
to harness up teams. At half past twelve we proceeded 
and traveled till a quarter to three, distance four and a 
half miles, then formed the encampment in a circle 
about a quarter of a mile from the river. The road has 
been level but soft and wet, however not bad traveling. 
The bluffs are about half a mile to the north and sev- 
eral herds of buffalo grazing on them. Some of the 
hunters are gone to try and get some meat. The wind 
still keeps up, and is cold, damp and uncomfortable. 
The feed appears better here than we have had for some 
days, and the cattle soon fill themselves which is a com- 
fort and blessing to the camp. Some of the brethren 
have been lucky enough to pick up a few sticks and dead 
wood but our chief dependence for fuel is dry buffalo 
dung which abounds everywhere, but the rain has in- 
jured it some for burning. About two miles back we 
passed a place where the Indians have lately camped 
during their hunt. It is plain that whole families are 
amongst their number as the foot prints and moccasins 
of children have several times been seen. They evi- 
dently make use of the buffalo dung for fuel, and for 
seats, they dig up sods and lay them in a circle around 
their fire which is in the center. We have passed a 
number of these little temporary camping spots this 
afternoon. The reason why we did not travel farther 
was that Elder Kimball being gone ahead to look out 
the road, etc., he found as he came near the next bluffs 
that the feed is all eaten off by the numerous herds of 
buffalo and found also, that we shall have to travel 


over the bluffs and they appear wide and would be im- 
possible for the teams to get over them tonight, hence 
the necessity of stopping here where we have good feed. 
The soil on this prairie looks good and rich but there is 
no timber. In fact there is none in sight, except a 
small grove on the other side the river about two miles 
west of the camp. Late at night Porter Rockwell came 
in and reported that he killed a buffalo. The cutter was 
sent for it to bring it to camp. Our course this after- 
noon nearly west. 

SUNDAY, 16TH. Morning fine, but chilly and cold. 
Wind north. Eric Glines killed an antelope near the 
camp which was cut up and distributed. Soon after 
breakfast, President Young, Elders Kimball, Woodruff 
and Benson went on horseback to look out the best road 
over the bluffs. They returned at half past twelve and 
reported that we can pass through a valley between and 
around the bluffs, which will be about four miles across 
them. About 5 :00 p. m. several buffalo were seen mak- 
ing their way from the bluffs towards our horses, some 
of which were very near them. Brother Eric Glines 
started out with the intention of driving the buffalo 
away, and bringing the horses nearer camp. When he 
got near, the buffalo did not seem much disposed to 
move and he shot at one of them and wounded him. 
He moved a little farther and Brother Glines followed 
him and shot three times more at him. The buffalo then 
ran about forty rods, fell, and soon expired. I went to 
look at him. He is a large one, judged to weigh about 
700 pounds, and in pretty good order. I left the breth- 
ren skinning him and returned to camp where a meet- 


ing had been called at 5:00 p. m., and the brethren ad- 
dressed by Elders Richards, Markham, Rockwood and 
Kimball, chiefly on the subject of obeying counsel, and 
Elder Kimball remarked in regard to hunting on the 
Sabbath. He woud not do it even in case of necessity, 
but he did not feel disposed to find fault with the breth- 
ren. The laws and regulations for the camp of April 
18th were then read by Brother Bullock and the meet- 
ing dismissed. About noon today Brother Appleton 
Harmon completed the machinery on the wagon called 
a "roadometer" by adding a wheel to revolve once in 
ten miles, showing each mile and also each quarter mile 
we travel, and then casing the whole over so as to secure 
it from the weather. We are now prepared to tell ac- 
curately, the distance we travel from day to day which 
will supercede the idea of guessing, and be a satisfac- 
tion not only to this camp, but to all who hereafter travel 
this way. I have prepared another board to put up here 
on which the distance from Winter Quarters is marked 
at 356 3/4 miles. I have also written on it that the last 
seventy miles are measured, and we shall continue to 
measure and put up guide posts as often as circum- 
stances will permit through the journey. The whole 
machinery consists of a shaft about 18 inches long placed 
on gudgeons, one in the axle tree of the wagon, near 
which are six arms placed at equal distances around 
it, and in which a. cog works which is fastened on the 
hub of the wagon wheel, turning the shaft once round 
at every six revolutions of the wagon wheel. The up- 
per gudgeon plays in a piece of wood nailed to the 
wagon box, and near this gudgeon on the shaft a screw 


is cut. The shaft lays at an angle of about forty-five 
degrees. In this screw, a wheel of sixty cogs works on 
an axle fixed in the side of the wagon, and which makes 
one revolution each mile. In the shaft on which this 
wheel runs, four cogs are cut on the fore part which 
plays in another wheel of forty cogs which shows the 
miles and quarters to ten miles. The whole is cased 
over and occupies a space of about 18 inches long, 15 
inches high and 3 inches thick. 

After the meeting was dismissed, the cutter was 
sent to fetch the meat in, killed by Brother Glines. They 
soon returned and the meat was distributed as usual. 
Presidents Young and Kimball have walked out together 
towards the bluffs. After supper Elder Whipple made 
me a present of a half a candle made from buffalo tal- 
low, by the light of which I continue this journal. Al- 
though, as may be expected, the buffalo are generally 
poorer at this season of the year, yet Brother Whipple 
has obtained sufficient to make two candles from his 
portion of meat received yesterday morning. The candle 
burns very clear and pleasant. The tallow smells sweet 
and rich. I imagine it has a more pleasant smell than 
the tallow of domestic cattle. 

MONDAY, 17xH. The morning very cold and chilly, 
wind northwest. Dr. Richards left another letter on 
the camp ground for the benefit of the next company. 
The letter is secured from the weather by a wooden 
case, and placed so that the brethren can hardly miss 
finding it. 

We started on our journey at 8:13 a. m. After 
traveling a mile and a half, we arrived at the foot of 


another range of bluffs which extend to the river, and 
began to ascend about a quarter of a mile north from 
the river, the road also turning to the north. A quarter 
of a mile farther, we crossed a stream of spring water 
about three feet wide. The road for a little distance 
on both sides the stream is rough, sandy and crooked. 
We then turned westward, and passed over a number of 
bluffs as there was no chance to go around them with- 
out going miles out of our course. On these sandy 
bluffs, there are very many small lizards about four or 
five inches long from nose to the end of the tail, which 
is an inch and a half long. The body looks short and 
chunky and is of a light grey color with two rows of 
dark brown spots on each side of the body which make 
it appear striped. The head is shaped something like 
the head of a snake. They appear perfectly harmless 
and are pretty in appearance. After traveling two and a 
quarter miles beyond the last mentioned stream, we ar- 
rived at the west foot of the bluffs. The last part of 
the road very sandy and there are several very steep 
places of descent. However all the teams got safely 
over without difficulty. At the west foot of the bluffs, 
there appears more grass than anywhere we have yet 
been, although the buffalo have eaten it off consider- 
ably. Within a quarter of a mile from the bluffs, we 
crossed two small streams of spring water and at a mile 
from the foot of the bluffs, we crossed a stream of spring 
water about four feet wide with a very rapid current. 
The whole of this bottom seems full of springs and we 
have to keep near the bluffs to make a good road to 
travel, and in fact, we find it more or less soft and 


springy even close to the bluffs. A mile and a quarter 
west of the last mentioned spring is another small stream 
of very clear spring water. The others are rather muddy 
by running over sandy land. They all appear to have 
their rise in the bluffs a short distance from our road. 
At 11 :35 we stopped to feed having traveled this morn- 
ing, six and three quarters miles. Our course west, 
weather fine, warm, and little wind. While we were 
resting, one of President Young's horses (in care of 
Phineas) mired down in a soft slough. A number of 
men soon collected and with a rope dragged it out, 
washed and rubbed it, and all was well again. Latitude 
41 12' 50". 

At two o'clock, we proceeded onward. After trav- 
eling a half a mile, we arrived at a very shoal stream of 
clear water about thirty feet wide but not over three 
inches deep in the channel which is about three feet 
wide. We forded it very easily and then passed over 
a short range of low sandy bluffs about a quarter of 
a mile wide and then entered on level prairie again, 
but we found it very soft and springy. Within two and 
a half miles from the last mentioned stream we passed 
two others, one very small, the other about four feet 
wide. They both doubtless rise from springs at the foot 
of the bluffs. About ten minutes after three o'clock, 
word arrived that a buffalo was killed by the hunters 
about a mile from the road. Two men were sent to 
skin and dress it. About the same time the revnue cut- 
ter arrived with two more buffalo one said to have been 
killed by Luke Johnson and the other by John Brown, 
also an antelope killed by Amasa Lyman. The wagons 


halted at a quarter to four, took the meat out of the boat, 
which immediately returned to fetch the other buffalo 
which was killed by Porter Rockwell. The meat was 
cut in quarters and put into the wagons and at half past 
four o'clock we again moved onward and traveled till 
5 :50 p. m. and camped on a nice dry bottom prairie 
where the grass is shorter than that we have passed all 
day. We traveled this afternoon six miles and during 
the day twelve and three quarters, about a west course. 
We are some distance from water but several wells were 
soon dug and good water obtained at about four feet 
deep. Soon after we camped the boat came in with 
the other buffalo and the meat was all distributed equally 
around the camp, but it appears that some have already 
got more than they need and feel unwilling to take a 
good forequarter. The bluffs on the opposite side the 
river project to the river for some distance opposite this 
place. Latitude 41 13' 20". 

TUESDAY, 18TH. The morning fine and very pleas- 
ant. At seven o'clock the President called the captains 
of tens to his wagons and gave them a pretty severe lec- 
ture. He referred to some who had left meat on the 
ground and would not use it because it was not hind 
quarter. Some would rriurmur because a fore quarter 
of meat was alloted to them, etc., which is not right, 
for God has given us a commandment that we should 
not waste meat, nor take life unless it is needful, but 
he can see a disposition in this camp to slaughter every- 
thing before them, yea if all the buffalo and game there 
is on our route were brought together to the camp, there 
are some who would never cease until they had destroyed 


the whole. Some men will shoot as much as thirty times 
at a rabbit if they did not kill it, and are continually 
wasting their ammunition, but when they have used all 
they have got, they may have the pleasure of carrying 
their empty guns to the mountains and back, for he will 
not furnish them. We have now meat enough to last 
some time if we will take proper care of it. As to the 
horsemen, there are none with the exception of Broth- 
ers Kimball, Woodruff and Benson, that ever take the 
trouble to look out a good road for the wagons but all 
they seem to care about is to wait till their breakfast is 
cooked for them, and when they have eaten it, they 
mount their horses and scatter away, and if an antelope 
comes across the track, the whole of us must be stopped 
perhaps half an hour while they try to creep up near 
enough to kill it, but when we come to a bad place on 
the route, all the interest they have is to get across the 
best they can and leave myself and one or two others 
to pick out a crossing place and guide the camp all the 
time. Such things are not right, and he wants them to 
cease and all take an interest in the welfare of the camp, 
be united, and receive the meat as a blessing from 
God and not as a stink offering from the devil. It is not 
necessary to preach to the elders in this camp, they 
know what is right as well as he does, and he will not 
preach to them all the time. Let the captains do the 
best they know how and teach their men to do likewise. 
The meeting dispersed, the meat was taken care of and 
at a quarter past eight we started out again, and trav- 
eled three and a quarter miles nearly a west course over 
a very hard prairie and good traveling and then arrived 


at a nice stream, Rattlesnake creek, about twenty or 
twenty-five feet wide, a foot or 18 inches deep and a 
very strong current. This stream must take its rise some 
distance back in the bluffs or else is supplied from many 
strong springs, for there is much water comes down it. 
We traveled on from this near the bank of the river 
about a northwest course over tolerably rough land till 
11:10 and then stopped to feed having come six and a 
half miles this morning, the weather very hot. Oppo- 
site the stream last mentioned on the south side the river, 
are several pine groves, or rather cedar groves. There 
is some little pine wood, such as knots and dead branches 
that can be picked up on the banks of the river. It has 
floated from above. This, with a little buffalo chips, 
makes a good fire for cooking. Latitude noon 41 3' 
44". Rattlesnake creek was so named from the follow- 
ing incident : President Young, as he rode up to the 
banks of the creek discovered that his horse stepped 
within a foot of a very large rattlesnake. He turned 
his horse away without harming it. Soon afterward, one 
of the brethren came up on foot and stepped within two 
feet and a half of it. It immediately coiled up and 
sprang at him and would have struck him (as it sprang 
2 1/2 feet) had he not jumped to one side. He took his 
rifle and shot the snake dead. 

The head of Cedar Bluffs, as named by Fremont, 
is three miles west of where we camped last night. At 
1 :05 p. m. we continued our journey. Our route lay 
near the banks of the river which seems narrower here. 
After traveling three and a half miles, we crossed a 
stream about six feet wide, and three quarters of a mile 


farther another stream of tolerably deep, clear water 
about five feet wide. This stream is very crooked and 
seems to run from the bluffs to the river in a perfect 
serpentine or zig zag direction. Soon after starting this 
afternoon, we discovered some dog towns, the grass 
eaten perfectly bare all around. The feed is growing worse 
again, evidently eaten up by the buffalo. At noon, a heavy 
black cloud arose in the west and we had a little rain, ac- 
companied by lightning and distant thunder. After passing 
the last mentioned creek about a mile, we had to change 
our course to nearly northwest on account of a bend in 
the river. We traveled till 5 :30 and formed our en- 
campment on the west bank of a running stream about 
eight feet wide and one. foot deep which is five miles 
from the crooked creek, making our afternoon' travel 
nine and a quarter miles and the day's travel fifteen and 
three quarters. The bluffs and the river here are about 
a quarter of a mile apart, the river very wide, feed poor, 
plenty of float wood, pine and cedar, for fuel. The 
weather calm and warm, though cloudy. After encamp- 
ment was formed, went with Elder Orson Pratt to Dr. 
Richards' wagon to enter into arrangements for making 
a map of our route. The doctor wants me to do it, 
assisted by Elder Pratt's observations. He handed me 
Fremont's map, and I retired to my 'wagon to commence 
operations, but soon found that the map does not agree 
with my scale nor Elder Pratt's calculations. I then 
proposed to Elder Pratt to wait until we get through the 
journey and take all the necessary data and then make 
a new one instead of making our route on Fremont's. 
The subject is left here till morning. After supper I took 


my candle and finished this day's journal. At dark 
Colonel Markham called the camp together to tell the 
brethren their duty in regard to traveling, guarding 
teams, and standing guard at nights. The old laws of 
April 18th were talked over and additional by-laws 
added, but not being present I did not hear them, neither 
can I learn anything from those who were preset, for 
they all say that there were so many little matters 
touched upon, and so many resolutions passed that they 
remembered only one, and that is, when any man goes 
out of the sound of the horn to fetch in his team, and 
sees aother man's horse or mule or ox, a little beyond 
or near his, he shall drive it also to camp, and if he neg- 
lect to do so, he shall be sent back to do it even if it 
requires an escort to make him. About seven o'clock 
the wind shifted around to the north and blew strong 
and cold. 

WEDNESDAY, 19TH. It has rained a little most of 
the night and still looks gloomy, cloudy and like for a 
i?.iny day. Inasmuch as the feed is not good here, it 
was thought best to move on before breakfast a few 
miles and seek better feed. We started out at 5 :05, 
the second division having the right to lead, but a part 
of the first division being ready a little before all the 
second were ready, they rushed on their teams, drove 
fast and those of the second division behind had to leave 
the track and run their teams to take their places. We 
traveled two and three quarters miles, our course eleven 
and one forth degrees north of west, and then crossed 
a stream three feet wide, and one quarter of a mile 
farther crossed another four feet wide. Our route lay 


within about one quarter of a mile from the bluffs and 
a mile from the river which takes a bend south from 
where we camped last night and runs close to the bluffs 
On the south side. We then turned our course to a little 
west of northwest as the river bends again to the bluffs 
on this side, and traveled a quarter of a mile farther and 
halted for breakfast at 6:20, having traveled three and 
a quarter miles. The main body of the camp have 
stopped a quarter of a mile back, being three miles from 
where we started this morning. The road is mostly 
sandy, tall grass of last year's growth. The two streams 
we passed seem to form many ponds of clear water ex- 
tending at short distances from each other from the 
bluffs to the river. Elder Kimball has been ahead over 
the bluffs to look out the road. It continues to rain a 
little occasionally with light north wind. Elder Kim- 
ball found that the bluffs project entirely to the river and 
are very sandy, but we can cross them without going out 
of our course. At twenty minutes to nine, we proceeded 
onward a little and then waited till the rest of the wagons 
came up. At the distance of nearly a mile and a half, 
we crossed a stream about twenty feet wide, not very 
deep, neither very good to cross, and exactly at the dis- 
tance of a mile and a half, we arrived at the foot of the 
bluffs and began to ascend without doubling teams. 
Some of the teams stuck by, but by the assistance of the 
extra men, they all got up. The bluffs are very high, 
sandy and rough, and the sand cuts down considerably, 
making it heavy on teams. These bluffs are three quar- 
ters of a mile from the east foot to the west foot follow- 
ing our trail which is nearly straight. About 200 yards 



from the west foot of the bluffs, we crossed another 
stream five feet wide. It has rained heavily all the time 
sicce we started after breakfast and continues. Conse- 
quently at half past ten the camp formed into platoons 
and then halted to wait for more favorable weather, 
having traveled six miles today over the worst road we 
have had from Winter Quarters, rendered worse, doubt- 
less, by the heavy rains. About half past two the weather 
looked a little more favorable and orders were given to 
move on. We started at five minutes to three, about 
which time it again rained heavily. We traveled two 
miles and then formed our encampment in a semi-circle 
on the banks of the river, having traveled two miles and 
through the day, eight miles. The first mile this evening 
was over very soft prairie, the last hard and good. The 
rain still continues to pour down heavily and this has 
been the most uncomfortable day we have had and the 
hardest on our teams. The brethren, however, feel' well 
and cheerful. The ox teams are improving in their con- 
dition, but the horses do not stand it as well. The stream 
at the east foot of the last mentioned bluffs was named 
Wolf creek from the following circumstance : When 
Elder Kimball went ahead this morning to search out a 
road, he went up the creek about a mile and around over 
the bluffs to find, if possible, a better road than the one 
close to- the river. While he was searching, about a mile 
north from the river he went down into a deep hollow 
surrounded by high bluffs and as he was riding alone? 
at the bottom, he turned his head to the left and saw two 
very large wolves at about five rods distance gazing at 
him. One of them he said was nearly as large as a two 


year old steer. When he saw these he looked around on 
the other side and saw several others about the same dis- 
tance from him, very large ones, and all gazing fiercely 
at him. This startled him considerably, and more espe- 
cially when he reflected that he had no arms. He made 
a noise to try to scare them away but they still stood, and 
he concluded to move away as soon as he could. They 
did not follow him and he saw a dead carcass near, which 
satisfied him that he had interrupted their repast. On 
mentioning this circumstance to President Young, they 
named the creek "Wolf Creek." He traveled back and 
forth over ten miles searching out a road before break- 
fast. He also went out again afterwards and got badly 
wet. He then concluded to change his clothing and re- 
main in his wagon. The evening is very cool and cloudy 
with wind from the northeast. The rain had ceased about 
six o'clock, but it still looks stormy. 

THURSDAY, 20rH. The morning fair, but cloudy, 
light wind from northwest and cold. At 7 :45 we started 
out again but had not traveled over a quarter of a mile 
before the roadometer gave way on account of the rain 
yesterday having caused the wood to swell and stick fast. 
One of the cogs in the small wheel broke. We stopped 
about a half an hour and Appleton Harmon took it to 
pieces and put it up again without the small wheel. I 
had to count each mile after this. Three quarters of a 
mile from where we camped, we crossed a creek eight 
feet wide and two and a half feet deep. We then changed 
our course to about southwest a mile or so following the 
banks of the river, as the ground was wet and swampy 
nearer the bluffs. The river then winds around about 


three miles in a bend and then strikes a little north of 
west. The bluffs on the north appear to be about two 
miles from the river. We traveled till 11:15 and then 
halted to feed, having traveled seven and three quarters 
miles over tolerably good road, though at the commence- 
ment somewhat soft. On the opposite side the river, the 
bluffs project near its banks. They are rocky and al- 
most perpendicular, beautified for miles by groves of 
cedar. Opposite to where we are halted, we caVi see a 
ravine running up the bluffs and at the foot, a flat bot- 
tom of about fifteen acres. At the farther side of this 
bottom is a grove of trees not yet in leaf. Brother Brown 
thinks they are ash and that the place is what is called 
Ash Hollow and on Fremont's map, Ash Creek. We all 
felt anxious to ascertain the fact whether this is Ash 
Hollow or not, for if it is, the Oregon trail strikes the 
river at this place, and if it can be ascertained that such is 
the fact, we then have a better privilege of testing Fre- 
mont's distances to Laramie. We have already discov- 
ered that his map is not altogether correct in several re- 
spects, and particularly in showing the windings of the 
river and the distance of the bluffs from it. I suggested 
the propriety of some persons going over in the boat and 
Brother John Brown suggested it to President Young. 
The boat was soon hauled by the brethren to the river, 
and Orson Pratt, Amasa Lyman, Luke Johnson and John 
Brown started to row over, but the current was so ex- 
ceedingly strong the oars had no effect. John Brown 
then jumped into the river which was about two and a 
half feet deep and dragged the boat over, the others as- 
sisting with the oars. After some hard labor they ar- 


rived on the opposite shore and went to the hollow. They 
soon found the Oregon trail and ascertained that this is 
Ash Hollow, Brother Brown having traveled on that road 
to near Laramie last season with the Mississippi com- 
pany and knew the place perfectly well. They gathered 
some branches of wild cheery in full bloom, rambled over 
the place a little while and then returned to camp. About 
the same time the camp prepared to pursue their journey. 
The brethren arrived and made their report, and at 1 :45 
p. m. we proceeded onward. From the appearance of the 
bluffs ahead, our course this afternoon will be west and 
northwest. A light breeze from northwest. Soon after 
we started, one of the brethren killed a large rattlesnake 
within a rod of the road made by the wagons and on the 
side where the cows travel. He killed it to prevent its 
injuring the cows and threw it away from the road. In 
the river one and a quarter miles above Ash Hollow,, there 
are several small islands on which grow many trees of 
cedar. One of these islands is perfectly green over with 
cedar and looks beautiful. The bluffs also on the south 
side the river continue to be lined with cedar apparently 
for two miles yet and are very high and almost perpen- 
dicular, running pretty close to the river. On this side 
the river, the bluffs seem to bear farther to the north, 
being apparently about three miles from the river, and a 
few miles farther west they are as much as five miles 
from the river. After traveling three and a quarter miles 
from the noon stop, we crossed a tributary stream run- 
ning into the Platte, in a very crooked direction, being 
from four to eight rods wide and two and a half feet deep 
mo>t of the way across, the bottom quick sand, current 


rapid and water of sandy color like the Platte. Some 
had to double teams to get over, but all got over safely. 
We proceeded on about four miles farther and found that 
the river bends considerably to the noith. The bluifs also 
bend to the south, so that the low bluffs in front almost 
reach the banks only barely leaving room for a road. We 
went a little farther and camped for the night at half past 
five, having traveled this afternoon eight miles, making 
fifteen and three quarters miles during the day. Elder 
Kimball and several others went forward on horses to 
pick out our road as usual. I have seen several kinds of 
herbs growing today which appear new to me. One looks 
like penny royal, smells almost like it, but tastes hot and 
like the oil of cloves. Elder Kimball and others saw a 
very large wolf about half a mile west, and he appeared to 
be following them to camp. They turned and rode up to 
him and round him, struck their pistols at him, but they 
did not go off, being damp. He finally made his escape. 
The large stream we crossed this afternoon is named 
Castle Creek from the bluffs on the opposite side which 
much resemble the rock on which Lancaster Castle is 
built. The bluffs are named Castle Bluffs. We had a 
light shower this afternoon, but the evening is fine though 
very cool. 

FRIDAY, 21 ST. The morning very fine and pleasant 
though tolerably cold. I put up a guide board at this 
place with the following inscriptions on it: "From Winter 
Quarters 409 miles. From the junction of the North 
and South Forks, 93 1/4 miles. From Cedar Bluffs, 
south side the river, 36 1/2 miles. Ash Hollow, south 
side the river, 8 miles. Camp of Pioneers May 21, 1847. 


According to Fremont, this place is 132 miles from Lara- 
mie. N. B. The bluffs opposite are named Castle Bluffs." 
At 7:35 we continued our journey. We found the prai- 
rie tolerably wet, many ponds of water standing which 
must have been caused by a heavy fall of rain, much more 
heavy than we had back. However, it was not very bad 
traveling. We made a pretty straight road this morning 
at about the distance of a mile from the river. The bluffs 
on the north appear to be five miles or over from our 
road. At 11:15 we halted for dinner, having traveled 
nearly seven and three quarters miles, course north of 
northwest, very warm and no wind. Presidents Young 
and Kimball rode forward to pick the road, and near this 
place they saw a nest of wolves, caught and killed two 
with sticks. Four or five others escaped to their hole. 
At half past one we proceeded onward and found the 
prairie wet, and grass high of last year's growth. After 
traveling four and three quarters miles we arrived at a 
range of low bluffs projecting to the river, which at this 
place bends to the north. There is, however, bottom of 
about a rod wide between the bluffs and the river, but as 
it is wet and soft, it was preferred to cross over the bluffs 
by bending a little more to the north. We traveled on the 
bluffs a little over a quarter of a mile and then turned on 
the bottom again. The bluffs are low ami almost as level 
as the bottom. After we crossed the bluffs we found the 
road better. We saw about a mile this side of the foot 
of the bluffs, a very large bone almost petrified into stone. 
Most of the brethren believe it to be the shoulder bone of 
a mammoth, and is very large indeed. About this time 
a badger was brought to the wagons which Brother 


Woodruff had killed. As I was walking along and look- 
ing over the river, I heard a rattlesnake, and looking down 
saw that I had stepped within a foot of it. It rattled 
hard but seemed to make away. We threw it away from 
the track without killing it. At five o'clock Elder Kim- 
ball rode up and stopped the forward teams till the last 
ones got nearer saying that some Indians had come down 
from the bluffs to the brethren ahead. When the rest 
of the wagons came up we moved on a quarter of a mile 
farther and at half past five formed our encampment in a 
circle with the wagons close together as possible, hav- 
ing traveled seven and three quarters miles this afternoon, 
making fifteen and a half through the day. As the camp 
was forming the two Indians came nearer, being a man 
and his squaw. They represented by signs that they were 
Sioux and that a party of them are now on the bluffs 
north of us and not far distant. By the aid of glasses we 
could see several on the bluffs with their ponies, evidently 
watching our movements. This man was hunting when 
first seen and appeared afraid when he saw the brethren. 
The squaw fled for the bluffs as fast as her horse could 
go, but by signs made to them they gathered courage and 
came up. President Young gave orders not to bring them 
into camp, and they soon rode off to the bluffs. The 
man has got a good cloth coat on and appears well 
dressed. The horses they rode are said to be work horses 
which makes us suspect they have stolen them from trav- 
elers. The day has been very warm and some of the 
teams gave out. We can see some timber on the bluffs 
on the other side of the river some miles ahead which is 
the first timber we have seen for more than a week, ex- 


cept some small cedar and the timber in Ash Hollow, all 
on the south side the river. We are nearly a mile from 
water and the brethren have to dig wells to obtain a sup- 
ply for cooking. The feed here is very poor, not much 
but old grass. Our course this afternoon has been a little 
north of west. Lorenzo Young shot two very large ducks 
with one ball and brought them to camp. Elder Kimball 
proposed tonight that I should leave a number of pages 
for so much of his journal as I am behind in copying and 
start from the present and keep it up daily. He furnished 
me a candle and I wrote the journal of this day's travel 
by candle light in his journal, leaving fifty-six pages 
blank. The evening was very fine and pleasant. The 
latitude at noon halt 41 24' 5". 

SATURDAY, 22ND. Morning beautiful, no wind and 
warm. We have not been disturbed by the Indians ; all 
is peace in the camp. At eight o'clock we continued our 
journey, making a more crooked road than usual, having 
to bend south to near the banks of the river. The prairie 
somewhat soft and a little uneven. After traveling five 
and a half miles we crossed a very shoal creek about 
twenty feet wide. The bluffs and river about a mile apart, 
but on the other side, the bluffs recede two miles back 
from the river and have lost their craggy and steep ap- 
pearance, the ascent being gradual, while on this side they 
begin to be rocky, cragged and almost perpendicular 
though not very high. We traveled till half past eleven 
and then halted for noon, having traveled seven and a 
quarter miles, the road on this side the creek being bet- 
ter. Our course about west of northwest with a light 
breeze from the east. Elder Kimball and others ahead as 


usual. The creek above mentioned was named Crab 
Creek because some of the brethren saw a very large 
crab in it. A mile east of this creek is a dry creek, down 
which, from appearances, a heavy stream runs at some 
seasons of the year, perhaps during heavy storms. The 
water running from the bluffs swells it to a considerable 
height and it is certain there are tremendous storms here. 
A while after we halted, Porter Rockwell came in and 
said he had been on the high bluff about a mile north- 
west of us and had seen the rock called Chimney Rock 
which appeared a long distance off. We have been in 
hopes to come in sight of it today and feel anxious in 
order to ascertain more certainly the correctness of Fre- 
mont's distance. In order to satisfy myself, although my 
feet were blistered and very sore, I determined to take my 
telescope and go on the bluff to ascertain for myself 
whether the noted rock could be seen or not. At half 
past twelve I started out alone. I found the distance to 
the foot of the bluff a good mile, the ascent gradual. 
From the foot the bluff looks very high and rough, many 
huge rocks having broken from the summit from time to 
time and rolled down a long distance. I found the ascent 
very steep and lengthy in comparison to its appearance 
from camp. When I arrived on the top I found a nice 
slightly arched surface of about a quarter of an acre in 
extent, but barren and very little grass on it. Huge 
comparatively smooth rocks peeped through the surface 
on one of which I wrote with red chalk : " Wm. Clayton. 
May 22, 1847." On the highest point I sat down and took 
a view of the surrounding country which is magnificent 
indeed. On the south at the distance of two miles from 


the river, there is a range of cedar trees on the bluffs 
which very much resemble some of the parks and seats 
of gentry in England. East I could see where we camped 
last night, the high grass still burning. Northeast, 
north, and northwest, alternately, appeared high swell- 
ing bluffs and valleys as far as the eye could see or the 
glass magnify. West, the course of the Platte for ten or 
fifteen miles and at about four or five miles distance, a 
large bend to the north brings it in contact with the bluffs 
on this side. At the -distance, I should judge of about 
twenty miles, I could see Chimney Rock very plainly with 
the naked eye, which from here very much resembles the 
large factory chimneys in England, although I could not 
see the form of its base. The rock lay about due west 
from here. After gratifying my curiosity, and seeing 
the men collecting their teams for a march, I descended 
on the west side of the bluff. The descent at this point 
looks more alarming than on the other. The side being 
very steep and all along huge rocks standing so critically, 
that to all appearance, a waft of wind would precipitate 
them to the prairie below with tremendous force. In one 
place in particular, a ponderous mass of rock appears to 
hang from the edge of the bluff without any visible means 
of being retained in its position, and by gazing at it a little 
while, it is easy to imagine you can see it move and ready 
to overwhelm you instantly. At a little distance from the 
base of the bluff, I turned to gaze on the romantic scenery 
above and was struck at the appearance of a large rock 
projecting from one corner, which very much resembled a 
frog's head of immense size with its mouth part open. The 
thought was, those bluffs ought to be named and what 


name more appropriate than Frog's Head Bluffs. After 
this reflection, I walked on to where I thought the wag- 
ons would come which started out at half past one. After 
traveling three and a quarter miles we crossed a dry creek 
about six rods wide, and a quarter of a mile farther, an- 
other about five feet wide and a half a mile farther, still 
another about six rods wide on an average. These all 
appear to be the sources of heavy streams of water at 
some seasons of the year. Soon as we crossed this last 
one, I saw Elder Kimball wave his hat for the wagons to 
turn off to the north in order to cross the bluffs which 
struck the river a little farther. But a little to the west 
was a very high ridge and I concluded to walk on to it. 
Found it to be a perfect ridge of gravel, very high and 
rounding on the top, not more than four or five feet wide 
and from north to south about 150 feet long. Elder Pratt 
names this Cobble Hills, the gravel or cobbles varying in 
size of from fifty pounds in weight to the smallest pebble. 
At the north foot of this hill is what might be named a 
clay bank, being composed of a light colored kind of sandy 
clay and forms a kind of large table. A little distance 
farther, we crossed another dry creek about eight rods 
wide and then ascended the bluffs. The ascent is pretty 
steep for nearly half a mile, but hard and not difficult to 
travel. The wagon had to wind about some to keep 
around the foot of the bluffs, crossing the dry creek three 
times before we emerged from the bluffs to the banks of 
the river. We crossed another dry creek pretty steep on 
each side and then found ourselves once more on the 
prairie bottom. The bluffs are two and a quarter miles 
from 'the east to the west foot following our trail. The 


wind has blown from the southeast all day until lately, 
when a dead calm has succeeded. In the west a heavy 
thunder cloud has been gathering for two hours and vivid 
streaks of lightning observed in the distance. At twenty 
minutes to five the wind struck suddenly from the north- 
west, the blackest part of the cloud then lying in that di- 
rection. We had a few drops of rain only. Then it 
seemed to turn off to the east. The scenery after this was 
indeed sublime, the sun peering out from under the heavy 
clouds reflecting long rays upwards which were imitated 
in the east. The romantic bluffs on the north and the 
lightning playing in the southeast all tended to fill my 
mind with pleasant reflections, on the goodness and 
majesty of the Creator and Governor of the universe, 
and the beauty of the works of his hands. At 5:45 we 
formed our encampment in a circle within a quarter of 
a mile of the banks of the river, having traveled this 
afternoon, eight and a quarter miles and through the 
day fifteen and a half, making the distance from Winter 
Quarters 440 miles in five weeks and three and a half 
days. The feed on the lower bench of the prairie is tol- 
erably good, while the higher land is quite bare. We 
have noticed today a great many petrified bones, some 
very large. All are turned into solid, hard, stone, which 
proves that the atmosphere is pure and the country would 
doubtless be healthy, but is not adapted for farming pur- 
poses on account of the poor sandy soil and no timber 
at all on this side the river. I have noticed a variety of 
shrubs, plants and flowers all new to me today, many 
of which have a very pleasant smell and in some places 
the air appears impregnated with the rich odors arising 


from them. Among the rest are numerous beds of the 
southern wood. There are also vast beds of flinty peb- 
bles of various colors, some as white as alabaster. About 
6:30 I observed a group of brethren standing together 
inside the camp. I went up and saw a young eagle 
which had been taken out of its nest on one of these 
high bluffs by George R. Grant and Orson Whitney. 
Although it is very young and its feathers have scarcely 
commenced growing, it measures from the tips of its 
wings when stretched, forty-six inches. Its head is 
nearly the size of my fist and looks very ferocious. 
After this I went with John Pack and Horace Whitney 
to the bluffs. On our way we saw a large wolf about 
as large as the largest dog in camp. He was within a 
quarter of a mile from camp. After traveling about a 
mile we arrived at the foot of a stupendous mass of 
rocks almost perpendicular, with only one place where 
it was possible to ascend. We went up with difficulty 
and by using our hands and knees, gained the top. We 
had to walk over a little space which was only about 
three feet wide and on the east side a perpendicular fall 
of about sixty feet. Although from the camp this peak 
looks only large enough for a man to stand upon we 
found it large enough to seat comfortably about twenty 
persons. The top is composed of large rocks and very 
uneven. The prairie below looks a long distance under 
foot from this peak. Descending we viewed the sur- 
rounding scenery which looks more like the ruins of an 
ancient city with its castles, towers, fortifications, etc., 
on all sides, and a dry stream coming through the center. 
We proceeded to the next high rock and found it very 


difficult of ascent. The top is nearly level and very 
pleasant. We discovered several other varieties of shrub- 
bery, all smelling pleasant and strong. We saw that a 
horse has sometime stood on the top, but how he got 
there, we could not easily determine. At the east end 
there is a cedar tree flat on the top and on the undei- 
side almost looks like an umbrella. We made a calcula- 
tion of the height of this bluff as well as we could and 
concluded it must be at least 200 feet higher than the 
river. The surrounding country can be seen for many 
miles from its summit, ami Chimney Rock shows very 
plainly. We descended at the east end and arrived in 
camp at dark well satisfied with our journey. Some 
of the brethren have discovered a cave in one of these 
bluffs, and one went into it a little distance, but it being 
very dark and having no torch, he did not venture far. 
Elder Pratt reports that he saw on the top of one of the 
bluffs, a hole in a rock 15 inches in diameter and a foot 
deep with five inches of very cold good water in it. tie 
supposed it to be a spring. Between the bluffs they also 
discovered a spring of pure cold water of a very good 
taste. Dr. Richards names these bluffs "Bluff Ruins" 
from their appearance being that of the ruins of castles, 
cities, etc. A little to the left is a small perpendicular 
rock much resembling Chimney Rock but smaller. The 
whole of the scenery around is one of romantic beauty 
which cannot be described with either pen or tongue 
Last night a large black dog, half wolf, supposed to be- 
long to the Indians, came to the camp. He has kept 
within two hundred yards of the wagons all day, and 
has followed us to this place. There have been manv 


rattlesnakes seen today and six or seven killed. In fact, 
this place seems to abound with them. The evening was 
spent very joyfully by most of the brethren, it being very 
pleasant and moonlight. A number danced till the bugle 
sounded for bed time at nine o'clock. A mock trial was 
also prosecuted in the case of the camp vs. James Daven- 
pot for blockading the highway and turning ladies out 
of their course. Jackson Redding acted as the presid- 
ing judge. Elder Whipple attorney for defendant and 
Luke 'Johnson attorney for the people. We have many 
such trials in the camp which are amusing enough and 
tend among other things to pass away the time cheer- 
fully during leisure moments. It was remarked this 
evening that we have one man in camp who is entitled 
to the credit of being more even tempered than any of 
the others, and that is Father Chamberlain. He is in- 
variably cross and quarrelsome, but the brethren all take 
it as a joke and he makes considerable amusement for 
the camp. Opposite the encampment there are quite a 
number of small islands, but no timber on any of them. 
SUNDAY, 23RD. The morning very fine and pleas- 
ant. Brother Egan commenced washing very early on 
the banks of the river. He kindly volunteered to wash 
my dirty clothing which I accepted as a favor. After 
breakfast President Young, Elders Kimball, Richards, 
Pratt, Woodruff, Smith and Benson and Lyman walked 
out to view Bluff Ruins and returned at half past eleven. 
A while ago I went out a little distance to view an 
adder which George Billings had discovered. It was a 
dark brown color about 18 inches long and three quarters 
of an inch thick through the body. They are represented 


as very poisonous. About eleven o'clock Nathaniel 
Fairbanks came into camp having been bitten in the leg 
by a rattlesnake. He went on the bluffs with Aaron 
Farr and Brother Rolf and as they jumped off from the 
bluff, the snake bit him, the others having jumped over 
him farther. He said that in two minutes after he was 
bitten his tongue began to prick and feel numb. When 
he got to camp his tongue and hands pricked and felt 
numb as a person feels their feet sometimes when they 
are said to be asleep. The brethren immediately applied 
some tobacco juice and leaves, also turpentine, and bound 
tobacco on his leg which was considerably swollen. We 
laid hands on him and Luke Johnson administered a 
dose of lobelia in number six after he had taken a strong 
drink of alcohol and water. The lobelia soon vomitted 
him powerfully. He complains much of sickness at his 
stomach and dimness in his eyes. He appears to be in 
much pain. While the brethren of the quorum of the 
twelve were on one of the high detached bluffs they 
found the skeleton of a buffalo's head. Brother Wood- 
ruff wrote the names of all the quorum of the twelve 
present and set it upon the southwest corner of the bluff. 
John Brown also wrote his name on it. Elder Pratt 
took the altitude of the bluff and found it to be 235 
feet above the surface of the river. He did not cal- 
culate the height above the sea, owing to the state of 
the atmosphere. He, however, predicted wind from the 
same cause. At twelve o'clock the camp was called to- 
gether for meeting, and after singing and praying we 
were addressed by Elder Snow, followed by President 
Young. The latter said there were many items of doc- 


trine which he often felt like teaching to the brethren, 
but as to administering sealing ordinances, etc., this is 
no time or place for them, they belong to the house of 
God and when we get located we shall have an opportun- 
ity to build a house, etc. He expressed himself satis- 
fied with the conduct of the camp in general. He is 
pleased to see so much union and disposition to obey 
council among the brethren and hoped and prayed that 
it may continue and increase. He wants the brethren 
to seek after knowledge and be faithful to acknowledge 
God in all things but never take his name in vain nor 
use profane language. If all the knowledge in this camp 
were put together and brother Joseph were here in our 
midst, he could comprehend the whole of it and wind it 
around his little finger. And then think of the knowledge 
of angels, and above that, the knowledge of the Lord. 
There is much for us to learn and a faithful man who 
desires eternal glory will seek after knowledge all the 
time and his ideas never suffered to rust but are always 
bright. He will not throw away the knowledge of small 
things because they are familiar, but grasp all he can and 
keep doing so and by retaining many small things he 
will thus gain a large pile, etc. He expressed his feel- 
ings warmly towards all the brethren and prayed them 
to be faithful, diligent and upright, for we are now 
sowing seed, the fruit of which will be plucked in after 
days whether good or bad. G. A. Smith made a few 
remarks, also several others of the brethren. The presi- 
dent then stated that on Sunday next he wants the breth- 
ren to understand that there will be meeting at eleven 
o'clock and the sacrament administered, and he wants 


the brethren to attend, all that can, and not ramble off 
and fatigue themselves but use the Sabbath as a day 
of rest. He .enjoined it upon Bishops T. Lewis, S. 
Roundy, J. S. Higbee and A. Everett to see that the 
proper necessities were prepared for the sacrament. The 
meeting was then dismissed. A while after meeting I 
walked out with Elder Kimball a piece from the camp. 
We sat down and I read to him, my journal of the last 
four days with which he seemed well pleased. We then 
knelt down together and poured out our souls to God 
for ourselves, the camp and our dear families in Winter 
Quarters. While we were engaged in prayer the wind 
rose suddenly from the northwest, a heavy cloud having 
been gathering from the west all the afternoon. A sud- 
den gust struck Elder Kimball's hat and carried it off. 
After we got through, his hat was nowhere in sight, but 
following the direction of the wind we soon saw it at 
a distance on the bottom of the prairie still flying swiftly. 
We both ran and chased it about three quarters of a 
mile and caught it a little from the river. While we were 
out together I remarked that the buffalo gnat had bitten 
us very severely. Elder Kimball said they bit him very 
badly last evening. Their bite is very poisonous, and 
although they are extremely small, they punish a person 
very much with an itching, aching pain like a mosquitoe 
bite. About five o'clock the wind blew a perfect gale 
and continued till seven when it commenced to rain very 
heavily, large drops descending, accompanied with hail, 
which however, did not continue very long but the wind 
continued nearly all night. The lightning and thunder 
continued some time but not very severe. We saw the 


necessity of having good stout bows to our wagons, and 
the covers well fastened down, for the very stoutest 
seemed in danger of being torn to pieces and the wagons 
blown over. When the wind commenced blowing so 
strongly it turned very cold and long before dark I went 
to bed to keep warm. Brother Fairbanks seems consider- 
ably better. This evening President Young, Kimball and 
Benson laid hands on him and he seemed much better 

MONDAY, 24TH. The morning very cold indeed, 
strong wind from northwest. At 8 :25 we continued our 
journey and traveled over level prairie ten miles, then 
halted to feed at 12:45. The bluffs on the north about 
two miles from us and the river one mile. About noon 
the weather began to moderate and grow warmer. While 
we were resting two Indians came to camp, their ob- 
ject evidently being to get the dog which has followed 
us to this place. They tarried a little while and then 
went away taking the dog with them. At 3 :00 p. m, we 
again proceeded and traveled till 6:00 p. m., distance six 
and a half miles, during the day 16 1/2. Several of the 
horse teams gave out and they are evidently failing but 
the oxen are gaining daily. The mules stand the journey 
well and in fact, all the teams considering the scarcity of 
grass. About 5 :30 we discovered a party of Indians on 
the opposite side the river moving west. When we 
formed our encampment they crossed over the river. 
Some of the brethren went to meet them carrying a white 
flag with them. When the Indians saw the flag, some 
of them began to sing, and their chief held up a U. S. 
flag. It was soon ascertained that their object was to 
obtain something to eat. A number of them came to the 


camp and were conducted around by Colonels Mark- 
ham and Rockwood. They were shown a six and fifteen 
shooter also the cannon and the gunners went through 
the evolutions a number of times which seemed to please 
them much. They are all well dressed and very noble 
looking, some having good clean blankets, others nice 
robes artfully ornamented with beads and paintings. All 
had many ornaments on their clothing and ears, some 
had nice painted shells suspended from the ear. All ap- 
peared to be well armed with muskets. Their moccasins 
were indeed clean and beautiful. One had a pair of moc- 
casins of a clear white, ornamented with beads, etc. 
They fit very tight to the foot. For cleanness and neat- 
ness, they will vie with the most tasteful whites. They 
are thirty-five in number, about half squaws and chil- 
dren. They are Sioux and have two recommends certi- 
fying as to their friendship, etc. The brethren contri- 
buted something to eat which was sent to them. Our 
course today has been nearly west, with a cool wind. The 
evening fine but cold enough to freeze clothing stiff 
when laid on the grass to dry. Elder Kimball has 
been quite unwell all day and mostly kept to his wagon. 
Opposite the camp on the south side the river is a very 
large rock very much resembling- a castle of four stories 
high, but in a state of ruin. A little to the east a rock 
stands which looks like a fragment of a very thick wall. 
A few miles to the west Chimney Rock appears in full 
view. The scenery around is pleasant and romantic. 
After the Indians had viewed the camp, they returned to 
their horses and the rest of the party who have camped 
on the banks of the river about a quarter of a mile west 


of us. Elder Sherwood returned with them and soon 
after came back accompanied by the chief and his squaw 
who signified a wish to abide with our camp tonight. The 
brethren fixed up a tent for them to sleep under; Porter 
Rockwell made them some coffee, and they were fur- 
nished with some victuals. The old chief amused him- 
self very much by looking at the moon through a tele- 
scope for as much as twenty minutes. Brother Fair- 
banks is much better this evening. Last night Luke 
Johnson discovered a very large petrified bone in the 
neighborhood of the bluffs as much as two feet wide, but 
he could not ascertain the length of it. After laboring 
sometime ineffectually to dig it up, he broke off two 
pieces and brought them to camp. They are very white 
and hard. It is now eleven o'clock. I have been writing 
in Elder Kimball's journal since dark, and have but little 
chance to write as much as I want in my own and his 
both, but I feel determined to do all I can to keep a 
journal of this expedition which will be interesting to 
my children in after days, and perhaps to many of the 
Saints. The evening is very fine but cool and I retire 
to rest with the feeling: "God bless my dear family." 

TUESDAY, 25xn. The morning fine and very pleas- 
ant. Most of the Indians, men, women and children 
came early to camp on their ponies and marched around 
mostly trying to obtain something to eat. Several little 
barters were made with them for moccasins, skins, etc. 
John S. Higbee traded ponies with one of them. They 
have some good ponies and some inferior ones, but both 
male and females are neatly dressed and very tidy. They 
look cheerful and pleased to witness the camp, etc. At 


8:20 we proceeded onward. After we started, the In- 
dians left us and went over the river. One mile from 
where we started, we began to ascend a low range of 
bluffs to avoid a large, high sa;ndy ridge which projects 
to the river. We traveled three quarters of a mile and 
descended again to the level prairie. At 9 :40 we halted 
to let the cattle and teams graze, the feed being good 
and plentiful, having traveled two and a half miles, 
mostly northwest around a bend of the river. The sun 
is very hot, the roads sandy and hard teaming. The 
river is probably three quarters of a mile wide here and 
on this side there are many small islands. At 11 :15 con- 
tinued our journey and traveled till half past one, dis- 
tance four and three quarters miles over a very soft, 
wet, level prairie. We then halted to feed and rest our 
teams, as they have been hard drawn nearly all day. 
We have seen no game for several days except a few 
antelope and hares. The buffalo appear to have left this 
region and in fact there are little signs of many having 
been here. The feed is poor, mostly last year's growth 
and very short. One of the hunters killed an antelope, 
which was brought to camp and divided to the captains 
of tens. At 3 :00 p. m. we started again and traveled 
till a quarter to six, distance four and three quarters 
miles, and during the day twelve miles. For three miles 
bf the first of this afternoon we had a good road, but 
the last part has been very wet and soft, numerous ponds 
of water standing all around caused by heavy rains. We 
have camped on a very wet spot, but the feed being poor 
where it was drier, it was decided to stay for the bene- 
fit of the teams. Our course has been about northwest. 


very little wind and the day very warm. Chimney Rock 
shows very plain and appears not more than two miles 
distance but is no doubt five miles distance or over. An- 
other antelope has been killed and brought in by the 
hunters. Elder Orson Pratt is taking an observation to 
ascertain the height of Chimney Rock. The evening was 
very pleasant and the brethren passed away their time 
till after nine o'clock dancing. Porter Rockwell shot 
the two antelope spoken of above. He also shot two 
wolves. Latitude six and a quarter miles back, 41 41' 

WEDNESDAY, 26xH. The morning very fine and 
pleasant. I have spent the morning working on Dr. 
Richards' map. At eight o'clock continued on our jour- 
ney. Elder Pratt taking observations to tell the distance 
our road lies from Chimney Rock. Yesterday morning 
Stephen Markham traded a mule which was foundered 
and unable to work to one of the Indians for a pony. 
They put him in the harness a little towards evening and 
again this morning. When crossing a very soft place 
the whipple tree unhitched and struck against his heels. 
He ran full gallop towards the head teams and twice 
through the line of wagons causing several teams, horses 
and oxen both, to spring from the road and run some 
distance before the men could stop them. After running 
nearly a mile some of the brethren caught the pony 
brought him back and put him to the wagon again with- 
out any accident, except a little injury to the harness. 
After traveling four and five-eights miles, we arrived at 
a point directly north of Chimney Rock which we as- 
certained by the compass, having traveled since it was 


first discovered 41 1/2 miles. We proceeded till twelve 
o'clock and halted to feed-, having traveled seven and a 
quarter miles, a northwest course, the road very straight 
and hard excepting a few spots where the water stands 
caused by late heavy rains. We turned south a little to 
get to grass as the higher prairie is barren, and scarcely 
any grass on it. Porter Rockwell has killed two antelope 
and John Brown one which were brought into camp and 
are being divided amongst the companies as usual. El- 
der Pratt found that Chimney Rock is 260 feet high from 
its base to its summit and the distance from our road at 
the nearest point three miles. The latitude at noon halt 
41 45' 58". At 2:25 resumed our journey making our 
road nearer the river than this morning. The road some- 
what crooked but good traveling. After traveling five 
miles, turned directly south to avoid a bad slough and 
went a quarter of a mile and then formed our encamp- 
ment at five o'clock on the banks of the river. The last 
quarter of a mile was not reckoned in the day's travel 
which exclusive of that is 12 1/4 miles, course north of 
northwest. The feed here is good and sufficient to fill 
our teams well. Joseph Hancock killed an antelope which 
was brought into camp and distributed. Soon after we 
camped, walked out to the bank of the river with Presi- 
dents Young and Kimbdll to read to them some of the 
minutes of the old council. We were joined by Dr. Rich- 
ards and tarried till seven o'clock, at which time a heavy 
black cloud was fast approaching from the west and was 
soon followed by a strong wind and a little rain which 
lasted only a short time. The evening afterwards warm 
and pleasant though somewhat cloudy. Carloss Murray 


has been trying to rear the young eagle caught on Sat- 
urday. After stopping tonight, he put it under a wagon 
and a while afterwards the men ran the wagon back, 
one of the wheels ran over its head and killed it. I 
wrote in Heber's journal till half past ten and then went 
to rest. 

THURSDAY, 2?TH. The morning very fine. We have 
seen a number of romantic spots on our journey, but 1 
consider our view this morning more sublime than any 
other. Chimney Rock lies southeast, opposite detached 
bluffs of various shapes and sizes. To the southwest. 
Scott's Bluffs look majestic and sublime. The prairie 
over which our route lies is very level and green as far 
as we can see. The bluffs on the north low, and about 
three miles -distant. The scenery is truly delightful be- 
yond imagination. I have finished making Dr. Richards' 
map to Chimney Rock. Elder Pratt has measured the 
width of the river at this place by the sextant and found 
it to be exactly 792 yards. At ten minutes to eight we 
continued our journey and traveled near the banks of the 
river till 11 :45, being eight miles. The route very good, 
hard and good traveling, although a little crooked. Porter 
Rockwell has killed two antelope and Amasa Lyman on?, 
which were brought to the wagons and distributed. There 
are some heavy thunder clouds in the south and west and 
a nice breeze from northeast. At two o'clock we con- 
tinued our journey over the same kind of dry level prai- 
rie, keeping not far distant from the banks of the river 
and making a straight road. At the distance of four and 
an eighth miles passed the meridian of the northernmost 
peak of Scott's Bluffs being 19 3/4 miles from the meri- 


dian of Chimney Rock. These bluffs are very high, 
steep, and broken like many others, resembling ancient 
ruins. They are probably two miles from north to south 
extremity, but not very wide. We traveled till 4:45 and 
formed our encampment in a circle near the banks of the 
river which from this place seems to bend for some dis- 
tance to the north, having traveled this afternoon five 
and three quarters miles and during the day thirteen and 
three quarters, mostly northwest. Elders Kimball and 
Woodruff pointed out the road this forenoon. Afternoon 
Elder Kimball rode with me in Johnson's wagon while I 
read some of his journal to him. The evening is very 
cold, wind northeast, and raining some. Feed is good and 
the camp generally well. Another antelope was brought 
in by the hunters. The latitude of the northernmost peak 
of Scott's Bluffs 41 50' 52". 

FRIDAY, 28xH. The morning cool, damp, cloudy and 
some rain. Wind northeast. At about eight o'clock 
the brethren were called together and the question asked : 
shall we go on in the rain or wait until it is fair? All 
agreed to stay until it was fair. I went to writing in 
Heber's journal and wrote till nearly eleven o'clock. El- 
der Kimball came to the next wagon where some of the 
boys were playing cards. He told them his views and 
disapprobation of their spending time gaming and danc- 
ing and mock trying, etc., and especially the profane lan- 
guage frequently uttered by some. He reasoned with 
them on the subject and showed them that it would lead 
from bad to worse if persisted in until the consequences 
would become serious. He exhorted them to be more 
sober and wise. It growing fair, we started out at eleven 


o'clock, our first four* miles being north of northwest in 

consequence 'of a'bfend in the river. We traveled beside a 
creek of very clear water about a mile. It rises about 
four miles northwest of where we camped last night and 
runs in a crooked direction till it empties into the river 
about a mile west of the camp. It rises from springs as 
was proved by Horace Whitney who traced it to its 
source where there is a spring rising out of a circular 
kind of wet swamp about six feet in diameter. The creek 
is about eight feet wide but not deep, the bottom is grav- 
elly. Near where it empties into the river, they discov- 
ered a number of large spotted trout, suckers and dais of 
a good size. The water tasted very good and cold. At 
the distance of four miles we arrived and traveled at 
the foot of the bluffs, the road sandy and heavy on 
teams. We soon turned from the bluffs on a level bar- 
ren prairie, hard and good traveling. At nine miles 
descended on a lower bench of prairie where we found it 
wet and soft though not bad rolling. At 4:45 formed 
our encampment near the river, having traveled eleven 
and a half miles, the last seven a little south of west. 
The feed here is not very good. Driftwood tolerably 
plentiful. We have seen a few small trees on the islands 
today but none on the north bank. Vast quantities of 
southern wood and prickley pear grow on these sandy 
prairies where there is no grass. The evening cloudy an-1 
dull with cold northeast wind. While Thomas Brown 
and Porter Rockwell were out hunting about five miles 
north of here, the former saw five or six Indians about 
a quarter of a mile from him. They also saw many new 


footprints of horses, which shows that there is a hunting 
party near. 

SATURDAY, 29rn. The morning cold, wet and 
cloudy with wind from northeast. We shall not travel 
unless it grows fair and better weather. I spent the morn- 
ing writing in Elder Kimball's journal, but felt very 
unwell having taken cold yesterday and been sick all 
night. About ten o'clock, the weather looked a little 
better and at half past ten the bugle sounded as a signal 
for the teams to be got together. After the teams were 
harnessed, the brethren were called together to the boat 
in the circle. President Young taking his station in the 
boat, ordered each captain of ten to lead out his re- 
spective company and get all his men together. He 
then called on the clerk to call over the names of the 
camp to see if all were present. Joseph Hancock and 
Andrew Gibbons were reported to be absent hunting. 
Brothers Elijah Newman and Nathaniel Fairbanks were 
confined to their wagons but answered to their names, 
the remainder all present. President Young then ad- 
dressed the meeting in substance as follows: 

"I remarked last Sunday that I had not felt much 
like preaching to the brethren on this mission. This 
morning I feel like preaching a little, and shall take for 
my text, 'That as to pursuing our journey with this com- 
pany with the spirit they possess, I am about to revolt 
against it.' This is the text I feel like preaching on this 
morning, consequently I am in no hurry. In the first 
place, before we left Winter Quarters, it was told to the 
brethren and many knew it by experience, that we had to 
leave our homes, our houses, our land and our all because 
we believed in the Gospel as revealed to the Saints in 


these last days. The rise of the persecutions against the 
Church was in consequence of the doctrines of eternal 
truth taught by Joseph. Many knew this by experience. 
Some lost their husbands, some lost their wives, and some 
their children through persecution, and yet we have not 
been disposed to forsake the truth and turn and mingle 
with the gentiles, except a few who have turned aside 
and gone away from us, and we have learned in a meas- 
ure, the difference between a professor of religion and a 
possessor of religion. Before we left Winter Quarters it 
was told to the brethren that we were going to look out a 
home for the Saints where they would be free from per- 
secution by the gentiles, where we could dwell in peace 
and serve God according to the Holy Priesthood, where 
we could build up the kingdom so that the nations would 
begin to flock to our standard. I have said many things 
to the brethren about the strictness of their walk and con- 
duct when we left the gentiles, and told them that we 
would have to walk upright or the law would be put in 
force, etc. Many have left and turned aside through 
fear, but no good upright, honest man will fear. The 
Gospel does not bind a good man down and deprive him 
of his rights and privileges. It does not prevent him 
from enjoying the fruits of his labors. It does not rob 
him of blessings. It does not stop his increase. It does 
not diminish his kingdom, but it is calculated to enlarge 
his kingdom as well as to enlarge his heart. It is cal- 
culated to give him privileges and power, and honor, and 
exaltation and everything which his heart can desire in 
righteousness all the days of his life, and then, when he 
gets exalted into the eternal world he can still turn 


around and say it hath not entered into the heart of man 
to conceive the glory and honor and blessings which God 
hath in store for those that love and serve Him. I want 
the brethren to understand and comprehend the principles 
of eternal life, and to watch the spirit, be wide awake and 
not be overcome by the adversary. You can see the fruits 
of the spirit, but you cannot see the spirit itself with the 
natural eye, you behold it not. You can see the result of 
yielding to the evil spirit and what it will lead you to, 
but you do not see the spirit itself nor its operations, only 
by the spirit that's in you. No-body has told me what has 
been going on in the camp, but I have known it all the 
while. I have been watching its movements, its influ- 
ence, its effects, and I know the result if it is not put a 
stop to. I want you to understand that inasmuch as we 
are beyond the power of the gentiles where the devil has 
tabernacles in the priests and the people, we are beyond 
their reach, we are beyond their power. We are beyond 
their grasp, and what has the devil now to work upon? 
I'pon the spirits of men in this camp, and if you do not 
open your hearts so that the Spirit of God can enter your 
hearts and teach you the right wiay, I know that you are a 
ruined people and will be destroyed and that without 
remedy, and unless there is a change and a different 
course of conduct, a different spirit to what is now in 
this camp, I go no farther. I am in no hurry. Give me 
the man of prayers, give me the man of faith, give me 
the man of meditation, a sober-minded man, and I would 
far rather go amongst the savages with six or eight such 
men than to trust myself with the whole of this camp 
with the spirit they now possess. Here is an opportunity 


for every man to prove himself, to know whether he will 
pray and remember his God' without being asked to do it 
every day; to know whether he will have confidence 
enough to ask of God that he may receive without my 
telling him to do it. If this camp was composed of men 
who had newly received the Gospel, men who had not re-- 
received the priesthood, men who had not been through 
the ordinances in the temple and who had not had years 
of experience, enough to have, learned the influence of 
the spirits and the difference between a good and an evil 
spirit, I should feel like preaching to them and watching 
over them and telling them all the time, day by day. 
But here are the Elders of Israel, men who have had 
years of experience, men who have had the priesthood 
for years, and have they got faith enough to rise up and 
stop a mean, low, groveling, covetous, quarrelsome spirit ? 
No, they have not, nor would they try to stop it, unless I 
rise up in the power of God and put it down. I do not 
mean to bow down to the spirit that is in this camp, and 
which is rankling in the bosoms of the brethren, and 
which will lead to knock downs and perhaps to the use of 
the knife to cut each other's throats if it is not put a stop 
to. I do not mean to bow down to the spirit which causes 
the brethren to quarrel. When I wake up in the morn- 
ing, the first thing I hear is some of the brethren jawing 
each other and quarreling because a horse has got loose 
in the night. I have let the brethren dance and fiddle and 
act the nigger night after night to see what they will do, 
and what extremes they would go to, if suffered to go 
as far as they would. I do not love to see it. The breth- 
ren say they want a little exercise to pass away time 


in the evenings, but if you can't tire yourselves bad 
enough with a day's journey without, dancing every night, 
carry your guns on your shoulders and walk, carry your 
wood to camp instead of lounging and lying asleep in 
your wagons, increasing the load until your teams are 
tired to death and ready to drop to the earth. Help 
your teams over mud holes and bad places instead of 
lounging in your wagons and that will give you exercise 
enough without dancing. Well, they will play cards, 
they will play checkers, they will play dominoes, and if 
they had the privilege and were where they could get 
whiskey, they would be drunk half their time, and in one 
week they would quarrel, get ito high words and draw 
their knives to kill each other. This is what such a 
course of things would lead to. Don't you know it? Yes. 
Well, then, why don't you try to put it down? I have 
played cards once in my life since I became a Mormon to 
see what kind of spirit would attend it, and I was so 
well satisfied, that I would rather see in your hands the 
dirtiest thing you could find on the earth, than a pack 
of cards. You never read of gambling, playing cards, 
checkers, dominoes, etc., in the scriptures, but you do 
read of men praising the Lord in the dance, but who ever 
read of praising the Lord in a game at cards? If any 
man had sense enough to play a game at cards, or dance a 
little without wanting to keep it up all the time, but exer- 
cise a little and then quit it and think no more of it, it 
would do well enough, but you want to keep it up till 
midnight and every night, and all the time. You don't 
know how to control your senses. Last winter when we 
had our seasons of recreation in the council house, I went 



forth in the dance frequently, but did my mind run on 
it ? No ! To be sure, when I was dancing, my mind was 
on the dance, but the moment I stopped in the middle or 
the end of a tune, my mind was engaged in prayer and 
praise to my Heavenly Father and whatever I engage in, 
my mind is on it while engaged in it, but the moment I 
am done with it, my mind is drawn up to my God. The 
devils wliich inhabit the gentiles' priests are here. The 
tabernacles are not here, we are out of their power, we 
are 'beyond their grasp, we are beyond the reach of their 
persecutions, but the devils are here, and the first thing 
you'll know if you don't open your eyes and your 
hearts, they will cause divisions in our camp and perhaps 
war, as they did with the Lamanites as you read in the 
Book of Mormon. Do we suppose that we are going to 
look out a home for the Saints, a resting place, a place of 
peace where ithey can build up the kindgom and bid the 
nations welcome, with a low, mean, dirty, trifling, cove- 
tous, wicked spirit dwelling in our bosoms ? It is vain ! 
vain! Some' of you are very fond of passing jokes, and 
will carry your jokes very far. But will you take a joke? 
If you do not want to take a joke, don't give a joke to 
your brethren. Joking, nonsense, profane language, trifl- 
ing conversation and loud laughter do not belong to us. 
Suppose the angels were witnessing the hoe down the 
other evening, and listening to the haw haws the other 
evening, would they not be ashamed of it ? I am ashamed 
of it. I have not given a joke to any man on this journey 
nor felt like it ; neither have I insulted any man's feelings 
but I have hollowed pretty loud and spoken sharply to the 
brethren when I have seen their awkwardness at coming 


to camp. The revelations in the Bible, in the Book of 
Mormon, and Doctrine and Covenants, teach us to be 
sober ; and let me ask you elders that have been through 
the ordinances in the temple, what were your covenants 
there ? I say you should remember them. When I laugh 
I see my folly and nothingness and weakness and am 
ashamed of myself. I think meaner and worse of myself 
than any man can think of me ; but I delight in God, and 
in His commandments and delight to meditate on Him 
and to serve Him and I mean that everything in me shall 
be subjected to Him. Now let every man repent of his 
weakness, of his follies, of his meanness, and every kind 
of wickedness, and stop your swearing and profane lan- 
guage, for it is in this camp and I know it, and have 
known it. I have said nothing about it, but I now tell 
you, if you don't stop it you shall be cursed by the Al- 
mighty and shall dwindle away and be damned. Such 
things shall not be suffered in this camp. You shall honor 
God, and confess His name or else you shall suffer the 
penalty. Most of this camp belong to the Church, nearly 
all ; and I would say to you brethren, and to the Elders 
of Israel, if you are faithful, you will yet be sent to preach 
this Gospel to the nations of the earth and bid all wel- 
come whether they believe the Gospel or not, and this 
kingdom will reign over many who do not belong to the 
Church, over thousands who do not believe in the Gospel. 
Bye and bye every knee shall bow and every tongue con- 
fess and acknowledge and reverence and honor the name 
of God and His priesthood and observe the laws of the 
kingdom whether they belong to the Church and obey 
the Gospel or not, and I mean that every man in this 


camp shall do it. That is what the scripture means by 
every knee shall -bow, etc., and you cannot make anything 
else out of it. I understand there are several in this 
camp who do not belong to the Church. I am the man 
who will stand up for them and~ protect them in all their 
rights. And they shall not trample on our rights nor on 
the priesthood. They shall reverence and acknowledge 
the name of God and His priesthood, and if they set up 
their heads and seek to introduce iniquity into this camp 
and to trample on the priesthood, I swear to them, they 
shall never go back to tell the tale. I will leave them 
where they will be safe. If they wiant to retreat they can 
now have the privilege, and any man who chooses to go 
back rather than abide the law of God can now have the 
privilege of doing so before we go any farther. Here 
are the Elders of Israel who have the priesthood, who 
have got to preach the Gospel who have to gather the 
nations of the earth, who have to build up the kingdom 
so that the nations can come to it, they will stop to dance 
as niggers. I don't mean this as debasing the negroes 
by any means ; they will hoe down all, turn summersets, 
dance on their knees, and haw, haw, out loud ; they will 
play cards, they will play checkers and dominoes, they 
will use profane language, they will swear! Suppose 
when you go to preach, the people should ask you what 
you did when you went on this mission to seek out a 
home for the whole Church, what was your course of 
conduct ? Did you dance ? Yes. Did you hoe down all ? 
Yes. Did you play cards?- Yes. Did you play checkers? 
Yes. Did you use profane language? Yes. Did you 
swear? Yes. Did you quarrel with each other and threaten 



each other? Why yes. How would you feel? What 
would you say for yourselves? Would you not want to 
go and hide up? Your mouths would be stopped and 
you would want to creep away in disgrace. I am one 
of the last to ask my brethren to enter into solemn cove- 
nants, but if they will not enter into a covenant to put 
away their iniquity and turn to the Lord and serve Him 
and acknowledge and honor His name, I want them to 
take their wagons and retreat back, for I shall go no 
farther under such a state of things. If we don't repent 
and quit our wickedness we will have more hinderances 
than we have had, and worse storms to encounter. I 
want the brethren to be ready for meeting tomorrow at 
the time appointed, instead of rambling off, and hiding 
in their wagons to play cards, etc. I think it will be good 
for us to have a fast meeting tomorrow and a prayer 
meeting to humble ourselves and turn to the Lord and 
he will forgive us." 

He then called upon all the High Priests to step 
forth in a line in front of the wagon and then the bishops 
to step in front of the High Priests, which being done, he 
counted them and found their number to be four bishops 
and fifteen high priests. He then called upon all the sev- 
enties to form a line in the rear of the high priests. 
On being counted, they were ascertained to number 
seventy-eight. Next he called on the elders to form 
a line in the rear of the wagon. They were eight 
in number. | There were also eight of the quo- 
rum of the twelve. He then asked the brethren of the 
quorum of the twelve if they were willing to covenant, 
to turn to the Lord with all their hearts, to repent of all 


their follies, to cease from all their evils and serve God 
according to His laws. If they were willing, to manifest 
it by holding up their right hand. Every man held up 
his hand in token that he covenanted. He then put the 
same question to the high priests and bishops ; next to the 
seventies, and then to the elders, and lastly to the other 
brethren. All covenanted with uplifted hands without a 
dissenting voice. He then addressed those who are not 
members of the Church and told them 1 they should be 
protected in their rights and privileges while they would 
conduct themselves well and not seek to trample on the 
priesthood nor 'blaspheme the name of God, etc. He then 
referrred to the conduct of Benjamin Rolfe's two younger 
brothers, in joining with the Higbees and John C. Ben- 
nett in sowing discord and strife among the Saints in 
Xauvoo and remarked that there will be no more Ben- 
nett scrapes suffered here. He spoke highly of Benjamin 
Rolfe's conduct, although not a member of the Church 
and also referred to the esteem in which his father and 
mother were held by the Saints generally. He then very 
tenderly blessed the brethren and prayed that God would 
enable them to fulfill their covenants and then withdrew 
to give opportunity for others to speak if they felt like 
it. Elder Kimball arose to say that he agreed with all 
that President Young had said. He receives it as the 
word of the Lord to him and it is the word of the Lord 
to this camp if they will receive it. He has been watch- 
ing the motion of things and the conduct of the brethren 
for some time and has seen what it would lead to. He 
has said little but thought a great deal. It has made him 
shudder when he has seen the Elders of Israel descend 


to the lowest, dirtiest things imaginable, the tail end of 
everything, but what has passed this morning will make it 
an everlasting blessing to the brethren, if they will repent 
and be faithful and keep their covenant. He never can 
rest satisfied until his family is liberated from the gen- 
tiles and their company and established in a land where 
they can plant and reap the fruits of their labors, but he 
has never had the privilege of eating the fruits of his 
labors yet, neither has his family, but when this is done 
he can sleep in peace if necessary but not till then. If 
we will serve the Lord, remember His name to call upon 
Him, and be faithful, we shall not one of us be left under 
the sod, but shall be permitted to return and meet our 
families in peace and enjoy their society again; but if this 
camp continues the course of conduct it has done, the 
judgment of God will overtake us. He hopes the breth- 
ren will take heed to what President Young has said and 
let it sink deep in their hearts. 

Elder Pratt wanted to add a word to what has been 
said. "Much good advice has been given to teach us how 
we may spend our time profitably by prayer, and medita- 
tion, etc." But there is another idea which he wants to 
add. "There are many books in the camp and worlds of 
knowledge before us which we have not obtained, and if 
the brethren would devote all their leisure time to seek- 
ing after knowledge, they would never need to say they 
had nothing with which to pass aw*ay their time. If we 
could spend 23 hours out of the 24 in gaining knowledge 
and only sleep one hour of the 24 all the days of our life, 
"here would still be worlds of knowledge in store for us 
yet to learn. He knows it is difficult to bring our minds 


to diligent and constant studies, in pursuit of knowledge 
all at once, but by steady practice and perseverance we 
shall become habituated to it, and it will become a pleas- 
ure to us. He would recommend to the brethren, be- 
sides prayer, and obedience, to seek after knowledge con- 
tinually. And it will help us to overcome our follies 
and nonsense; we shall haye no time for it. 

Elder Woodruff said he remembered the time when 
the camp went up to Missouri to redeem' Zion, when 
Brother Joseph stood up on a wagon wheel and told the 
brethren that the decree had passed and could not be re- 
voked, and the destroying angel would visit the camp and 
we should die like sheep with the rot. He had repeatedly 
warned the brethren of their evil conduct and what it 
would lead to, but they still continued in their course. 
Tt was not long 'before the destroying angel did visit the 
camp and the brethren began to fall as Brother Joseph 
had said. We buried eighteen in a short time and a more 
sorrowful time I never saw. There are nine here who 
were in that camp and they all recollect the circumstance 
well and will never forget it. He has been thinking while 
the President was speaking, that if he was one who had 
played checkers or cards, he would take every pack of 
cards and every checker board and burn them up so that 
they would no longer be in the way to tempt us. 

Colonel Markham acknowledged that he had done 
wrong in many things. He had always indulged himself, 
before he came into the Church, with everything he de- 
sired and he knows he has done wrong on this journey, 
he knows his mind has become darkened since he left 
Winter Quarters. He hopes the brethren will forgive 


him and he will pray to be forgiven and try to do better. 
While he was speaking he was very much affected in- 
deed and wept like a child. Many of the brethren felt 
much affected and all seemed to realize for the first time, 
the excess to which they had yielded and the awful con- 
sequence of such things if persisted in. Many were in 
tears and felt humbled. President Young returned to the 
boat as Brother Markham closed his remarks and said 
in reply, that he knew the brethren would forgive him, 
and the Lord will forgive us all if we turn to Him with 
all our hearts and cease to do evil. The meeting was then 
dismissed, each man retiring to his wagon. And being 
half past one o'clock we again pursued our journey in 
peace, all reflecting on what has passed today, and many 
expressing their gratitude for what has transpired. It 
seemed as though we were just commencing on this im- 
portant mission, and all realizing the responsibility rest- 
ing upon us to conduct ourselves in such a manner that 
the journey may be an everlasting blessing to us, instead 
of an everlasting disgrace. No loud laughter was heard, 
no swearing, no quarreling, no profane language, no hard 
speeches to man or beast, and it truly seemed as though 
the cloud had burst and we had emerged into a new ele- 
ment, a new atmsophere, and a new society. We traveled 
six and three quarters miles about a north of northwest 
course and then arrived at the foot of the low bluffs 
which extend within about ten rods of the river, the lat- 
ter forming a large bend northward at this point. At the 
foot of the bluffs the road was sandy and very heavy on 
our teams. Like all other sandy places, it was perfectly 
barren, being only a tuft of grass here and there. After 


passing over the sand we changed our course to a little 
north of west, not, however, leaving the bluffs very far. 
The river bends again to the south. We then found the 
ground hard and good to travel over, but perfectly bare 
of grass for upwards of a mile. At five o'clock it com- 
menced raining very hard accompanied by lightning and 
thunder and strong northeast wind. It also changed con- 
siderably cooler again. At five thirty o'clock we formed 
our encampment on the edge of the higher bench of 
prairie. The feed is tolerably good on the bottom but 
here there is none at all. We have passed a small grove 
of fair sized trees, all green, growing on the islands 
in the river which, are tolerably many near here, but there 
is no timber yet on this side of the river. The brethren 
pick up drift wood enough to do their cooking. I spent 
the evening writing in this journal till half past twelve 
o'clock, but felt quite unwell. The distance we have trav- 
eled today is eight and a half miles, during the week 
seventy- four and a half, making us Sl4 r / 2 miles from 
Winter Quarters. There is a creek of clear water about 
200 yards to the south from which the camp obtains what 
they want. 

SUNDAY, 30xH. The morning fair and somewhat 
more pleasant, although there is yet appearance for more 
rain. I felt quite unwell through the night and also this 
morning, having severe pain. At nine o'clock most of 
the brethren retired a little south of the camp and had 
a prayer meeting, and as many as chose to, expressed 
their feelings. At a little before twelve they met again 
in the same spot to partake of the sacrament. Soon af- 
terwards all the members of the council of the K. of G. 


in the camp, except Brother Thomas Bullock, went onto 
the bluffs and selecting a small, circular, level spot sur- 
rounded by bluffs and out of sight, we clothed ourselves 
in the priestly garments and offered up prayer to God for 
ourselves, this camp and all pertaining to it, the brethren 
in the army, our families and all the Saints, President 
Young being mouth. We all felt well and glad for this 
privilege. The members of the above council are Brig- 
ham Young, Heber C. Kimball, Willard Richards, Orson 
Pratt, George A. Smith, Wilford Woodruff, Amasa Ly- 
man, Ezra T. Benson, Phineas H. Young, John Pack, 
Charles Shumway, Shadrack Roundy, Albert P. Rock- 
wood, Erastus Snow, myself, Albert Carrington and Por- 
ter Rockwell. The two latter, having no clothing with 
them, stood guard at a little distance from us to prevent 
interruption. When we started for the bluffs, there was 
a heavy black thunder cloud rising from the southwest, 
and from all appearance it might rain any minute, but the 
brethren believed it would not rain till we got through 
and if it did we chose rather to take a wetting than to be 
disappointed of the privilege. It kept off remarkably till 
we got through and got our clothing on, but soon after 
it began to rain and after we got to camp it rained con- 
siderbly, accompanied by strong wind. I never noticed the 
brethren so still and sober on a Sunday since we started 
as today. There is no jesting nor laughing, nor non- 
sense. All appear to be sober and feel to remember their 
covenant which makes things look far more pleasant than 
they have done heretofore. I spent most of the afternoon 
in Elder KimbaH's wagon with Elder Kimball, President 
Young, Lorenzo and Phineas Young. Read the minutes 


of President Young's discourse of yesterday. About five 
o'clock President Young, Kimball, Benson and others 
walked out together to the bluffs. They invited me to 
go with them but I was so afflicted with cramps I could 
scarcely walk, and after drinking a cup of tea prepared 
by Ellen Sanders I went to my wagon and retired to bed 
early. The evening more pleasant with a light shower 
occasionally. Elder Kimball, President Young, and 
others saw the Black Hills in the distance from a high 

MONDAY, 31 ST. The morning fine but cool. I feel 
quite unwell yet and have been sick all night. At a quar- 
ter past eight we proceeded onward, found good level 
traveling, the day cool and pleasant. We soon struck a 
wagon trail which evidently leads direct to Fort Lar- 
amie. At four* miles, passed some high sandy bluffs. 
Traveled till after twelve and then turned off a little to 
the southwest and at half past twelve o'clock halted for 
noon at the edge of lower land where there is some short 
green grass for our teams. The land we have traveled 
over this morning is naked and barren, course west of 
northwest, distance nine and a half miles. A high wind 
from northwest. Latitude 42 04' 30". Started again at 
3:00 p. m., weather warm and wind ceased. At 6:45 p. 
m. formed our encampment on the east bank of a shoal 
stream about ten feet wide, having traveled this afternoon 
seven and a quarter miles, and during the day sixteen 
and three quarters. Our course this afternoon a little 
north of west. About four miles back, passed some tim- 
ber on this side of the river which is the first since the 
10th inst, being a distance of 215 miles without wood for 


fire, except driftwood, and much of the time nothing but 
buffalo chips. The last four or five miles have been 
sandy, the ground uneven and very heavy on our teams. 
The country looks perfectly barren ; in some places there 
' ; nothing but a few weeds and garlick. Some of the 
brethren picked considerable of the latter to eat. The 
feed is very poor indeed, 'but a little better than for four 
miles back. John S. Higbee has killed a deer and soms 
of the brethren wounded two others. This deer which 
Brother Higbee killed is of the long tailed species, hav- 
ing a tail more than a half a yard long, and is the firsi 
one I ever saw of the kind. A while after we camped, 
President Young and Kimball went to the bluffs and 
again saw the Black Hills in the distance. They bowed 
before the Lord and offered up their prayers together. 

The month of May has passed over and we have 
been permitted to proceed so far on our journey, being 
531 1/4 miles from our families in Winter Quarters, with 
the camp generally enjoying good health and good spirits, 
and although some things have passed which have 
merited chastisement, we 'have the privilege at the clos- 
ing of the month of seeing a better feeling, a more noble 
spirit, and a more general desire to do right than we 
have before witnessed. I feel to humble myself and give 
God thanks for his continued mercies to me and* my 
brethren and may His spirit fill our hearts and may His 
angels administer comfort, health, peace and prosperity 
to all our families and all the Saints henceforth and for- 
ever. Amen. 

TUESDAY, JUNE IST. The morning very fine, warm 
and pleasant. All is still and quiet as a summer's morn- 


ing, the camp well and in good spirits and a feeling of 
peace, union and brotherly love seems to dwell in every 
breast. My mind revolves back upon by-gone days and 
then to. the present, and I truly feel thankful to my God 
for His mercies to me and for the privilege I now daily 
enjoy. The idea of dwelling with my family in a land of 
peace, in the midst of the Saints of God is better felt 
than described, but the mild, still, scenery of this morn- 
ing puts me in mind of it. At nine o'clock we pursued 
our journey, the stream we passed over is called by 
Grosclaude: "The Raw Hide." Elder Kimball let me 
have his horse to ride. I went in company with George 
A. Smith who was on foot carrying his gun in fulfill- 
ment of President Young's prophecy at the Pawnee Mis- 
sion station. The wagons went on till half past eleven 
and then halted for noon. We were about a mile ahead of 
them. The distance they traveled was four and a half 
miles. At half past one, started out again and traveled 
till a little after four o'clock and saw Fort Laramie about 
four miles to the southwest. Elder Kimball and Presi- 
dent Young then came up to where Brother Woodruff 
and I were looking out for feed and we started on, Presi 
dent Young having stopped the wagons, and went to the 
ford opposite to the fort. It was finally concluded to 
form 1 our encampment here on the banks of the river. 
Several men soon came down from the fort which is about 
two miles from here and made themselves known as a 
part of the Mississippi company from Pueblo. They have 
been here two weeks. It caused us much joy to meet 
\vith brethren in this wild region of country and also 
because we should have some news from the brethren in 


the army. Luke Johnson being up here with the boat and 
several others coming up, they got the boat into the rive/ 
to go over and see the brethren. And Luke Johnson, 
John Brown, Joseph Mathews and Porter Rockwell 
started over and about the same time, Presidents Young 
and Kimball started back to bring the camp up. When 
the brethren got over the river Brother Brown met sev- 
eral whom he knew and soon returned bringing Brother 
Crow and his son-in-law over to this side. The brethren 
seemed pleased to meet us. Brother Crow reports deaths 
in the Pueblo detachment since Brothers Tippets and 
\Voolsey left, viz. Melcher Oyler, Arnold Stevens. They 
2'SO state that Soloman Tindall was on the point of 
death. The other portion of the battalion they had not 
heard from. The Pueblo brethren are expected to receive 
their pay and start for this point, at latest by this date, 
and will probably be here in about two weeks. They 
also recorded that three traders from the mountains ar- 
rived, here six days ago, having come from Sweet Water 
in six days and nights. They traveled day and night with 
horses and mules to prevent their starving to death as 
there is no feed up there. Two of their oxen had died 
already, etc. The snow was two feet deep at Sweet 
Water when they left, so that we are evidently plenty 
soon enough for feed. At 5 :45 the wagons arrived and 
formed encampment on the banks of the river in the 
form of a V, having traveled this afternoon, seven and 
a half miles and during the day, twelve, making a total 
from Winter Quarters to Fort Laramie 543 1/4 miles and 
we have traveled it in seven weeks lacking a half a day. 
but we have traveled but a few miles on Sundays. We 


have arrived so far on our journey without accident ex- 
cept the loss of two horses by Indians and two killed. We 
have been prosperous on our journey, the camp are all in 
better health than when we left Winter Quarters and we 
see daily that the Lord blesses us and directs the move- 
ments of this camp as seemeth Him good and as is for 
our good and prosperity. The road today has been mostly 
sandy and heavy on teams with but little feed in any 
place. The country begins to have a more hilly and moun 
tainous appearance. Some of the Black Hills show very 
plain from here. The timber is mostly ash and cotton- 
wood on the low bottoms near the river. There is some 
cedar on the bluffs. In one of the large ash trees in the 
middle of the camp is an Indian babe or papoose. It 
cannot be said to be buried, but deposited, being first 
wrapped with a skin and then tied between two of the 
highest limbs of the tree. This is said to be the way they 
bury their dead. The bark is all peeled off the tree be- 
low, I suppose to prevent the wolves from getting up. 

WEDNESDAY, 2ND. The morning pleasant. About 
nine o'clock started over the river in company with the 
Twelve and others to view the fort and also learn some- 
thing in regard to our journey, etc. Elder Pratt meas- 
ured the distance across the river at this spot and found 
it to be 108 yards. The water is deep in the channel and 
the current runs about four miles an hour. After cross- 
ing we went up to the remains of an old fort called Fort 
Platte which is near the banks of the river, the out- 
side walls still standing, but the inside is in ruins, having 
been burned up. The walls are built of adobes or Span- 
ish brick, being large pieces of tempered clay dried in 


the sun and apparently laid one on another without mortar 
or cement. The dimensions of this fort outside are 144 
feet east to west, and from north to south 103 feet. There 
is a large door fronting to the south which has led to 
the dwellings which have been fourteen in number, built 
in the form of a parallelogram, leaving a large space in 
the center. The space occupied by the dwelling is not 
quite half of the whole fort. Fronting to the east is an- 
other large door which opens upon a large open space 
98% feet by 47 feet where it is supposed they used to 
keep horses, etc. At the northwest corner is a tower 
projecting out from the line of the walls six feet each 
way, or, in other words it is twelve feet square with port 
holes for cannon. At the northeast corner has been an- 
other projection extending eastward 29y 2 feet and is 
19 1/2 feet wide. The walls are 11 feet high and 30 
inches thick. We took the dimensions of this with a tape 
line and then proceeded to Fort Laramie about two miles 
farther west. This latter fort was first built of wood 
about thirteen years since, and named Fort William, but 
being destroyed was afterwards built seven years ago 
with adobes and named John. It stands on the bank of 
the Laramie fork. Laramie fork is a stream forty-one 
yards wide, a very swift current, but not deep. We tar- 
ried a little while with the Mississippi brethren who have 
camped close by the fort and then went inside. We were 
politely welcomed by Mr. Bordeau who appears to be 
the principal officer. He conducted us up a flight of 
stairs into a comfortable room and being furnished with 
seats, we rested ourselves. President Young and others 
entered into conversation with Mr. Bordeau. From him 



we learned that we cannot travel over four miles farther 
on the north side the Platte before we come to bluffs 
which cannot be crossed with loaded wagons. The road 
is better on this side than the one we have traveled, it 
being hard and not sandy. Feed scarce mostly lying in 
little patches near the river. They send their furs to 
Fort Pierre on the Missoui river a distance of 400 miles 
by land and receive all their stores and provisions back 
by the same teams, except their meat which they kill, 
there being buffalo within two days' drive. They have 
tried making a garden and planting corn which did well 
enough the first year, but afterwards they could raise noth 
ing for want of rain. They have had no rain for two years 
until a few days ago. They have got a flat boat which 
will carry two wagons easily which we can have for 
fifteen dollars or he will ferry us over for $18.00 or 25c 
a wagon. From the door of this room one can see the 
same black hill seen on Sunday evening and which is 
Laramie Peak. We could see the snow lying on it very 
plainly. We can also see several ranges of high hills in 
the distance which are no doubt parts of the Black Hills. 
We went across the square to the trading house which lies 
on the north side of the western entrance. The trader 
opened his store and President Young entered into con- 
versation with him. They trade solely with the Sioux. 
The Crows come here for nothing but to steal. A few 
weeks ago a party came down and stole twenty-five 
horses, all that they had at the fort, although they were 
within 300 yards of the fort at the time and a guard 
around them. The Sioux will not steal on their own land. 
A pair of moccasins are worth a dollar, a lariat a dollar. 


a pound of tobacco a dollar and a half, and a gallon of 
whiskey $32.00. They have no sugar, coffee or spices as 
their spring stores have not yet arrived. They have lately 
sent to Fort Pierre, 600 bales of robes with ten robes in 
each bale. Their wagons have been gone forty-five days, 
etc. The blacksmith shop lies on the south side of the 
western entrance. There are dwellings inside the fort be- 
side that of Mr. Bordeau's. The south end is divided 
off and occupied for stables, etc. There are many souls 
at this fort, mostly French, half-breeds, and a few Sioux 
Indians. Elder Pratt measured the river and found it 
forty-one yards. He also took the latitude which was 
42 12' 13". Brother Bullock told me that several of the 
brethren had picked up a number of beads off the ant 
hills. Curiosity led me to go and examine and I found 
it even so. It appears that the ants gather all the small 
pebbles they can carry and build them over their hills to 
prevent the strong winds from blowing them away, and 
amongst the rest, they picked up beads which have been 
lost off the Indians' moccasins and robes, etc. I picked 
up quite a number. Brother Bullock and I took the di- 
mensions of the fort which will be given in another place. 
We then got on board the boat and had a pleasant ride 
about three miles down the Laramie fork to its mouth, 
the current being very swift. At the mouth, the brethren 
mostly got on shore and towed the boat up to camp. 
After dinner I went over again in the cutter which was 
going to fish with the seine in the Laramie fork. They 
caught sixty or seventy small fish, salmon, suckers, etc. 
About six o'clock we returned to camp. , The Twelve 
have decided that Amasa Lyman shall go with Brothers 


Woolsey, Tippets and Stevens to Pueblo. They start to- 
morrow. Longitude at Fort Laramie 104 11' 53". I 
have seen three birds here which very much resemble 
the English magpie in size, shape and color, in fact I 
know of no difference between the (two. We passed a 
number of currant bushes about four miles back, quite 
thick with young, green currants. On the morning of the 
4th of June, I pu.t up a guide board on the north side of 
the river at the ferry with the following inscription on 
it, viz. Winter Quarters 543 1/4 miles, junction of the 
forks 227 1/2 miles. Ash Hollow 142 1/4 miles, Chimney 
Rock 70 1/4 miles, Scott's Bluffs 50 1/2 miles. Wm. 
Clayton, June 4, 1847. Elder Pratt took the altitude of 
Fort Laramie and found it to be 4090 feet above the level 
of the sea. Fremont makes 4470, differing 380 feet. 

THURSDAY, 3RD. The morning cold with strong 
southeast wind. The first division commenced ferrying 
over the river at five o'clock and took a wagon 
over every fifteen minutes. After breakfast I 
went over and wrote a letter for Elder Kim- 
ball to James Brown at Pueblo, then walked up to u. 
high bluff on the northwest to view the country, but not 
being able to see far from it, I went to another over a 
mile farther northwest. Although this last was very 
high I could see nothing but a succession of high ranges 
of bluffs as far as I could see, except the narrow space 
through which the river winds its course. Seeing some 
heavy thunder clouds rising very rapidly from the north- 
west I returned to camp and arrived just before the rain 
commenced. Elders A. Lyman, Thomas Woolsey, John 
H. Tippets and Roswell Stevens started at 11:15 on 


horses and mules for Pueblo. President Young, Kim- 
ball, Richards and Pratt accompanied them to the Lara- 
mie fork and then held a council, kneeled down and dedi- 
cated them to God and blessed them. The four then 
forded the river and went on their journey, the others 
returned to camp. At half past 1 :00 p. m. it commenced 
raining heavily accompanied by hail, lightning and very 
loud thunder, which lasted till 3:30 p. m. During the 
storm, the horses were mostly secured in the old fort. 
The ferrying ceased till it was fair again, and about five 
o'clock the first division were all over. The boat was 
then manned by the second division, John S. Higbee, 
captain. They averaged a wagon across in eleven min- 
utes and one in ten minutes and one in ten minutes and 
twenty seconds. The quickest trip made by the first di- 
vision was thirteen minutes. About seven o'clock it com- 
menced raining again from the southeast and rained 
heavily, consequently the brethren quit ferrying, leaving 
three companies of about fifteen wagons on the other 
side. All the wagons would have been taken over today 
if it had not been stormy. 

There is a report come in that there are 2,000 
wagons on the road to Oregon, but a little distance be- 
hind, but we are satisfied the report is exaggerated. There 
are eighteen wagons camlped about three miles below and 
one of the men who has come to the fort says that they 
have counted over 500 wagons. They have lost four 
horses by the Indians. 

FRIDAY, 4xH. Morning very fine. Laramie peak 
shows very plain. The brethren commenced -ferrying a 4 : 
4 :40 a. m., and at eight o'clock the last wagon was over. 


I walked up to a high bluff with Carlos Murray and 
picked up some stalactites clear as crystal supposed to be 
isinglass. The bluff is very high and almost perpendicu- 
lar and it is dangerous to get to the crystals. 

At nine o'clock President Young, Kimball, W. Rich- 
ards, A. P. Rockwood and T. Bullock walked up to Fort 
Laramie and returned soon after eleven o'clock. They 
have learned very favorable reports about Bear River 
Valley, being well timbered, plenty of good grass, light 
winters, little snow and abundance of fish, especially 
spotted trout, in the streams. About half past eleven 
o'clock Brother Crow's company came down and joined 
in with the second division and at twelve we started on 
our journey again, following the Oregon road. We trav- 
eled three miles and at 20 minutes past 1 :00, halted near 
some good grass to let our teams feed. The weather is 
very warm though many light clouds are flying. The 
bluffs come near the river and are very high, steep, and 
look like sand. During the halt I went up on a very 
high bluff near by with my glass. I found it very diffi- 
cult of ascent. From the top I could see Laramie peak 
very plainly and also some hills a long way off to the 
northwest. The country looks very hilly as far as can be 
seen and the snow on the peak shows quite plain. At half 
past two we continued our journey and found the road 
sandy and very uneven. At the distance of seven and 
three quarters miles from Fort Laramie we descended a 
very steep pitch or hill. All the wagons had to be locked 
and we were some time getting down. We went on half 
a mile farther and formed our encampment in a circle 
at half past five, having traveled eight and a quarter miles 


today. At half past five we had a shower accompanied 
by a little lightning and heavy thunder. I will now give 
the list of names of Brother Crow's company who have 
joined the camp today to go with this pioneer camp. 
They are as follows : 

Robert Crow, Elizabeth Crow, Benjamin B. Crow, 
Elizabeth Jane Crow, John McHenry Crow, Walter H. 
Crow, Geo. W. Therlkill, Matilla Jane Therlkill, Milton 
Howard Therlkill, James William Therlkill, William 
Parker Crow, Isa Vinda Exene Crow, Ira Minda Alma- 
rene Crow, Archibald Little, James Chesney and Lewis 
B. Myers, seventeen in number, making the total number 
of souls in this pioneer camp, after deducting four gone 
to Pueblo, 161. 

Lewis B. Myers is represented as knowing the coun- 
try to the mountains, having traveled it and I am told 
that he came as a guide to Brother Crow. They have 
five wagons, one cart, eleven horses, twenty-four oxen, 
twenty-two cows, three bulls and seven calves. 

Inasmuch as there have been some changes in horses 
and mules, I will endeavor to state them and give the 
number we started with from Fort Laramie. Two hordes 
killed by accident. Two horses stolen by the Pawnees 
at Gravel creek ; one mule traded for a pony by Brother 
Markham ; three horses and one mule gone with the 
brethren to Pueblo ; one horse traded by O. P. Rockwell 
for three cows and two calves ; one horse traded by John 
Pack for three buffalo robes ; one horse traded by T. 
Brown for a pony at Laramie ; one pony traded by J. S. 
Higbee to the Sioux for a pony. These changes with the 
addition made by Brother Crow's company make the 


number as follows: horses 95, mules 51, head of oxen 
100, cows 41, bulls 3, calves 7, dogs and chickens, and 
77 wagons and 1 cart. 

SATURDAY, STH. The morning pleasant though 
somewhat cloudy. Elder Kimball gave George Billings 
a lecture about abusing his team, kicking them, etc. He 
gave George some very good advice. The horn sounded 
early to start but we were detained till half past eight on 
account of several oxen being missing. About that time 
they were found and we pursued our journey. After trav- 
eling a little over four miles we ascended a steep bluff. 
The road runs on the top of it a little distance in a very 
crooked direction, the surface in some places being hard, 
uneven rock, which shakes and jars the wagons very 
much. In one place there is a little descent and at the 
bottom a very sharp turn in the road over rough rock. 
Here Brother Crow's cart turned over. However, it was 
soon righted and no injury done to anything. At the west 
foot is a steep, sandy descent but not difficult. The bluff 
is a half a mile across. About a half a mile from the 
west foot we turned from the river nearly a west course 
and crossed a low gravelly channel where it appears the 
river has run sometime and perhaps does now in high 

The road after this is considerably crooked and un- 
even. About a mile and a quarter farther we descended 
again on the same gravelly channel and traveled up it a 
piece and at 11 :35 halted for noon opposite a very large 
spring noticed by Fremont. The water of this spring is 
very clear and soft, but considerably warmer than the 
river water. We have traveled this morning six and a 


half miles. Just as we halted, two men came down from 
the other road on mules to water. They are in company 
with eleven wagons and bound for west of the mountains. 
They say the other road from Laramie is only ten miles 
to the spring while our road has been 14 3/4 miles. 
About a half an hour after we stopped, we had a nicL- 
shower. The 1st division halted about a quarter of a 
mile back from here. Latitude at the warm springs 42 
15' 6". While we were halting, the company above re- 
ferred to passed down the bluffs and went ahead of us. 
They have got many cows, etc., with them. At 1 :40 p. 
m. we resumed our journey. After traveling a mile we 
turned in a narrow pass to the northwest between two 
high bluffs and traveled a quarter of a mile farther, then 
came to where the road rises a very high, steep bluff. 
At the foot is a short sudden pitch and then a rugged 
ascent for a quarter of a mile. The bluff is rocky and 
many large cobble stones lay in the road which made it 
hard on teams. Appleton Harmon took one of his yoke 
of cattle and assisted George Billings to the top and 
Brother Johnson took Appleton's steers and put them for- 
ward of his and brought up his wagon. Appleton and 
Johnson then took the three yoke of oxen and fetched up 
Appleton's wagon which threw us nearly in the rear of 
all the wagons, none of the rest doubling teams. After 
arriving on the top the road was good but still rising for 
a quarter of a mile farther. We traveled on this high 
land five and a quarter miles which was very good travel- 
ing although it was considerably rolling. Four and a 
half miles from the top of the last mentioned bluff, we 
passed a large lone rock, standing far away from any 


other. At five and a quarter miles we descended again 
from the bluff, the descent being steep and lengthy but 
sandy and good to travel. At the foot of the bluff we 
again crossed the gravelly channel and traveled on and 
alongside about a mile, then descended a little to the bot- 
tom prairie again. At 6:30 we formed our encampment 
on the west bank of a small stream and near a very good 
spring of cold water, having traveled this afternoon 
10 1/2 miles and during the day seventeen. 

I have put up two guide boards today. One at 10 
and the other at 20 miles from Fort John or Laramie, 
but the former name is on the guide boards. The bluffs 
we have passed today are mostly very high, rocky and 
broken, with pine growing on most or nearly all of them. 
We have pretty good feed here and plenty of wood and 
good water. The gentile camp is a little east of us. Th?v 
say that there were two more companies arrived at Fort 
Laramie this morning as they left, and three other com- 
panies within twenty miles of Laramie. They left this 
morning. They left Independence on the 22nd of April. 
They are expecting the mail soon on mules, but they 
anticipate keeping ahead of all the companies. We find 
the road very crooked, but not bad traveling. About 
dark it rained some, accompanied by lightning and 
thunder. The camp was notified that tomorrow will be 
a day for fasting and prayer as last Sunday. 

SUNDAY, 6xH. Morning cloudy, cool, and like for 
rain. At eight o'clock the eleven wagons passed us 
again. At nine the brethren assembled for prayer meet- 
ing a little from the camp, but many kept about their 
wagons, some washing and some at other things. At 


eleven o'clock, four Missourians came up mounted, being 
part of a company a little behind. Some of these are 
recognized by the brethren and they seem a little afraid 
and not fond of our company. They say the old settlers 
have all fled from Shariton, Missouri, except two tav- 
ern keepers, and I feel to wish that their fears may fol- 
low them even to Oregon. At half past eleven just as the 
brethren- again assembled for meeting it commenced rain- 
ing hard, accompanied by lightning and heavy thunder 
which caused the meeting to break up abruptly. During 
the storm, the Missouri company passed by us, having 
nineteen wagons and two carriages. Most of their wagons 
have five yoke of cattle to each, and few less than four. 
They have many cows, horses and young cattle with 
them. They have a guide with them who lives on the 
St. Mary's River at the Columbia. He says we shall 
find water again about six miles from- here and then no 
more for fifteen miles farther. It was then considered 
wise to move on this afternoon as we cannot well reach 
the second watering place in one day. Soon after twelve 
o'clock the weather cleared off, the sun shone and looks 
like for being fine. The wind blows strong from the 
west. At half past 2 :00 p. m. the camp began to move 
forward. About three quarters of a mile we crossed the 
same small stream again, and two miles further arrived 
at a sudden bend in the road to the south about two hun- 
dred yards and then as sudden to the north the same dis- 
tance occasioned by the water having washed a deep 
gulf where the road ought to run. A mile beyond this 
the wagons came to a halt in a body of timber and brush- 
wood at four o'clock, and halted while the brethren on 


horseback, viz. Elder Ybung, Kimball and Woodruff, 
went ahead to look for a camping ground. They returned 
at 4:40 and the camp proceeded on. Having proceeded 
a quarter of a mile we passed the camp of the nineteen 
wagons close by the timber a little south of the road. 
Several of the men came to look at the roadometer, hav- 
ing heard from some of the brethren that we had one. 
They expressed a wish to each other to see inside and 
looked upon it as a curiosity. I paid no attention to them 
inasmuch as they did not address themselves to me. At 
a quarter past 5 :00 p. m. we formed our encampment 
in an oblong circle, at the foot of a low bluff on the 
west and close by water, having traveled five miles. 
The feed here is very good and plentiful. Wind strong 
from the west. Road very crooked, mostly a southwest 
and west course. There is plenty of timber all along and 
the soil looks good on the low lands. One of the men in 
the company of the nineteen wagons told G. A. Smith 
that he had broken his carriage spring and seemed much 
troubled to know what to do to get along. He asked 
George if there was any man in our company who could 
fix it. George told him there was. After we were 
camped, Burr Frost set up his forge and welded the 
spring ready to put on before dark. 

MONDAY, 7xH. Morning fine. Elder Pratt gave 
me some instructions on the use of the sextant and 
showed me how to take an observation. He has prom- 
ised to teach me to take observations and calculate lati- 
tude and longtitude and I intend to improve the oppor- 
tunity. At 6:30 the Missouri company passed through 
again. And at ten minutes past seven we commenced 


our onward course. Dr. Richards left a letter in a guide 
board 30 1/4 miles to Fort John. I walked about five 
miles mostly in company with Elder Pratt conversing on 
astronomy and philosophical subjects. Elder Kimball 
then let me have his horse to ride. We traveled till 
eleven o'clock and then halted to feed on the west bank 
of a small stream and spring of clear water, having trav- 
eled 7 3/4 miles, mostly a north of northwest course. The 
road more even and good traveling. Soon after we halted, 
another company of Missourians passed us, having thir- 
teen wagons and mostly four yoke of oxen to each. Thev 
say they are from Andrew County, Missouri. At 12 :35 
we moved forward. At a quarter of a mile began to 
ascend a bluff which was a quarter of a mile from the 
bottom to the top, the ascent gradual and tolerably steep. 
From the top of this hill we had as pleasant a view of the 
surrounding country as I have ever witnessed. Laramie 
peak appears only a few miles to the southwest, and from 
that around to the west, north, and northeast, a very ex- 
tensive view of a beautiful country for many miles, 
indeed, as far as the eye could survey. From a fair view 
of the peak I am satisfied that the Black Hills, of which 
this is a prominent part, are so named from the vast 
forests of pine trees covering their surface and being of 
a dark green color within a few miles of them. The pine 
grows in the most rocky places and abounds on the high- 
est hills, while on the lower bluffs it is sparcely scattered 
and in the bottom land, which looks rich and good, there 
are none. We have passed many noble trees and there 
is no lack of good pine timber in this region. The peak 
is very high, and very broken and craggy, the snow still 


lying on its summit and plainly visible with the naked 
eye. The ridge over which we passed was a half a mile 
over from the southeast to the northwest foot. At that 
distance we began to descend and had to lock the wagons 
in sveral places. The descent was rendered unpleasant 
by the many large cobble stones scattered in the road. 
Many of the brethren threw them out of the road as we 
went along and the road is much improved. They have 
also dug down some places and leveled others, which will 
make the road much better for other companies. At half 
past three we arrived at Horse Creek and formed our en- 
campment on the bottom land near the timber or rather 
in the midst of a grove of ash, cottomvood, etc., having 
traveled five and a quarter miles this afteroon over 
crooked road and -during the day, thirteen miles. On 
this camp ground is one of the clearest and largest 
springs of water I have seen for a long time. Elder Kim- 
ball having discovered it, he calls it his spring or Heber's 
spring. The creek is also clear and said to have trout 
in it. The feed is much better and more plentiful than 
we have ever met with on this journey. There is abund- 
ance of wild mint and sage growing here ; the mint seems 
to perfume the air. The sage grows in abundance on all 
this sandy land. There are also many wild currant bushes 
in full bloom and prickley pears all along the road. The 
other companies were all within two miles when we ar- 
rived here, but mostly going on a few miles farther. 
A little before we stopped, we had a thunder storm which 
lasted upwards of an hour. During the latter part of it, 
it rained very heavily accompanied by hail and thunder 
and lightning. Our hunters have killed a long tailed deer 


and an antelope, which were distributed as usual. Brother 
Crew's hunter also killed a deer, but they are unwilling 
to conform to the rules of the camp in dividing and re- 
serve it all to themselves. Brother Crow observed that if 
they got more than they could use they would be willing 
to let the camp have some. Some of the other compan- 
ies killed an antelope, took off the quarters and left the 
balance on the ground. Brother Pack picked it up and 
brought it along. After we stopped Brother Crow came 
near meeting with an accident wh'le endeavoring to yoke 
up a pair of wild steers. It took a number of men to 
hold them, having lariats on their saddle-horns. They 
got the lariats entangled round their legs and Brother 
Crow also, throwing one of the steers down and he fast 
with it. They cut the rope and he was liberated with- 
out injury. Myers, the hunter, roasts the young antlers 
of the deer and eats them. In regard to Brother Crow's 
meat, etc., I aftrwards learned that the whole family had 
to depend on Myers for what they eat, having no bread 
stuff, nor anything only what he kills, and the little flour 
and meal paid to him for a part of the ferryage, he hav- 
ig a small claim on Bordeau. After supper, walked out 
with Elder Kimball and was joined by George A. Smith. 
Brother Smith told me of a good opportunity of sending 
a letter to my family by some traders who are expected 
down every day and I feel to improve the opportunity. 
We had a very strong wind at night, so much that I could 
not write. 

TUESDAY, STH. Morning fine though cool. At half 
past seven we proceeded on our journey crossing the 
Horseshoe creek, which is about a rod wide. We trav- 


eled two and a quarter miles, winding around the foot of 
high bluffs and then began to ascend them. We found 
this ascent the worst we have ever had, being three 
quarters of a mile up, and having in that distance seven 
very steep rises. On most of them the teams had to 
double. We saw a buffalo about a half a mile to the 
south which is the first we have seen since about the 21st 
of May. Two and a half miles from the east foot of 
the last bluff we passed over a small creek, nearly dry, 
and then ascended another high bluff but not nearly so 
bad a rise as the other one. At 11 :45 we halted for noon 
near a very small creek with but little water in it, hav- 
ing traveled six and three quarters miles over hills and 
valleys, the roads being very crooked. About half an 
hour before we halted, Harriet Crow got run over with 
one of their -wagons. The teams had stopped near the 
descent from the bluffs and she stepped on the wagon 
tongue to get a drink. The cattle started suddenly, threw 
her under the wheel which passed over her leg below the 
knee and downwards, passing over her foot above the 
toes. She screamed and appeared in great agony. We 
thought her leg was broken, but were soon satisfied to 
the contrary. Her foot was badly bruised but I think 
there was nothing broken. One of the women washed 
it with camphor. She was then put into a wagon and we 
proceeded on. Latitude 42 29' 58". 

At 1 :40 we proceeded. After traveling a little over 
a mile and a half we passed another small creek, and 
again ascended a high bluff. We found this ridge more 
uneven than the other, it being a perfect succession of 
hills and hollows for five miles. The road was good and 


hard. While traveling on the top the wind blew very 
strong from the west and it was so cold that we suf- 
fered some. The road over was indeed very crooked but 
mostly bending to the north. We could see a long dis- 
tance from the top. The country to the north looks 
more even but south and southwest very hilly and broken. 
At five miles we began to descend gradually, and while 
watching the roadometer I discovered it did not work 
right which made me pay more attention to it. At ten 
minutes past six we crossed a stream about thirty feet 
wide and nearly two feet deep with a very swift current. 
It is named on Fremont's map as La Bonte river. We 
formed our encampment on the west bank in the timber 
having traveled this afternoon 8 3/4 miles and during the 
day 15 1/2. The evening is very cold and much appear- 
ance of rain. Porter Rockwell has killed a deer and 
someone else an antelope. Porter says he has been on 
the Platte which is about four miles from here follow- 
ing the La Bonte. Soon after we stopped, the men came 
into camp who were expected to carry a letter. They 
are camped about a mile west of us. I finished my letter 
to my family by candle light, as it is contemplated to 
start in the morning before breakfast and go a few miles 
to better feed. 

WEDNESDAY, 9rn. Arose at 4:20 and at 5:15 a. m. 
we moved onward, keeping near the La Bonte. At 5 :45 
halted for breakfast beside the traders' camp, having 
come a mile and a quarter. I sent my letter to them by 
Aaron Farr, a number of the brethren also sending let- 
ters. While we halted I /got the roadometer fixed again 
and also put up a guide board marked "To Fort John 60 



miles." These traders or mountaineers said they had left 
a kind of ferry made otf three buffalo skins hung in a 
tree on the Platte and wanted Brother Crow's com- 
pany to have it. It was decided to send a company ahead 
to overreach the Missouri companies and get the ferry 
before they could arrive, and also build a raft for us 
to cross on, kill game, etc. The men say it is about 
seventy miles to where we cross the river. Nineteen 
wagons were sent ahead and about forty men to attend 
to this business. All of Brother Crow's company went, 
Aaron Farr, J. Redding, the cutter, etc., being five 
wagons from the 1st division and fourteen from the 2nd. 
They started about half an hour before we started. We 
proceeded at 7:45 and immediately after starting had to 
cross a very steep gulf, being difficult for teams to get 
up, though it was not long. Soon after this, four men 
passed us with pack horses and mules. They say they 
are from Pueblo and going to Green River; they told 
others they were from Santa Fe and going to San Fran- 
cisco. We found the road very hilly and uneven and 
crooked as yesterday. At three and three quarters miles 
passed over a branch of the La Bonte, a stream about 
ten feet wide but not deep. The descent and ascent being- 
very steep, most of the teams required assistance to get 
up. For half a mile before we crossed this stream and 
three and a half miles after, our road lay over a kind of 
red earth or sand about the color of red precipitate. Most 
of the rocks and bluffs are of the same red color, only 
a deeper red. It affected my eyes much from its bright- 
ness and strange appearance. About one and a quarter 
miles west of the creek President Young and Kimball 


saw a large toad which had horns on its head and a tail. 
It -did not jump like a toad but crawled like a mouse. 
This was seen near a large pile of rock or rather a hill. 
At 12 :40 we halted for noon having come ten miles since 
breakfast. There is little water here for the teams. The 
day fine and nice west breeze. The road is very crooked, 
hilly, and mostly rocky, many large cobble stones covering 
the bluffs, the land barren and little grass. The ground 
here is covered with large crickets which are so numer- 
ous, to walk without stepping on them is almost impos- 
sible. , 

At half past two o'clock we were on the move again. 
I put up another guide board a little east of the creek: 
"70 miles." We found the road much better this after- 
noon, not being so uneven, and tolerably straight ex- 
cepting a bluff to climb a mile from the creek. At the 
foot of this bluff I saw a toad with a tail like a lizard, 
about three inches long. It had no horns but there was 
the appearance of horns just coming on each side of the 
head. It resembles a lizard in color, tail, and motion 
when running swiftly through the grass. Its hide ap- 
peared hard and on its sides appeared numerous little 
sharp pointed fins or pricks. In other respects it re- 
sembled any common toad. At a quarter past one we 
formed our encampment on the east banks of a stream 
about a rod wide, two feet deep and swift current. It 
is named the A La Pierre. We have traveled eight miles 
this afternoon and during the day 19 1/4. We have a 
good place for feed but the higher land is barren, abound- 
ing only in wild sage. There are still some high bluffs 
around but the country west appears much more level. 


The evening fine but cool. After traveling six and a 
quarter miles from noon halt, passed a small creek, and 
again three quarters of a mile farther passed the same 
creek. Sterling Driggs killed an antelope and a deer. 

THURSDAY, K)TH. The morning calm and very 
pleasant. There is wild mint growing on the bank of this 
stream in great plenty and abundance of wild sage on all 
the higher land. The mint smells natural, but the sage 
smells strong of turpentine and a little like camphor. 
Started at half past seven and found good roads. At 
four and a half miles passed over a small creek about 
three feet wide but not much water, being only a few 
inches deep. A mile farther passed another creek about 
five feet wide, clear water and plentiful. At 11:20 we 
halted on the east bank of a stream about thirty feet 
wide and tolerably deep with a rapid current, having 
come eight and three quarters miles. We have had sev- 
eral long, steep bluffs to ascend and descend and two 
places at the creeks where it was hard for the teams to 
get up without help. We saw one of the Missouri com- 
panies a few miles ahead of us. Edmund Elsworth killed 
an antelope. There is good feed here and plentiful. Our 
road has been crooked mostly winding northward. The 
creek on which we camped last night is named A La 
Pierre and about a mile from where the road crosses, 
it runs through a tunnel from ten to twenty rods under 
the high rocky bluffs. The tunnel is high enough for a 
man to stand upright in it, and when standing at the 
entrance one can see the light through on the other side. 
It seems as though this tunnel has been formed by some 
strange feat of nature. Several of the brethren went to 


see it. Lewis Barney and another brother each killed an 
antelope which were brought into camp during the halt 
and divided. The brethren carried the two last about 
five miles on their shoulders. We have learned today 
from one of the travelers that there is one man living 
and making a farm in the Bear River valley. At a quar- 
ter to 2:00 we continued our journey. Found the road 
somewhat more even and good traveling. I put a guide 
board this morning at 80 miles from Fort John, and 
this afternoon after traveling three and a quarter miles 
" "om noon halt I put up another mark 90 miles. Just as 
I finished setting it, I looked forward and saw the Platte 
river 'again. After descending a half a mile we were on 
its banks, being 77 miles since we left it on Saturday 
last, after having wound around among the hills and 
bluffs all the way. When we arrived near the river the 
road was more level but sandy and harder on our teams. 
There are also some low places where the water stands, 
making it soft, but scarcely any feed for teams since we 
left the creek at noon. At a quarter to six we passed 
another stream about thirty feet wide and two feet deep, 
swift current and clear water. Name is Deer Creek. 
There is plenty of timber on its banks and abundance of 
good, rich grass for our teams. We formed our en- 
campment on the west bank in a grove of large timber. 
About a mile back we passed a sick horse supposed to be 
left by some of the companies ahead. Brother Markham 
bled it in its mouth, but could not get it along and had 
to leave it. The distance we have traveled this afternoon 
was nine miles and during the day 17^ miles, the last 
five miles being nearly a west course. Soon after we 


camped, Horace Whitney went to fishing in this stream. 
We were soon satisfied that there are plenty of fish in it. 
I got a line and went to fishing also and in a few min- 
utes caught two which would weigh a half a pound each. 
We then went a piece below the ford and by fishing till a 
little after dark I caught twenty-four nice fish which 
would average over a half a pound each, and some of 
them would weigh over a pound each. The ones I caught 
were of a very bright color and very much resembled 
the herring, but much larger. Horace caught a cat fish 
and two suckers. A number of brethren also caught 
more and some less. There is abundance of fish in this 
stream and we might have caught enough for all the 
camp with the sein but it is ahead with those who are 
gone to build a raft. The Twelve and some others walked 
out together to the river about a quarter of a mile up 
the stream. Some of the brethren discovered a rich 
bed of stone coal where any quantity might easily be dug, 
and it is said to look good and is a fine quality. The 
land here on the bottom is rich and would doubtless yield 
good crops of grain and potatoes, etc. Lewis Barney 
killed an antelope this afternoon which was distributed as 
he saw fit, inasmuch as he was not appointed a hunter. 
The evening is very fine, calm and pleasant indeed. 

FRIDAY, HTH. Arose at four o'clock to try and get 
some more fish. Morning fine and warm, but caught 
only four. I procured a sample of the stone coal from 
G. A. Smith. It looks good. This place reminds me of 
England. The calm, still morning with the warbling of 
many birds, the rich grass, good streams, and plenty of 
"timber, make it pleasant. At 7 :35 we again continued 


our journey along the banks of the river which appears 
somewhat wider here than at Laramie. At two and a 
half miles we passed a deep hollow, the banks on both 
sides being very steep. At four and a quarter miles put 
up a guide board at 100 miles from Laramie, having 
traveled it in a week lacking two and a quarter hours. 
At 11 :50 we halted for noon in a grove of timber where 
there is plenty of good feed for a large company. The 
land since morning has been generally level, but sandy 
and no grass. The road somewhat crooked. About a 
mile back we came around a bend to the south caused 
by a deep ravine. We had to travel more than a mile to 
make a quarter of a mile direct. William Empey, Ed- 
mund Elsworth, and Francis M. Pomeroy, each killed an 
antelope. Several of the brethren have taken an interest 
in the guide boards and wherever they see a piece of 
board sufficiently large, they pick it up and preserve it. 
By this means we have now got enough to last 200 miles. 
The distance we have traveled since morning is nine and 
i quarter miles, being 105 miles in the week including 
Sunday, or 100 miles in six days. About half an hour 
after we halted, Brother Joseph Hancock came in with 
the hind quarters of an antelope which he killed about 
three miles back. He could not carry the remainder and 
left it on the ground. At two o'clock we started again. 
After traveling one mile, we crossed a very crooked, 
muddy creek, about twelve feet wide and over a foot 
deep. The descent and ascent were both bad on ac- 
count of a crook from one to the other. There is plenty 
of feed on its banks, but no wood. Five and three-quar- 
ters miles farther another muddy creek about three feet 


wide and bad to cross on account of the clay being very 
soft in its banks. The balance of the road good, but 
considerably crooked. At half past five o'clock we came 
to a halt on account of seeing a number of wagons about 
a half mile ahead which proved to be two of the Mis- 
souri companies camped on the banks of the river and 
preparing to cross here. It was also ascertained that 
there is no camping place beyond them unless we go 
some distance. It was decided to turn off to the river 
opposite where we are and camp for the night and the 
wagons proceeded accordingly. We went a half a mile 
from the road and at six o'clock formed our encampment 
near the river where there is plenty of timber, having 
come on the road this afternoon seven and three-quar- 
ters miles and during the day seventeen miles, exclusive 
of the distance we turned off to camp. The feed here is 
o-ood and plentiful. The region on the banks of the river 
is pretty level, but a few miles to the south there are very 
high bluffs. Very little chance for feed except in places 
on the banks of the river and generally where there is 
timber. These Missourian companies inform us that 
the regular crossing place is twelve miles farther and 
that our brethren are gone on there and also the balance 
of the Missourian companies. These men have got a 
light flat boat with them and have already got one load 
over. They say they have killed three bears between 
here and the bluffs. They have also killed a buffalo. 
There have been signs of bears seen by our brethren a 
number of times, but no bears for a certainty. We have 
only seen one buffalo since we left Laramie until today, 
when several have been seen. One of the Misourians 


brought a snow ball from the hill on the south. He gave 
Rockwood a piece of it, and he brought it to camp. Elder 
Kirmball and several others saw it which now convinces 
us snow is yet lying on these high bluffs. Henson Walker, 
Charles Barnum and Brother Owens have each killed an 
antelope this afternoon, making eight during the day. 

SATURDAY, 12TH. Morning very fine with nice east 
breeze. Brother Markham has learned this morning that 
Obadiah Jennings was the principal in killing Bowman 
in Missouri. Bowman was one of the guard who let 
Joseph and Hyrum and the others get away when pris- 
oners in Missouri. The mob suspected him and rode him 
on a bar of iron till they killed him. At a quarter past 
eight o'clock we continued our journey. At one and a 
half miles crossed a deep gulch pretty difficult to descend 
but not bad to ascend. One and three-quarters miles 
farther, we crossed a small creek about two feet wide on 
a bridge which the brethren fixed, they having started 
ahead of the wagons for that purpose. One mile beyond 
the last mentioned creek we crossed another muddy 
stream about five feet wide, and one and a half feet deep. 
At a quarter to 12:00, we halted after crossing another 
large ravine, having traveled seven and three-quarters 
miles over a sandy, barren prairie. In some places it is 
soft, although the soil is much like clay in appearance. 
The road somewhat crooked, and the day fine and warm. 
During the halt, Brother Rockwood called upon the 
brethren to help fix another ravine immediately west of 
us. Many turned out and it was soon done. James Case 
-Mid S. Markham went to the river opposite here to see 
; f it could be forded. They waded their horses over and 


found the water about four feet six inches deep in the 
channel and the current very swift. Of course it could 
not be forded with loads in the wagons, but the loading 
would have to be ferried in the boat. They made a re- 
port of this kind on their return to camp and about the 
same time Brother Chesley came down from the brethren 
ahead and reported their progress and the nature of the 
crossing place, etc. A number of the brethren in com- 
pany with Elder Kimball and Chesley went to the river 
opposite the camp to decide whether to cross here or go 
on. Brother Markham and Case again went over, but it 
was finally concluded to go up to the other ferry. We ac- 
cordingly started at half past two. I went ahead on foot. 
At three and a quarter miles, crossed a creek about five 
feet wide. At half past four the encampment was formed 
on the banks of the river, having come four miles, and 
during the day eleven and a quarter. It is about a half 
a mile from our camp to the place where they ferry. I 
arrived at the brethren's camp at four o'clock and learned 
that they arrived here yesterday about noon. Two of the 
Missourian companies arrived about the same time. The 
brethren concluded that a raft would be of no use on ac- 
count of the swiftness of the current. The Missourian 
company offered to pay them well if they would carry 
their company over in the boat and a contract was made 
to do so for $1.50 per load, the brethren to receive their 
pay in flour at $2.50 per hundred. They commenced 
soon after and this evening finished their work, and re- 
ceived the pay mostly in flour, a little meal and some 
bacon. They have made $34.00 with the cutter all in 
provisions which is a great blessing to the camp inasmuch 


-s a number of the brethren have had no bread stuff for 
some days. During the afternoon yesterday, one of the 
men of the Missourian company undertook to swim 
across the river with his clothes on. When he reached 
the current he became frightened and began to moan. 
Some of our men went to him with the cutter and ar- 
rived in time to save his life. The Missourian company 
seem to feel well toward us and express their joy at hav- 
ing got across the river so soon. Rodney Badger ex- 
changed wagons with one of them and got a wagon as 
good as his own, only the tire wants setting. He got a 
horse, 100 Ibs. flour, 25 Ibs. of bacon and some crackers 
to boot. The provisions and horse are considered to be 
worth as much as his wagon. Since the brethren arrived 
here they have killed three buffalo, a grizzly bear and 
three cubs, and two antelope. The buffalo are very fat 
and the meat is good and sweet. According to the idea 
of some French travelers camped here, the buffalo "are 
making down east behind the hills opposite here, which 
they say is a certain sign that the Indians are on Sweet 
Water hunting them. The brethren say that the buffalo 
are very plentiful back of these hills. When I returned 
to camp I learned that Tunis Rappleyee and Artemas 
Johnson were missing, the former having started for the 
hills to get a little snow ; the latter having been hunting 
all day. A company were sent out with the bugle to 
find them. Brother Rappleyee returned about eleven 
o'clock. Johnson was found by the brethren who re- 
turned still later. All agreeing with the report that the 
hills are eight or ten miles distance, although they do 
not appear more than one mile. There were four ante- 


lope killed by the brethren but divided according to the 
feelings of those who killed them. 

SUNDAY, 13TH. The morning fine and pleasant. At 
nine o'clock the brethren assembled in the circle for 
prayer and after they had spent some time, Elder Kim- 
ball arose and addressed them exhorting them to be 
watchful and humible, to remember their covenants and 
above all things avoid everything that will lead to di- 
vision, etc. He made use of the similitude of the pot- 
ter and the clay to show that every man had the priv- 
ilege of being exhalted ito honor and glory if he did not 
mar in the hands of the potter, but would continue pas- 
sive, etc. His remarks were very touching and appro- 
priate to our circumstances. President Young followed 
next on the "Liberty of the Gospel" showing that it 
guarantees all fullness of liberty to every man which 
fact will tend to his salvation and increase, but does not 
give us liberty to break the laws of God, to wander off 
to the mountains and get lost, nor to kill the works of 
God's hands to waste it, etc. He was followed by Elder 
Pratt on the subject of our avoiding all excesses of folly 
of every description, inasmuch as it disqualifies from the 
^ociety of just men and angels. He exhorted the breth- 
ren to be watchful and to seek after wisdom and knowl- 
edge. The meeting was dismissed at half past twelve and 
a company were then dispatched to get poles to lash the 
wagons together to prevent their rolling over when cross- 
ing. Another company were sent over the river to build a 
raft to cross over provisions, etc. The brethren are gone 
to work and are diligently preparing to cross the river 
tomorrow. The day has been very hot, more like a sum- 


mer day than any we have yet had on the journey. The 
ground seems to be alive with the large crickets, and it is 
said that the bears feed on them and pick them up very 
fast. A person w'ho has never seen them could form no 
idea of the vast numbers of crickets in this region. 1 
spent the day writing in Elder KimabU's journal. Phin- 
eas Young came in from the mountain, having killed a 

MONDAY, 14xH. Morning cloudy and cool. At four 
o'clock the first division commenced ferrying their goods 
over the river in the cutter and some time afterwards 
commenced taking the wagons across on a raft which 
proved to be very slow work. The second division also 
began to take their goods over on a raft but the current 
was so strong they only took two loads over in it and 
then quit. The second division then got a rope stretched 
across the river from shore to shore and lashing two 
wagons fast together to keep them from rolling over, 
they dragged them over by the rope, letting them drift 
with the current ito save breaking the rope. When the 
wagons struck on the sand on the other side the upper 
one keeled over, and finally rolled! over the other one, 
breaking the bows considerably and losing iron, etc., in 
the wagon to the amount of $30.00 belonging to John 
Pack. The other wagon had the reach broken and some 
of the bows. They next lashed four wagons together 
abreast and dragged them over the same way. All got 
over well except the upper one which turned on its side, 
but it was righted again without damage. They next 
tried one wagon alone, but as soon as it got into the 
current it rolled over and' over, breaking the bows pretty 


badly. The plan of taking one wagon at a time on a raft 
is the safest, no accident having occurred with it and the 
wagons got over dry but it is very slow and would take 
us three or four days to get all the wagons across. The 
wind blows strong from the southwest which is much 
to our disadvantage. At 3 :30 we had a very heavy thunder 
storm. The rain was heavy indeed, accompanied by hail 
and as strong a wind as I ever witnessed. After the 
storm was over the ferrying was continued, getting my 
trunk, etc., and the loads in Brother Johnson and Har- 
mon's wagons over, and also Harmon's wagon, John- 
son's being got over just before the storm. It took till 
nearly ten o'clock to get the loading into the wagons and 
get regulated. The river has been rising all day and has 
risen very fast since the storm. The men have tried 
hard, much of the time being in the water and sometimes 
up to their armpits which is very fatiguing indeed. When 
they quit at night the first division had got eleven wagons 
over, the second division twelve, making twenty-three 
wagons after a very hard day's labor. There was no 
difficulty in getting the freight over for one man can 
carry it in the cutter faster than all the rest of the camp 
can get the wagons over. 

TUESDAY, 15TH. The morning fine but very windy. 
The brethren continued ferrying wagons over on the 
raft and also built two other rafts The wind being so 
high they could not get along very fast. In the after- 
noon they commenced driving over some of the horses 
and cattle belonging to Brother Crow's company. They 
neglected to take the lariats off the horses and the buf- 
falo horse was soon seen to be drowning. Some of the 


men immediately went to it with the skiff and dragged 
him to the shore but could not succeed in bringing him 
to life. His natural make seemed to hurt him from 
swimming. The rest all got over safely. The cattle got 
over safely also ; the current was very strong, the wind 
high and the river rising which made it look dangerous 
to swim the cattle across. It was concluded today to 
leave several brethren here to make a boat and keep a 
ferry till the next company comes up. By that means 
they will probably make enough to supply a large com- 
pany with provisions. We have learned from; a Mis- 
sourian that there is a large company of emigrants com- 
ing up on the north side of the Platt above Grand Island. 
There are doubtless some of our brethren and if so they 
will probably reach us before we get through. The day 
continued windy and somewhat inclined to storm, but 
they succeeded in getting nearly twenty wagons over be- 
fore night. 

WEDNESDAY, 16rH. The morning fine but strong 
west wind. The brethren continue ferrying. A com- 
pany have gone back about three miles to make two 
canoes on which they intend to build a boat to be used 
here till the next company comes up. Another company 
also went about half a mile up the river to make slabs 
or puncheons to lay on the canoes. A while before dark 
the brethren returned from below with two good canoes 
twenty-five feet long each and nearly finished and ready 
to put together. The ferrying continued all day but with 
great difficulty on account of the strong wind blowing 
down stream. When they started over with Brother 
Goddard's wagon the wind was blowing strong. James 


Craig and Wordsworth were on the raft with poles arc' 
when they got nearly half way across Brother Craig's 
pole stuck in the sand and threw him overboard. lie 
swam back to shore and in spite of Brother Wordsworth's 
exertions, the wind and current carried the raft about 
two miles down the river. It was finally landed by the 
help of the cutter and without accident. They have had 
three rafts working today, two of which they now work 
by oars which are proving to be far superior to poles in 
this strong current. At the close of day there were still 
a number of wagons on the south shore. Those which 
had been brought over could not be easily counted on 
account of their being scattered all along the banks of the 
river for about a mile in length. It was now contem- 
plated to leave a company of brethren at this ferry to 
ferry over the gentile companies for a dollar and a half 
a load till the next company of our brethren arrive. This 
is the object for which the new boat is being built. They 
will thus earn a good stock of provisions for themselves 
and be prepared to set the brethren of the next company 
over without delay and will also be able to preserve the 
boat for our use, for it is the instructions of the President 
that when they have ferried our brethren over to cache 
the boat and come on with them. 

THURSDAY, I/TH. The morning fine but windy and 
cold. The brethren renewed the ferrying early and soon 
after noon they had got the last wagon safely over which 
was a matter of rejoicing to all the camp. Two companies 
of the Missourians had arrived and made application to 
be set over at a dollar and a half a load. When the con- 
tract was made with the first company to be sent across 


as soon as our wagons were over, the other company of 
ten wagons offered to pay the brethren 50c per man 
extra if they would set them over first, making $5.00 
over the stated price for ferriage being ten of the breth- 
ren to work at it. Colonel Rockwood had made a con- 
tract to the above effect with the first company and did 
riot like to break it. However, he received a hint that 
this was Colonel Markham's day for the use of the boat 
and consequently Colonel Markham had a right to take 
the last offer if he chose. He took the hint and they 
went to work forthwith at a dollar and a half a wagon in 
provisions at Missouri prices and 50c extra per man in 
what they preferred for themselves. The afternoon and 
evening was very cold indeed with a very strong wind. 
After President Young and Kimball got their wagons 
over, being about the last, orders were given for the camp 
to come together and form the wagons in a circle near 
the ferry. It took till near dark before all the wagons 
got up. The ferrying was continued all night and till 
daylight at which time many of the Missiourians' wagons 
in the two companies were over. 

FRIDAY, 18TH. Morning very cold and windy. The 
brethren continued working at the new boat, others con- 
tinued ferrying the Missourians' wagons over. It was 
concluded not to start today but wait and assist in finish- 
ing the boat and also to take the provisions on which will 
be realized from these two companies. After dinner, I 
went with brother Pack to fish in the last creek we 
crossed about a mile and a half distance. We found the 
fish numerous and had god luck. I caught sixty- five 
very nice ones which would average half a pound weight 



each. About six o'clock I started back but found I had 
got more than I could easily carry to camp. However, 
when I got about half way, Brother Cloward met me and 
helped to carry them. We arrived at the camp about 
sundown pretty well tired. The afternoon was very 
warm and pleasant. When we arrived the Twelve and 
some others were going to council. I went with them. 
The names of those who are appointed to tarry were 
read over as follows: Thomas Grover, John S. Higbee, 
Luke Johnson, Appleton Harmon, Edmund Ellsworth, 
Francis M. Pomeroy, William Empey, James Davenport, 
and Benjamin F. Stewart. Thomas Grover was ap- 
pointed captain. The President then referred to Brother 
Glines who was wishful to stay but the president said 
he had no council for him to tarry, but he might do as 
he had a mind to. Some explanations followed by Glines, 
but the unanimous feeling of the brethren was to have 
him go on. The President preached a short sermon for 
the benefit of the young elders. He represented them 
as being continually grasping at things ahead of them 
which belong to others. He said the way for young 
elders to enlarge their dominion and power is to go to 
the world and preach and then they can get a train and 
bring it up to the house of the Lord with them, etc. The 
letter of instructions was then read and approved by the 
brethren and the council was then dismissed. 

SATURDAY, 19-TH. Moring fine but cool. At 7:50 
the camp started out again in good health and spirits 
and the teams in very good order. It was remarked by 
several that their stock had fattened so much while 
stopping at the ferry, they hardly knew them. The grass 


appears to be rich and good. The 'first six miles of the 
road was nearly in a west direction over several consid- 
erably high bluffs. At that distance the road turns sud- 
denly to the south and rises up a very high bluff which 
is upwards of a mile from the foot to the summit. There 
is some interesting scenery on the top of this bluff, es- 
pecially a range of rough, course, sandy rocks of a dark 
brown color, rising abruptly above the surface of the 
land in huge masses and ranging east and west. The 
descent on the south side was rough, crooked and uneven, 
and about half way down was a bed of white earth 
mixed with black in places and others yellow. In one 
place you can pick up small fragments of rock of each 
color within a yard of each other. Towards the foot, 
the road is still more uneven and there are several steep 
pitches and rises. At one o'clock we halted for noon 
on a spot of good grass about a quarter of a mile from 
a small spring which is the first water we have come to 
since leaving the ferry which is eleven and a quarter 
miles. There is no timber nearer than the bluffs prob- 
ably two miles away and that is small cedar and little 
of -it. The Red Buttes are nearly opposite to this place 
towards the southeast and appear to be two high bluffs 
of red earth or sand, presenting a very triangular, yet 
interesting appearance. After stopping about an hour it 
was decided to move on to the spring and we started 
accordingly and found it to be a small stream of water 
rising out of the quick sands. At the distance of twelve 
miles from the ferry there is quite a lake of water sup- 
posed to be supplied by a spring. Indeed we could see 
the water boil up out of the mud in several places. The 


grass on the banks of 'this lake is good and plentiful but 
no timber within two miles or upwards. After watering 
teams at the lake, at ten minutes to three we continued 
our journey, bearing near a southwest course over roll- 
ing prairie. At the distance of eight miles from the spring 
there is a steep descent from a bluff and at the foot 
there is a high ridge of sharp pointed rocks running 
parallel with the road for near a quarter of a mile, leav- 
ing only sufficient space for wagons to pass. At the 
south point there is a very large rock lying close to where 
the road makes a bend, making it somewhat difficult 
to get by without striking it. The road is also:., very 
rough with cobble stones. At 7:40 we formed our en- 
campment in a small spot surrounded by high bluffs, hav- 
ing traveled this afternoon ten and a quarter miles and 
during the day twenty-one and a half which is the long- 
est distance we have traveled in one day since we left 
Winter Quarters, and this is considered by all to be the 
worst camping ground we have had on the journey, but 
we were obliged to take it for there is neither wood, 
grass, nor water since we left the spring. The land 
being perfectly sandy and barren, and nothing growing 
but wild sage and a small prickly shrub something like 
those on the moors in Lancashire, England. There is 
some grass in . this place for our teams but no wood. 
The brethren have to make use of the wild sage and 
buffalo chips to do their cooking. There are two small 
streams of water, one appears to come from the north- 
west and is not very bad water; the other is from the 
southwest and is so bad that cattle will not drink it. It 
is strong of salt or rather saleratus and smells extremely 


filthy. Its banks are so perfectly soft that a horse or 
ox cannot go down to drink without sinking immediately 
nearly overhead in thick, filthy mud, and is one of the 
most horrid, swampy, stinking places I ever saw. It was 
found necessary to keep a guard out to prevent the cattle 
from getting into it and orders were given to drive them 
down a little east where feed is pretty good and it is not 
so dangerous of their miring. The mosquitoes are very 
bad indeed at this place which adds to the loathsome, 
solitary scenery around. Porter Rockwell returned 
from hunting soon after we had camped and reported 
that he had killed a fat buffalo about two miles off. 
A team was sent to fetch in the meat which they did not 
return till long after dark. Elder Kimball saw six buffalo 
while riding ahead to look out a camp ground. They 
are represented as being more tame. Myers killed two 
buffalo, but took only the tallow and tongues and left 
the rest to rot on the ground. John Norton and Andrew 
Gibbos left the camp at the springs and went out to 
hunt, expecting we should stay there till Monday. Gib- 
bons has not been seen or heard of since. Norton has 
returned and reports that he has killed a buffalo and 
left it back not far from the spring. About nine o'clock 
there was an alarm that an ox had mired. He was 
nearly covered but soon got out again. 

SUNDAY, 20rH. Morning fine, mosquitoes very 
bad. Two more oxen found almost buried in the mud 
and all hands appeared wishful to leave this place and 
at a quarter past five o'clock we moved out. The first 
mile was bad traveling, there being several steep pitches 
in the road making it dangerous for axletrees. A num- 


ber of the brethren went ahead with picks and spades 
and improved the road somewhat. After traveling three 
and three quarters miles we halted for breakfast at 
seven o'clock beside a small clear stream of spring water 
about a foot wide, but plenty for camping purposes. The 
feed on its banks good and plentiful but no wood yet. 
Elder Kimball states that when he and Elder Benson 
were riding ahead last evening to look out a camping 
ground they came within a quarter of a mile of this place 
but were not near enough to discover the water. A 
while before they arrived here, as they were riding slow- 
ly along, they saw six men suddenly spring up from the 
grass to the left of the road. The men were clothed in 
blankets some white and some blue and had every ap- 
pearance of being Indians and the brethren thought they 
were Indians. The six mouted their horses and started 
on in a direction parallel with the road. The brethren 
also kept on their course. In a little while one of the sup- 
posed Indians left the rest and rode towards the breth- 
ren and motioned with his hand for them to go back. 
They, however, kept on and paid no attention to his mo- 
tion. When he saw them still coming, he wheeled round 
and joined the others who all put spurs to their horses 
and were soon out of sight behind a higher piece of land. 
Soon as they were out of sight Elder Kimball and Ben- 
son spurred their horses and rode to the ridge and as they 
arrived there they discovered a camp of the Missourians 
about a quarter of a mile to the left of the road and the 
six Indians were just entering the camp. The brethren 
were now satisfied that these Indians were Missourians 
and had taken this plan to keep us back from this good 


camp ground. It is considered as an old Missouri trick 
and an insult to the camp, and if they undertake to play 
Indian again, it is more than likely they will meet with 
Indian treatment. Their camp left here a little before we 
arrived this morning and it is now President Young's 
intention to press on a little faster and crowd them up a 
little. We have learned from one of the emigrants a 
few miles in our rear that Andrew Gibbons tarried with 
their camp over night. When he returned to the spring 
and found our camp gone and the Missourians' camp 
there, he told them of the dead buffalo killed by Norton. 
They went and fetched what meat they wanted and 
feasted on it, he joining with them and faring well. At 
a quarter past nine we proceeded on our journey. After 
traveling three miles, we arrived at the Willow spring 
and halted a little while to get water. This spring is 
about two feet wide and the water ten inches deep, per- 
fectly clear, cold as ice water, and very good tasting. 
There is a willow grove extending for some distance 
above and below it which will answer very well for fir- 
ing purposes. The grass is good and plentiful and it is 
one of the loveliest camping spots I have seen on the. 
journey, though the land where the stream runs below the 
spring is soft and some danger of cattle miring. The 
spring is situated between two very high hills and is 
about three rods west of the road and shielded from the 
sun by a bank about eight feet high and the willow 
grove. A little piece before we arrived at the spring 
there are two very deep ravines to cross, which requires 
some care on the part of the teamsters to prevent ac- 
cidents. At a quarter of a mile beyond the spring we 


began to ascend a very high hill which was one mile from 
the foot to the top and the ascent pretty steep. The 
summit of this hill is nicely rounding and considered to 
be much the highest we have traveled over. From the 
top can be seen a vast extent of country to the south, 
west, and north. For about twenty or thirty miles to 
the south there appears to be a tolerably level bottom 
over which our future road runs. Beyond this there are 
vast ranges of high hills whose summits are spotted with 
snow. In the distance to the southwest can be seen a 
small body of water which we suppose to be a part of 
the Sweet Water river. To the west the ridges of rocks 
or hills appear nearer. They are probably not over fifteen 
miles from us. On the north we can see hills a long dis- 
tance. The one opposite Red Buttes, near the spring 
where we halted yesterday noon, appears only a few 
miles distance. The view from this hill is one of ro- 
mantic beauty which cannot easily be surpassed and as 
President Young remarked, would be a splendid place 
for a summer mansion to keep tavern. We then de- 
scended on the southwest corner of the hill an-d found it 
to be just one mile farther to the foot. At the distance 
of three quarters of a mile farther we found a good place 
for feed, being plenty of grass, but no water nor wood. 
At a mile and a quarter still farther we crossed a very 
bad slough which is about a rod across and following 
the road, nearly three feet deep in water and stiff mud. 
Most of the wagons crossed a little to the right of the 
road and found it not so difficult to cross, yet very soft. 
There is also plenty of good grass at this spot. A mile 
beyond this slough we ascended a very steep bluff 


though not very high and the descent on the southwest 
is also very steep. At 2 :45 we halted to feed in a ravine 
where there is plenty of grass and a good stream of water 
about three hundred yards south from the road but desti- 
tute of wood. We have traveled this forenoon nine miles 
over barren, sandy land being no grass only in the spots 
above mentioned. During the halt it was decided that 
President Young take the lead with his wagon and try to 
proceed a little faster. At five o'clock we again pro- 
ceeded, the President's wagon going first; all the others 
keeping their places. I will here remark that it is the 
order of our traveling for each company of ten to go 
forward in their turn. The first ten in the first division 
taking the lead one day, then on the second day it falls 
in the rear of the first division, the second ten takes 
the lead and this continues till each company of ten have 
taken the lead one day a piece. Then the first division 
falls in the rear of the second division which also be- 
tgins by companies of ten to take the lead of the road as 
stated above and when each ten have had their day, 
the second division again falls in the rear of the first 
which continues in the same order. Thus every man lia^ 
his equal privilege of traveling one with another. After 
traveling two and a half miles we descended to the bot- 
tom land again and saw a small stream a little to the left 
of the road where there is plenty of grass. One and three 
quarters miles farther we crossed a creek of tolerably 
clear water about six feet wide and one foot deep, but 
neither grass nor timber on its banks. After traveling 
seven miles this afternoon we turned off from the road 
to the left and at 8:20 formed our encampment on a 


ridge near the last metioned creek where there is good 
feed, having traveled this afternoon seven and a quarter 
miles, exclusive of allowance for turning from the road, 
and during the day twenty miles. We had been in hopes 
of reaching the Sweet Water but it appears we are 
yet some miles from it. The whole country around is en- 
tirely destitute of timber, not a tree to be seen, nor a 
shrub larger than the wild sage which abounds in all 
this region of country and will answer for cooking when 
nothing else can be found. Some anxiety is felt on ac- 
count of the absence of Elder Woodruff and John 
Brown. They started ahead this morning with instruc- 
tions to go on about fifteen miles and if they found a 
good place to camp, to stay. They have not been seen 
or heard of since. It is supposed they have fallen in with 
some of the companies either forward or back and have 
concluded to tarry with them over night. 

MONDAY, 21sx. Morning very fine and warm. From 
this place we can see a huge pile of rocks to the south- 
west a few miles. We have supposed this to be the rock 
of Independence. After breakfast I went to view it and 
found that it was a vast pile of rocks extending from 
south to north about five hundred feet and in widtii, one 
hundred feet. The rocks are large and seem piled on one 
another with the edges up. There is no earth on the 
ridge but a little drift sand in which there are currant 
and rose bushes growing. I saw a large mouse on the 
top which had a long bushy tail like a squirrel. It sat 
up and acted in every respect like a squirrel, but in size 
and color resembled a mouse. At 8:35 the camp pro- 
ceeded onward. After traveling three and a quarter 


miles we arrived on a bed of saleratus which was a 
quarter of a mile across and on which were several lakes 
of salt water. This place looks swampy and smells bad. 
The beds of saleratus smell like lime, but the saleratus 
itself is said to raise bread equal to the best bought in 
eastern markets. Lorenzo Young gathered a pail full in 
a short time with a view to test its qualities. Large 
quantities may be gathered in a short time and when pul- 
verized it looks clean and nice. We are now satisfied 
that the water we saw from the hills yesterday must 
have been some of these lakes as the Sweet Water is not 
yet in sight, but these being high, show at a long distance. 
The water is not very salty but brackish and tastes sickly. 
It is reported by travelers that these are poisonous, but it 
is probable that all the poison there is about them is their 
salt causing cattle to drink freely when they can get no 
other water, and the more they drink, the more thirsty 
they get till they burst themselves, which is said to be 
the effect of drinking the poison, viz. to burst. As we 
passed along a little farther we saw another large lake 
to the left and one to the right of the same nature, their 
banks mostly white with saleratus. At twelve o'clock 
we arrived on the banks of the Sweet Water, having trav- 
eled seven and a half miles over a very sandy road desti- 
tute of wood, water or grass. The distance from the 
upper ferry of the Platte river to this place is forty-nine 
miles by the roadometer. There has formerly been a 
ford here but lately emigrants have found a better ford 
higher up the river. At this place the river is probably 
seven or eight rods wide and over three feet deep at 
the ford, but in some places it is much deeper still. The 


current is very swift, the water a little muddy, but pleas- 
ant tasting. By watching it closely it is easy to see on 
the surface numerous small bright particles floating 
which at first sight might be supposed to be salt, how- 
ever the water itself has not the least saline taste. On 
the banks of the river there is plenty of good grass but 
destitute of wood there being only one solitary tree to be 
seen and that stands beside this fording place. The only 
chance for fuel appears to be the wild sage and other 
small shrubbery occasionally growing in spots on the 
low banks. After we halted, Sister Harriet Young made 
some bread using the lake saleratus and when baked 
was pronounced to raise the bread and taste equal to the 
best she had ever used an-d it requires less of this than 
the common saleratus. A number of the brethren went 
back during the halt and filled their pails with it cal- 
culating to make use of it during our future journey. The 
day has been very hot and no wind which makes it un- 
pleasant traveling. Elder Woodruff and Brown again 
joined the camp on our arrival here and reported that 
they had spent the night in one of the gentile camps 
which are now some miles ahead of us. There are many 
high hills or ridges of the granite rock in the neighbor- 
hood, especially in the east and west, all entirely desti- 
tute of vegetation and which present a very wild and 
desolate as well as romantic aspect. I can describe their 
appearance only by saying that it seems as though giants 
had in by-gone days taken them in wheelbarrows of tre- 
mendous size and wheeled up in large heaps, masses of 
heavy clay which has consolidated and become solid, hard 
rock. The rock Independence lies a little west of where 



we have halted and after dinner I went to view it as 
well as many others. It lies on the north bank of the 
river in this shape : The extreme southeast corner reaches 
to within about three rods of the river and runs in a di- 
rection northwest while the river at this place runs nearly 
a west course. It is composed of the same barren granite 
as other masses in this region and is probably 400 yards 
long, 80 yards wide and 100 yard in perpendicular height 
as near as I could guess. The ascent is difficult all 
around. Travelers appear to have ascended it mostly at 
the southeast corner where there are some hundreds of 
names of persons who have visited it, both male and 
female, painted on the projecting surfaces with black, 
red, and some with yellow paint. About half way up 
there is a cavern about twelve feet long and three feet 
wide at the bottom but at the top about ten feet wide and 
eight feet high, formed by a very large heavy mass of 
rock having sometime fallen over an opening or cavity 
leaving scarcely room enough for a man to enter. How- 
ever there are three places by which it may be entered 
though not without difficulty. There are a number of 
names inside the cavern put on with black paint, doubtless 
being the names of persons who have visited it. On the top 
of the rock the surface is a little rounding something like 
a large mound with large masses of loose rock lying scat- 
tered around. Proceeding forward you descend, when 
nearly half way of the length, to a considerably lower 
surface which continues some distance and then rises 
high again to about the same height as the first section. 
On the top there are a number of small pools of water, 
no doubt collected during heavy rains and having no 



chance to run off, they stand until evaporated into the 
atmosphere. Some of the pools are eight inches deep 
and taste like rain water. It is more difficult descend- 
ing from the rock than to ascend it on account of its 
being hard and slippery and nothing to hang on, and a 
visitor has to be careful or he will arrive on the ground 
with bruised limbs. At three o'clock p. m. they started 
on and on arriving at the rock found it to be one and a 
quarter miles from noon halt. We put up a guide board 
oppoiste the rock with this inscription on it. "To Fort 
John 175 1/4 miles. Pioneers, June 21, 1847. W. R." 
The letters W. R. are branded on all the guide boards 
at the doctor's request so as to have a mark that the 
Saints might know ; and his brand is generally known by 
the Saints. After traveling on the banks of the river one 
mile beyond the rock, we forded over and found it nearly 
three feet deep in the channel. All the wagons got over 
without difficulty or much loss of time. We then con- 
tinued a southwest course four and a half miles farther 
and arrived opposite Devil's Gate which lies a little to 
the west of the road ; and a quarter of a mile beyond 
this, the road passes between two high ridges of granite, 
leaving a surface of about two rods of level ground on 
each side the road. The road then bends to the west 
and a quarter of a mile farther, passes over a small creek 
two feet wide but bad crossing on account of its being 
deep and muddy, requiring caution in the teamsters to 
prevent accident. President Young, Kimball and others 
went to view the north side of 'Devil's Gate and return- 
ing reported that the devils would not let them pass, or 
meaning that it was impossible to go through the gate- 


way so called. We proceeded on a little farther and at 
6 :35 formed our encampment on the bank of the river 
having traveled this afternoon seven and three quarters 
miles, and during the day fifteen and a quarter. The 
feed here is good and plentiful and a little cedar can be 
obtained at the foot of one of the rocky ridges about i 
quarter of a mile back. After we had camped I went 
back to view the Devil's Gate where the river runs be- 
tween two high rocky ridges for the distance of about 
200 yards. The rock on the east side is perpendicular 
and was found by a barometrical measurements by Elder 
Pratt to be 399 feet 4 1/4 inches high. The one on the 
west side is about the same height but not perpendicular 
bending a little from the river gradually to the top. The 
river has a channel of about three rods in width through 
this pass which increases its swiftness and, dashing 
furiously against the huge fragments of rock which have 
fallen from the mountain, makes a roar which can be 
heard plainly in the camp. One of the brethren fired off 
his rifle at the foot of the rock and the report resembled 
much like that of a cannon. Others tumbled fragments 
of rocks from a projection at the entrance about 150 feet 
high, which made a very loud rumbling sound caused by 
the echoes. The scenery is one of romantic grandeur and 
it seems wonderful how the river could ever find a chan- 
nel through such a mass of heavy, solid rock. The view 
from this evening's encampment over the surrounding 
country is sublime. To the east, south, and southwest 
the Sweet Water mountains tower high and appear spot- 
ted with snow ; and about twenty to thirty miles distance 
from the river to the west are also hills and ridges inter- 


spersed as far as the eye can reach, except the land im- 
mediately on the river which appears even for many miles. 
These high, barren, rocky ridges on the north side of the 
river seem to continue for many miles. 

TUESDAY, 22ND. Morning fine. At 7:20 we con- 
tinued our journey and about 200 yards from where we 
camped, crossed a very crooked creek about six feet 
wide descending from the southwest. After traveling 
three miles over heavy, sandy roads, we crossed another 
creek about six feet wide; and three and three quarters 
miles farther, a creek two feet wide. Somewhere near this 
last creek, Brother Lorenzo Young broke one of his axle 
trees which detained him some time. One of the Mis- 
sourian companies came up soon after the accident and 
took his load into one of their wagons and by splicing a 
piece of wood on his axle tree, he was enabled to follow 
our camp. At 11 :55 we halted on the banks of the river, 
having traveled ten miles over a very sandy, barren land, 
there being no grass only on the creeks and river banks. 
During the halt, Elder Pratt took an observation and 
found the latitude of this place 42 28' 25". President 
Young went back to meet Lorenzo but soon found he was 
coming on with the Missourian company who were ap- 
proaching near us. He immediately turned about and on 
arriving back gave orders to get up the teams and pro- 
ceed so as to keep ahead of the other company who say 
they have traveled from Independence Rock without halt- 
ing. However, they passed before we could start and 
got ahead of us. The day has been hot and a little wind. 
At 2:25 we continued, finding the road again leaving 


the river. At half a mile, we passed a very large lake 
on our left which covers an area of over 80 acres of land. 
Its banks are mostly white with the alkali or saleratus. 
After passing this lake the road runs south, passing be- 
tween high sandy bluffs after which it again turns around 
gradually towards the west and descending a steep bluff 
over very heavy, sandy land. After traveling five and 
three quarters miles crossed a creek about six feet wide 
and a foot deep. The bank on each side is very steep 
and sandy, making it difficult for teams to get up. Here 
Sterling Driggs had his harness broken to pieces by his 
horses springing suddenly when attempting to rise out 
of the creek. They cleared themselves from the wagon 
which was hauled up by a yoke of oxen so as not to 
hinder the rest from crossing. The banks of this creek 
are well lined with sage instead of grass which is very 
large and thick on the ground on account of which Elder 
Kimball named this Sage creek. After passing this creek 
one and three quarters miles we again arrived on the 
banks of the river and continued to travel near to it. 
At two and a quarter miles farther crossed a creek three 
feet wide, but not much to be depended on for water. 
At 7:50 we formed our encampment at the foot of a 
very high gravelly bluff and near the river, having trav- 
eled this afternoon ten and three quarters miles and dur- 
ing the day twenty and three quarters miles over mostly 
a very sandy road. This is a very good camp ground, 
there being plenty of grass for our teams which is well 
worth traveling a few miles extra. Front- this place the 
country seems fortified by hills and mountains especially 
on the west. Lewis Barney and Joseph Hancock have 



each killed an antelope during the day, but there appears 
to be no buffalo in the neighborhood. 

WEDNESDAY, 23RD. Morning fine and warm. After 
breakfast I went to the top of the high bluff expecting 
to get a good view of the country west but was disa- 
pointed in consequence of the many ridges or bluffs but 
a little distance beyond us. At seven o'clock the camp 
moved forward and immediately after saw a graveyard 
on the left of the road with a board stuck up with these 
words written on it: "Matilda Crowley. B. July 16th, 
1830, and D. July 7, 1846." On reflecting afterward 
that some of the nuermous emigrants who had prob- 
ably started with a view to spend the remainder of their 
days in the wild Oregon, had fallen by the way and their 
remains had to be left by their friends far from the place 
of destination, I felt a renewed anxiety that the Lord 
will kindly preserve the lives of all my family, that they 
may be permitted to gather to the future home of the 
Saints, enjoy the society of the people of God for many 
years to come, and when their days are numbered that 
their remains may be deposited at the feet of the ser- 
vants of God, rather than be left far away in a wild coun- 
try. And oh, Lord, grant this sincere desire of thy ser- 
vant in the name of Thy Son Jesus. Amen. After trav- 
eling one and a half milejS we crossed a very shoal stream 
of clear, cold water about five feet wide. There is but little 
grass here although a number of bitter cottonwood trees 
grow on the banks. There being no name on the map 
for this creek; it was named Bitter Cottonwood Creek to 
designate it in our future travel. It is probable that this 
stream is caused by the melting of the snow on the 


mountains and if so, could not be depended on for a 
camp ground late in the summer. After passing this 
creek, the river runs between some of the high rocky 
ridges, the road at the same time bending a little south- 
west to pass around them. After traveling five miles 
beyond the last mentioned creek, we again descended to 
the banks of the river where would be a pretty good camp 
ground although the grass is not so plentiful as in many 
other places on the banks of the river. We traveled till 
1 1 :05 on the river banks then halted for noon where the 
road and river separated a little farther and hence we 
would probably not find grass again for a number of 
miles. The land continues very sandy making it hard 
on teams ; our course about west, the day very warm 
with a light south breeze. We traveled eight and a half 
miles this morning. There are some small cedar trees 
on the rocky bluffs which is the only timber seen since 
we passed the Bitter Cottonwood. Latitude of this place 
42 31' 20". At 1 :10 we continued our journey and 
after proceeding half a mile, found the river turns be- 
tween the granite ridges in a northwest direction and 
seems to have but a narrow space to pass through in 
several places. The road at the same place turns south 
to avoid the ridges for over a mile and then bends to 
the southwest for some distance farther. The road at 
the foot of these rocky hills is extremely sandy and heavy 
traveling. On arriving at the south side of the hills, 
we were suddenly cheered with a very plain view of the 
Wind river chain of the Rocky Mountains towering high 
up in the air and perfectly white with snow. Some of 
the peaks appear to run up very high, but we are evi- 


dently many miles from them yet. After we passed this 
place, the road gradually bends to the west and north- 
west and at the distance of six and three quarters miles 
from our noon halt brings us to the banks of the river 
again. We continued on the banks of the river till 6 :20, 
at which time we formed our encampment, having trav- 
eled this afternoon eight and a half miles and during the 
day seventeen. As usual there is plenty of grass on the 
river banks but no wood. There are some dry buffalo 
chips and wild sage which answer tolerably well for 
cooking. The land over which we have traveled, except 
in the several places above mentioned, is perfectly barren 
except for wild sage which abounds, but there is scarcely 
a spear of grass to be seen. These granite ridges con- 
tinue from the Rock Independence to this place, mostly 
on the north side the river. Here they recede from the 
river a few miles and then cease. There are two of the 
Missourian companis camped, one about a half a mile an-1 
and the other a mile west of us and we are given to un- 
derstand we have got a long distance to travel without 
grass or water. It is stated that a man from one of 
these companies left his company a few days ago and 
went ahead to examine the route, etc. On their arrival 
here they found him in one of these rocky hills hid up for 
fear of the Indians. He reports that he has been to 
the pass and that we shall find water about fourteen 
miles from here. He has come from the pass in two 
nights and hid up in the day time to avoid Indians, but 
has seen none. He says it is not over twenty-eight miles 
to the pass from here. After we camped, Burr Frost 
set up his forge and set some wagon tires and repaired 


the wheels of the wagons for one of the Missourians. 
There are no buffalo to be seen yet and not much game 
of any kind. Lewis Barney killed two antelope and the 
brethren mostly killed one or two every day. The Sweet 
Water mountains do not appear very high but have con- 
siderable snow lying on them in some places. They ap- 
pear to run nearly parallel with the river to about from 
twenty to thirty miles distance to the south. 

THURSDAY, 24iH. Morning fine but cool. It was 
calculated to make an early start so as to pass the two 
companies of the Missourians and get the best chance for 
feed at night, but they started out a half an hour before 
we were ready. We proceeded onward at 6:15 and a 
little over a mile from where we camped, found the river 
again bending northwest while the road continues near 
a west course and soon rises a high bluff. On the top of 
this, we appear to have a level road for many miles. 
After traveling five miles from morning, we arrived at a 
level strip of land on the north side of the road where 
there is plenty of grass and apparently swampy and 
soft. It extends in the same direction with the road a 
mile and a half and appears to terminate where the road 
crosses the lower land although the grass and hollow 
continue southward for some distance. Just above where 
the road crosses at the west end there is some water 
standing around a small, circular, swampy spot of land 
probably about a half an acre. Near the edge at the 
northwest corner is a hole dug which is called the Ice 
Spring. The water in the hole smells strong of sulphur 
or alkali and is not pleasant tasting, but under the water 
which is over a foot deep there is as clear ice as" I ever 


saw and good tasting. Some of the brethren had broken 
some pieces off which floated and I ate some of it which 
tasted sweet and pleasant. The ice is said to be four 
inches thick. The water is very cold although the weather 
is warm. A quarter of a mile farther than the spring, 
there is a small lake or spring of alkali on the left of 
the road and a little farther, still another lake. The latter 
is more pleasant tasting than the other, not being so 
strong of sulphur. It tastes very much like lye water 
mixed with salt. The ground around these lakes is white 
with alkali or saleratus and a number of the brethren 
picked up their pails full but we have learned that it 
ought to be used with care, it being so much stronger 
'than common saleratus, if the same quantity is used it 
makes the bread quite green. After traveling from the 
ice spring ten and a quarter miles over a very uneven 
road, we descended a very steep bluff close in the rear 
of one of the Missourian companies. The other had halted 
a few miles ahead and we passed by them. While wind- 
ing around and descending from this bluff we came in 
sight of the river again and about the same time. Elder 
Kimball picked up an Indian arrow point made of flint 
stone and nearly perfect. It was almost as white as 
alabaster. At 3 :30 we tarried a little south from the 
road and formed our encampment in a line so as to en- 
close a bend in the river, having traveled seventeen and 
three quarters miles without halting on account of there 
being no water fit for cattle to drink. The feed here 
is very good and plenty of willow bushes for fuel. The 
river is about three rods wide and clearer and very cool. 
The lat five or six miles of the road were not so sandy 


but hard ancl good traveling. One of the Missourian 
companies have gone on, but the other camped a piece 
down the river at the fording place. A while before dark 
when the brethren were fetching up their teams, John 
Holman, while bringing up President Young's best horse, 
having his loaded rifle in his hand, the horse undertook 
to run back past him and to prevent his running 
back, he jammed his gun at him. The cock caught in his 
clothes, the gun went off lodging the ball in the animal's 
body. It entered a little forward of the nigh hind leg 
on the under side of his belly making quite a large ho-le. 
The horse walked to camp but it is the opinion of many 
he cannot survive long. He appears to be in great pain, 
the sweat falling from his forehead in large drops. Presi- 
dent Young is evidently filled with deep sorrow on ac- 
count of this accident but attaches no blame to John who 
seems grieved very much. The brethren generally feel 
sorrowful, this being the second horse shot by accident 
on this mission. 

FRIDAY, 25TH. President Young's horse is dead. 
The morning is fine but very cool. At twenty minutes 
to seven o'clock, we pursued our journey fording the 
river a quarter of a mile below where AVC left the road 
last night. We found it still nearly three feet deep and 
the current very swift. After proceeding a half a mile 
beyond the ford, we crossed a stream about a rod wide 
which appears to come from the northeast and empties 
into the river a little farther up. Half a mile beyond this 
stream, we turned from the river to the northwest and 
began to ascend a very high bluff which we found pretty 
steep and over a mile and a half to the top. The road 


then gradually bends around towards the river and be- 
gins to descend over hill and hollow and at four and a 
quarter miles from where we camped, strikes the river 
again and continues a quarter of a mile on its banks. 
Here would be a pretty good place to camp, there being 
sufficient grass for a large company. After traveling a 
quarter of a mile near the river we encountered another 
high sandy ridge, the road again winding to the north 
to cross it. The descent on the west side is very steep 
and unpleasant. We strike the river again after trav- 
eling one and a quarter miles from where we last left it, 
but it is the opinion of many that by fording the river 
twice at the foot of the ridge we could save a mile and 
they think it can be forded. Colonel Rockwood has paid 
particular attention to the place and reports that one 
hour's labor for 100 men would dig down the foot of 
the ridge so as to make it good passing and save rising 
the ridge and a mile's travel without fording the river. 
After leaving the west foot of this ridge, we crossed a 
stream about twenty-five feet wide and again a quarter 
of a mile farther the same, only about six feet wide. 
On examining it, we found it to be a branch of the river 
running around a piece of land about a quarter of a mile 
across and forming a semi-circular island. The last cross- 
ing was soft on both banks. The high sandy bluffs on 
each side the river seem to approach much nearer to 
each other and leave only a small strip of low land on 
each bank. At 11 :20 passed a creek two feet wide and 
halted for noon having traveled eight and three quarte r - 
miles, the wind blowing very strong from the northwest 
and making it cold and unpleasant traveling and filling 


the wagons with dust. The latitude at this halt by Elder 
Pratt's observation is 42 28' 36". At 1 :20 we proceeded 
again, our road running on the river banks two miles 
then turning to the northwest and ascending a succession 
of hills one after another for three miles farther, winding 
around and over hill and valley in some places over a 
good hard road, and in other places over rocks and broken 
fragments of rock, making it severe on wagons and re- 
quiring great care in teamsters. About a half mile north 
of the road at the top of this ridge there is a heavy bank 
of snow which some of the brethren went to visit and 
amused themselves by snowballing each other. Brother 
Carrington says there is every appearance of a rich lead 
mine in the same place, he having examined the place 
minutely. The brethren brought some snow to the wag- 
ons and we ate some of it which tasted refreshing in the 
heat of the day. After arriving on the top of these ridges 
we began to descend gradually over rolling land, but the 
descent is not nearly equal to the ascent. At the dis- 
tance of seven and a quarter miles from noon halt, we 
crossed a narrow wet swamp quite difficult for teams 
to get the loads over without help and one and a quarter 
miles beyond the swamp a creek a foot wide and a quarter 
of a mile farther still another one two feet wide. These 
all unite in one about 200 yards to the left below the 
middle creek and then appear to pass under a snow bank 
which at present forms a kind of bridge over the creek. 
At 6 :45 we formed our encampment on the north banks 
of a creek about five feet wide, having traveled this af- 
ternoon eleven and a half miles and during the day 
twenty and a quarter. This creek is very clear and cold. 


Its banks are well lined with willows and about a mile 
below the camp there is a grove of white poplar in which 
house logs may be obtained sixteen feet long and a foot 
through. There are several banks of snow a little to the 
north and some of the brethren have found ice four or 
five inches thick and brought a quantity of it to camp. 
On the banks of the creek there are some groves of 
gooseberry bushes with small green berries on them. 
There are also some strawberry roots and flowers and a 
little white clover has been found, but there is yet no 
appearance of the great abundance of such things as trav- 
elers have represented. The land appears somewhat more 
likely to yield the nearer we approach to the mountains, 
but all calculations for farming in this region would be 
likely to fail on account of the scarcity of timber. It 
would only be natural to suppose that the nights are very 
cold here, while so much snow lies around. It requires 
considerable clothing to keep comfortable, but in the mid- 
dle of the day it is equally hot. Some of the brethren 
have traveled up the banks of the Sweet Water river and 
represent it as tumbling and foaming over rocks and de- 
scending very rapidly on account of the great rise of the 
ground from noon halt to this place. They say it runs 
within a mile and a half south of this but it is probable 
it is only a branch of it as we are evidently not near the 
main branch yet. There is one of the gentile companies 
camped about a mile below, making the third company 
we have passed lately and it is the intention to keep ahead 
of them and have the advantage of the good feed and 
camping grounds. 

SATURDAY, 26TH. Morning very cold and consider- 


able ice froze in the water pails during the night. At 
7:40 we crossed the creek and pursued our journey. At 
one mile we passed a small creek which rises from springs 
a little south of the road where there is a small grove of 
small timber. Elder Pratt has gone ahead with the bar- 
ometer to try to find the culminating point or highest 
dividing ridge of the South Pass as we are evidently at 
the east foot of the pass. Freemont represents that he 
did not discover the highest point on account of the 
ascent being so gradual that they were beyond it be- 
fore they were aware of it, although in company with a 
man who has traveled it back and forth for seventeen 
years. Ait two and three-quarters miles beyond the last 
small creek, we crossed the branch of the Sweet Water 
about two rods wide and two feet deep, the water clear 
and cold. This would be a good camp ground were it 
not so cold, as it must be from the fact that large deep 
banks of snow are now lying on its banks both above 
and below the road. Where the snow doesn't lie, there 
is good grass and plenty of willow groves for fuel. Two 
and a quarter miles beyond this branch we crossed an- 
other stream about eight feet wide on an average, though 
where the ford is, it is nearly three rods wide and two 
feet deep. This water is also very clear and the banks 
well lined with willows and grass. It is considered a 
superior camping ground to the one back. There seem to 
be a great many antelope at the foot of the mountains 
which is about all the game to be seen. After crossing 
the last stream, we climb another high range of hills 
over a good road, gently rolling. From the top of this is 
a pleasant view of the surrounding country but all en- 


tirely destitute of timber except on and at the base of 
the mountains many miles distance from the road. We 
have also a good view of Table Rock to the southwest as 
well as the high, broken, white capped chain of the Wind 
River mountains on the north. At 12:40 we halted on 
the main branch of the Sweet Water having traveled 
eleven miles. The river here is about three rods wide, 
three feet deep and current very swift. The water is 
clear and cold as the snow which lies on its banks in 
places six or eight feet deep. This is a lovely place for 
a camp ground, there being abundance of good, rich grass 
about eight inches high and plenty of willows for fuel. 
Some of the boys and girls amused themselves by snow- 
balling each other on one of the large snow banks a few 
rods below the camp. Soon after we halted Eric Glines 
came up, having left the brethren at the upper ferry on 
the Platte River on Wednesday morning. He camped 
one night alone, the other nights he camped with Mis- 
sourians. He does not assign any reason why he fol- 
lowed us, but evidently considering to repent and obey 
council than to continue obstinate and rebellious. The 
weather is now warm and pleasant and but little wind. 
At 2:20 we moved onward, ascending again on pretty 
high land where we found good traveling. The latitude 
at our noon halt was 42 22' 42". After traveling seven 
miles this afternoon we arrived on a level spot of lower 
land and some grass, and inasmuch as we have found no 
stream as laid down on Freemont's map since leaving the 
Sweet Water, neither is there much appearance of any 
for some miles farther, the wagons halted while Presi- 
dent Young and some others went over the ridge to the 


north to look for a camp ground as some of the brethren 
said the Sweet Water was close by. President Young 
soon sent a message for the camp to proceed, leaving the 
road and taking a northwest course. At 6:45 we formed 
our encampment on the banks of the Sweet Water, at the 
distance of a little over a quarter of a mile from the road, 
having traveled this afternoon seven and a quarter miles, 
and during the day eighteen and a quarter. This is a 
good place to camp, there being plenty of grass and wil- 
lows. There are many small pebbles of hard flint rock 
on the flat land a little back and some almost as clear 
as glass. Elders Kimball, Pratt and some others are 
some miles ahead and not having returned at dark, a 
number of the brethren were sent to meet them. They 
soon returned in company with Elder Kimball who re- 
ported that he had been on as much as six miles to where 
the head' waters of the Atlantic divide from those of the 
Pacific, that Elder Pratt was camped there with a small 
party of men direct from Oregon and bound for the U. 
S. It is now a certainty that we are yet two miles short 
of the dividing ridge of the South Pass by the road. This 
ridge divides the headwaters of the Atlantic from those 
of the Pacific and although not the highest lajid we 
have traveled over, it may with propriety be said to be 
the summit of the South Pass. The Wind River moun- 
tains appear very high from this place but on the south 
there is very little appearance of mountains, Table Rock 
itself appearing but a little elevated. 

'SUNDAY, 2?TH. Morning fine but cold. The ox 
teams started at five minutes to eight and the remainder 
shortly after. We soon met eight of the Oregon men 


on their way back having over twenty horses and mules 
with them mostly laden with packs of robes, skins, etc. 
Several of the brethren sent letters back by them. At 
two and three-quarters miles, arrived at the dividing 
ridge where Elder Pratt took a barometrical observation 
and found the altitude 7,085 feet above the level of the 
sea. This spot is 278J/2 miles from Fort John and is 
supposed to divide the Oregon and Indian Territory by 
a line running north and south. At two miles farther 
we arrived at where Elder Pratt camped last night on the 
head waters of the Green River and although the stream 
is small, we have the satisfaction of seeing the current 
run west instead of east. The face of the country west 
looks level except far in the distance where a range 
of mountains peers up, their surface white with snow. 
There is good grass here but no timber nor in fact any 
in sight except on the mountains. Since leaving the 
pass we have descended considerably, winding around 
and between high bluffs or hills, but the road is good. 
One of the Oregon men is returning with us today and 
then intends to wait for the next companies, etc., and act 
as a pilot for them. His name is Harris and he appears to 
be extensively known in Oregon and the subject of much 
dispute on account of his having found out a new route 
to Oregon much south of the old one. He appears to 
be a man of intelligence and well acquainted with the 
western country. He presented a file of the Oregon 
papers commencing with February 11, 1847, and five fol- 
lowing numbers for our perusal during the day. He also 
presented a number of the California Star published at 
Yerba P>uena by Samuel Brannan and edited by E. P. 


[ones. ! had the privilege of perusing several of these 
papers during the day but found little interesting news. 
Mr. Harris says he is well acquainted with the Bear 
River valley and the region around the salt lake. From 
his description, which is very discouraging, we have lit- 
tle chance to hope for even a moderately good country 
anywhere in those regions. He speaks of the whole re- 
gion as being sandy and destitute of timber and vegeta- 
tion except the wild sage. He gives the most favorable 
account of a small region under the Bear River moun- 
tains called the Cache Valley where they have practiced 
caching their robes, etc., to hide them from the Indians. 
He represents this as being a fine place to winter cattle. 
After halting some time we proceeded onward and 
crossed the stream which is about three feet wide, then 
halted on its banks at twelve o'clock, having traveled six 
and a quarter miles, the day warm. The latitude at this 
halt was 42 18' 58". At 2:25 we started again and pro- 
ceeded over gently rolling land, and good hard road till 
6 :40 when we formed our encampment on the west banks 
of the Dry Sandy, having traveled this afternoon nine 
miles and during the day fifteen and a quarter. The 
country west for many miles appears destitute of timber 
and the view is very extensive. There is very little grass 
to be seen anywhere and not much near this creek. There 
is but little water in the creek at first sight, but by dig- 
ging and tramping on the quick sand, sufficient can 
easily be obtained to supply a large company. Elder Kim- 
ball has been on the road nearly two miles farther but 
discovered no chance for a camping ground better than 
this. Mr. Harris has described a valley forty miles above 


the mouth of the Bear River, and thirty miles below the 
Rear Springs which might answer our purpose pretty 
well if the report is true. It is about thirty miles long 
and fifteen miles wide and tolerably well timbered. We 
generally feel that we shall know best by going ourselves 
for the reports of travelers are so contradictory it is im- 
possible to know which is the truth without going to 
prove it. It is three years today since our brethren Joseph 
and Hyrum were taken from us and it was the general 
feeling to spend the day in fasting and prayer but the 
gentile companies being close in our rear and feed scarce, 
it was considered necessary to keep ahead of them for the 
benefit of our teams, but many minds have reverted back 
to the scenes at Carthage jail, and it is a gratification 
that we have so far prospered in our endeavors to get 
from under the grasp of our enemies. 

MONDAY, 28rH. Morning fine but cool. Many of the 
brethren are trading with Mr. Harris for pants, jackets, 
shirts, etc., made of buckskins and also the skins them- 
selves. He sells them high. The skins at $1.50 and 
$2.00; a pair of pants $3.00, etc. He will take rifles, 
powder, lead, caps or calico and domestic shirts in ex- 
change but puts his own price on both sides and it is 
difficult to obtain even a fair trade. At half past seven 
we proceeded on our journey. M]r. Harris waiting for 
the other companies. After traveling six miles the road 
forks, one continuing a west course, the other taking a 
southwest course. We took the left hand road which 
leads to California. This junction of the road is 297 l /> 
miles from Fort John. We then continued to travel over 
a desert land yielding nothing but wild sage and occa- 


sionally a grass root and weeds until 1 :30 when we ar- 
rived and halted for noon on the banks of the Little 
Sandy, having traveled thirteen and a half miles with- 
out signs of wood, water or feed for our teams. This 
stream is about twenty feet wide on an average but at 
the fording place over three rods, two and a half feet 
deep, muddy water and swift current. There is not much 
grass and no timber except willow bushes. There is a 
variety of roots bearing very handsome colored flowers. 
One of the brethren has picked up a large piece of petri- 
fied wood. It resembles the outside layer of a cotton- 
wood tree next to the bark, and appears to have rotted 
and broken off short then petrified and turned to a solid, 
heavy, hard, flint stone, but retaining its original shape 
and appearance. At 4:15 we commenced fording tin- 
river and found it in no way difficult until a number of 
the wagons had gotten over and the banks began to be 
soft and muddy. Several of the latter teams required 
help. At 4:45 all were safely over with no loss except 
two tar buckets considered to be of no worth. We then 
proceeded on, expecting to go about eight miles farther, 
but after traveling a little over a mile we were met by 
Rider G. A. Smith who introduced us to Mr. Bridger of 
Bridger's Fort on his way to Fort John in company with 
two of his men. Mr. Bridger being informed that we had 
designed to call at his place to make some inquiries about 
the country, etc., he said if we would turn off the road 
here and camp, he would stay with us till morning. A 
camping place being selected we turned off from the 
road about a quarter of a mile and formed our encamp- 
ment near the Sandy at six o'clock, having traveled this 



afternoon one and three-quarters miles, exclusive of al- 
lowance for leaving the road, and during the day fifteen 
and a quarter miles. We have pretty good feed here, 
enough to fill the teams well. A while after we camped, 
the twelve and several others went to Mr. Bridger to 
make some inquiries concerning our future route, the 
country, etc. It was impossible to form a correct idea 
of either from the very imperfect and irregular way he 
gave his descriptions, but the general items are in sub- 
stance as follows: 

We will find better grass as we proceed farther on. 
His business is to Fort Laramie. His traders have gone 
there with robes, skins, etc., to fill a contract, but having 
started later than they intended the men at Laramie have 
taken advantage of the delay and he is going to see to the 
business himself. There is no blacksmith shop at his 
fort at present. There was one but it was destroyed. 
There have been nearly a hundred wagons gone on the 
Hastings route through Weber's Fork. They cross 
the Blacks Fork and go a little south of west from his 
place and pass below the mountains which cross Green 
river. The Green river runs over an extent of country 
of 400 miles. It is impossible for wagons to follow down 
Green river, neither can it be followed with boats. Some 
have gone down with canoes, but had great difficulty get- 
ting back on account of the rapid current and rough 
channel. Cannot pass the mountains close to the river 
even with horses. For some distance beyond this chain 
of mountains, the country is level and beyond that it is 
hard black rock which looks as if it were glazed when the 
sun shines on it, and so hard and sharp it will cut a 


horse's feet to pieces. When we get below the moun- 
tains, the Green River falls into a level country for some 
distance after which it winds through a mountainous 
country perfectly barren to the Gulf of California. From 
Bridger's fort to the salt lake, Hastings said was about 
one hundred miles. He has been through fifty times 
but can form no correct idea of the distance. Mr. Hast- 
ings' route leaves the Oregon route at his place. We can 
pass the mountains farther south, but in some places we 
would meet with heavy bodies of timber and would have 
to cut our way through. In the Bear River valley there 
is oak timber, sugar trees, cottonwood, pine and maple. 
There is not an abundance of sugar maple but plenty of 
as splendid pine as he ever saw. There is no timber on 
the Utah Lake only on the streams which empty into 
it. In the outlet of the Utah Lake which runs into the 
salt lake there is an abundance of blue grass and red 
and white clover. The outlet of the Utah Lake does not 
form a large river, neither a rapid current but the water 
is muddy and low banks. Some of his men have been 
around the salt lake in canoes. They went out hunting 
and had their horses stolen by the Indians. They then 
went around the lake in canoes hunting beaver and were 
three months going around it. They said it was 550 
miles around it. The Utah tribe of Indians inhabit the 
region around the Utah Lake and are a bad people. If 
they catch a man alone they are sure to rob and abuse 
him if they don't kill him, but parties of men are in no 
danger. They are mostly armed with guns. There was 
a man opened a farm in the Bear River valley. The soil 
is good and likely to produce corn were it not for the ex- 
cessive cold nights which he thinks would prevent the 


growth of corn. There is a good country south of the 
Utah Lake or southeast of the great 'basin. There are 
three large rivers which enter into the Sevier Lake un- 
known to travelers. There is also a splendid range of 
country on the north side of the California mountains 
calculated to produce every kind of grain and fruit and 
there are several places where a man might pass from it 
over the mountains to the California settlements in one 
day. There is a vast abundance of timber and plenty of 
coal. There is also plenty of coal in this region near the 
mountains. North of the California mountains there is 
walnut, oak, ash, hickory, and various kinds of good tim- 
ber on and in the neighborhood of the mountains and 
streams southeast of the great basin. There can be a 
wagon road made through to it and no lack of water. The 
great desert extends from the salt lake to the Gulf of 
California which is perfectly barren. He supposes it to 
have been an arm of the sea. The three rivers before 
mentioned are southwest of the desert. There is a tribe 
of Indians in that country who are unknown to either 
travelers or geographers. They make farms and raise 
abunadnce of grain of various kinds. He can buy any 
quantity of the very 'best of wheat there. This country 
lies southeast of the salt lake. There is one mountain 
in that region and the country adjoining in which he con- 
siders if ever there was a promised land, that must be it. 
There is a kind of cedar grows on it which bears fruit 
something like juniper berries of a yellow color about 
the size of an ordinary plum. The Indians grind the 
fruit and it makes the best kind of meal. He could easily 
gather a hundred bushels off one tree. He has lived on 


this fruit and used to pick his hat full in a very short 
time. There are a great many little streams head in this 
nountain and many good springs. It is about twenty 
days' travel with horses from the salt lake, but the coun- 
try to it is bad to get through and over a great part of it, 
nothing for animals to subsist on. He supposes there 
might be access to it from Texas. On one of the rivers 
there is a splendid copper mine, a whole mountain of it. 
It also abounds in gold, silver and has a good quick silver 
mine. There is iron, coal, etc. The land is good ; the 
soil rich. All the valleys abound with persimmons and 
grapes which will make the best kind of wines. Hie never 
saw any grapes on the Utah Lake, but there are plenty 
of cherries and berries of several kinds. He thinks the 
Utah Lake is the best country in the vicinity of the Salt 
Lake and the country is still better the farther south we 
go until we meet the desert which is upwards of 200 miles 
south from the Utah Lake. There is plenty of timber on 
all the streams and mountains and abundance of fish in 
the streams. There is timber all around the Utah Lake 
and plenty of good grass; not much of the wild sage 
only in small patches. Wild flax grows in most of the 
valleys and they are the richest lands. He passed through 
that country a year ago last summer in the month of 
July, and they generally had one or two showers every 
day sometimes a very heavy thunder shower but not ac- 
companied by strong wind. By following under the moun- 
tain south of the Utah Lake we find another river which 
enters into anther lake about fifty miles south of the 
Utah Lake. We shall find plenty of water from here 
to Bridger's Fort except after we cross Green River and 


travel five miles beyond it where we shall have to travel 
eighteen or twenty miles without water, but there is 
plenty of grass. After crossing Green River we follow 
down it four or five miles to the old station then cross 
over to a stream which heads in the mountains west. The 
station is more than half way from here to his place. 
We shall have no streams to ferry between here and the 
fort except Green River. The Indians south of the Utah 
Lake and this side the desert raise corn, wheat and other 
kinds of grain and produce in abundance. The Utah's 
abound more on the west of the mountains near the salt 
lake than on the east side, ten to one, but we have no 
need to fear them for we can drive the whole of them 
in twenty-four hours but he would not kill them, he 
would make slaves of them. The Indians south of the 
Utah Lake raise as good corn, wheat, and pumpkins as 
were ever raised in old Kentucky. He knows of a lead 
mine between the mountains and Laramie on a timbered 
creek near the Horseshoe creek. He has found lead there 
and thinks there is considerable silver in it. It can be 
found in a cave on the side of the mountain not far from 
the road. 

Such was the information we obtained from Mr. 
Bridger, but we shall know more about things and have 
a better understanding when we have seen the country 
ourselves. Supper had been provided for Mr. Bridger 
and his men and the latter having eaten, the council dis- 
missed, Mr. Bridger going with President Young to sup- 
per, the remainder retiring to their wagons conversing 
over the subject touched upon. The evening was very 
fine but mosquitoes numerous. 


TUESDAY, 29iH. Morning very pleasant till the 
sun got up a little, then it was very hot. We started at 
7 :40 and traveled over very good roads through barren 
land till 10:45 then halted for noon on the banks of the 
Big Sandy, having traveled six and three-quarters miles. 
The second division have passed over the river but the 
first division halted on the north side. This stream ap- 
pears to be about seven rods wide at this place and about 
two feet deep in the channel, but it is not generally so 
wide, but deeper. There is some timber on its banks 
and plenty of grass in places for teams. At 1 :30 we again 
proceeded, President Young and some others going ahead 
in the cutter wagon to look out a camp ground for the 
night. Our course still lies about southwest, the road 
generally good over gently rolling, hard, sandy land and 
in some places the surface is covered with loose frag- 
ments of hard rock. After traveling nine and a half 
miles President Young rode up and reported that we 
would have to go at least six miles farther before we 
could get feed. It was then a quarter after six, but the 
teamsters spurred up in order to get through. Most of 
the road after this for four miles was very hilly and un- 
even and in places the loose fragments of rocks made it 
very bad traveling, but many were thrown from the road 
by the spare men. The weather grew cooler towards 
evening, some large clouds rising in the west which fa- 
vored the teams considerably. At 9:05 we found our- 
selves on the lowlands on the banks of the river again 
and formed our encampemnt, having traveled since noon 
seventeen miles and during the day twenty-three and 
three-quarters, which is the greatest day's journey we 


have made since leaving Winter Quarters. The camp 
was formed by moonlight. There seems to be plenty of 
feed for teams but no wood for fuel. Many of the breth- 
ren have gone down sick within the past three days and a 
number more this evening. They generally begin with 
headache, succeeded by violent fever, and some go de- 
lirous for a while. Brother Fowler was seized this af- 
ternoon and this evening is raving. It is supposed by 
some that this sicknes is caused by the use of the mineral 
saleratus or alkali picked up on the lakes and surface of 
the land and it is considered poisonous. Some consider 
also that we inhale the effulvium arising from it, which 
has the like effect. It appears to be an article which 
ought to be used with great care if used at all. There* 
has been no case considered dangerous yet, nor any of 
long duration. 

WEDNESDAY, 30m. Morning hot. We resumed 
our journey at 8:15, several others of the brethren being 
reported sick. President Young, Kimball and others 
rode ahead again. We found the roads very good but 
sandy and filling the wagons with dust. At 1 1 :30 we 
arrived on the banks of Green River, having traveled 
eight miles and formed our encampment in a line under 
the shade of the cottonwood timber. This river is about 
sixteen to eighteen rods wide and altogether too deep 
to be forded. Its banks are well lined with cottonwood 
but none large enough to make a canoe. There are also 
many patches of wild apple trees, and rose bushes abound 
'/earing pretty roses. This river is 338^ miles from Fort 
John or Laramie. There is a narrow strip of land which 
might answer for farming on each bank of the river. The 


grass grows good and plentiful but still not so much as 
has been represented. After dinner the brethren com- 
menced making two rafts, one for each division, and a 
while afterwards Elder Samuel Brannan arrived, hav- 
ing come from the Pacific to meet us, obtain council, 
etc. He is accompanied by Smith of the firm of Jackson 
Heaton & Bonney, bogus snakers of Nauvoo. There is 
another young man in company with them. They have 
come by way of Fort Hall and brought with them, sev- 
eral files of the California Star. They had eleven deaths 
on board their ship during their voyage over, the others 
I understand are doing well, raising grain, etc. Towards 
evening a storm blew up from the west and although we 
had no rain we had tremendous wind. The first division 
finished their raft before dark. There is a slough a little 
down the river where some of the brethren have caught 
some very nice fish, but the mosquitoes are so very 
troublesome it is difficult abiding out of doors. 

THURSDAY, JULY 1, 1847. This morning found my- 
self laboring under a severe attach of the fever, accomp- 
anied with violent aching in my head and limbs. The 
brethren commenced ferrying but got only fourteen 
wagons over on account of the very high wind. 

FRIDAY, 2ND. The day was more pleasant and the 
ferrying continued more rapidly. I got over the river 
before noon but remained very sick. Afternoon the 
twelve had a council and decided to send three or four 
men back to serve as guides to the next company. 

SATURDAY, 3RD. The morning more unfavorable. 
The brethren got the last wagon over before noon, no 
accident having happened, and about the time they fin- 


ished it commenced raining, accompanied by thunder and 
wind. It was concluded for some of the brethren to go 
on and look out a camp ground a few miles ahead so as 
to shorten the distance of the next day's travel. The 
brethren returned about noon and gave orders to harness 
up and proceed, and at 3:15 we moved forward and w/ent 
on three miles, then formed encampment in the midst of 
an army of mosquitoes. These insects are more numer- 
ous here than I ever saw them anywhere, everything was 
covered with them, making the teams restive in the 
wagons. There is plenty of grass for teams and it is the 
intention to tarry here till Monday morning. At night 
President Young gave the brethren some instructions 
about trading at Fort Bridger and advised them to be 
wise, etc. Five men were selected to go back and meet 
the next company, viz. Phineas Young, George Wood- 
ard, Aaron Farr, Eric Glines and Rodney Badger. They 
are to take the cutter wagon instead of each taking a 
horse which cannot be spared by the camp. 

SUNDAY, 4-TH. The morning fine and warm. The 
five brethren have started back to meet the other com- 
pany. President Young, Kimball and others went back 
with them to ferry them over Green River. Some of the 
brethren assembled for meeting in the circle. At 2 :30 
p. m. the brethren returned from the ferry accompanied 
by twelve of the Pueblo brethren from the army. They 
have got their discharge and by riding hard overtaken us. 
They feel well and on arriving in camp gave three cheers, 
after which President Young moved that we give glory 
to God which was done by hosannas. William Walker 
was with them but has gone back with the five brethren 


to meet his wife. The spot where we are now camped 
is opposite to the junction of the Big Sandy and Green 
River. On the other side the river there is a range of 
singular sandy buttes perfectly destitute of vegetation, 
and on the sides can be seen from here, two caves which 
are probably inhabited by wild bears. The view is pleas- 
ant and interesting. During the afternoon one of Brother 
Crow's oxen was found to be poisoned through eating 
some kind of a weed and was much swollen. I under- 
stand it was dead when they found it. 

MONDAY, STH. At eight o'clock we pursued our 
journey, many of the brethren still being sick though 
generally improving. After traveling three and a half 
miles on the bank of the river the road then leaves it 
bending westward. We have now a very pleasant view 
of the Bear River mountains far to the southwest, their 
summits capped with snow. We found the land some- 
what rolling, destitute of grass and several very steep 
places of descent. At 4:45 we arrived on the banks of 
Blacks Fork and formed our encampment, having trav- 
eled twenty miles, the last sixteen and a half without 
sight of water. This stream is about six rods wide, 
very swift current but not deep. The bottoms on each 
side are very pleasant but not much grass for teams. 
There is one place in the road where we might have 
saved a crook of nearly a mile by digging down bank 
which would probably have detained us about twenty 
minutes, but it was not discovered till most of the wagons 
had passed over. 

TUESDAY, 6xH. Morning very pleasant. We started 
on our journey at 7:50 and after traveling three and 


three-quarters miles, crossed Hams Fork, a rapid stream 
about three rods wide and two feet deep ; and this would 
be a good place to camp, there being an abundance of 
high bunch grass on the banks. One and a half miles 
farther we crossed Blacks Fork which appears to be 
about eight rods wide and two and a half feet deep, 
but little grass near it. We then leave the river and wind 
over uneven road with many pitches caused by heavy 
rains washing the land, which is generally barren. After 
traveling eleven miles beyond the last stream, crossed a 
small creek about two feet wide but no grass. At four 
o'clock we crossed back over Blacks Fork and formed 
our encampment on its banks, having traveled eighteen 
and a quarter miles. At this place there is a fine speci- 
men of the wild flax which grows all around. It is con- 
sidered equal to any cultivated, bears a delicate blue 
flower. There is also an abundance of the rich bunch 
grass in the neighborhood of the river back and many 
wild currants. The prairies are lined with beautiful 
flowers of various colors, chiefly blue, red and yei- 
low, which have a rich appearance and would serve to 
adorn and beautify an eastern flower garden. 

WEDNESDAY, 7xH. This morning we proceeded at 
7 :35 and after traveling two and a half miles, forded 
Black's Fork once more. Here also is abundance of good 
grass, wild flax and handsome flowers. After traveling 
two and three-quarters miles farther, forded a stream 
about two rods wide and two feet deep, very swift cur- 
rent, also lined on its banks with bunch grass. At twelve 
o'clock we halted for noon on the banks of the last 
stream, having traveled nine miles over pretty rough 


road. The day very windy and filling the wagons with 
dust. Some of the wagons have gone on expecting to 
reach Bridger's Fort before they halt. At 1 :40 we moved 
forward and found the road more even, though in many 
places rendered bad by the cobble stones. After travel- 
ing seven and a half miles we arrived opposite to nine 
Indian lodges erected on the south of the road. Here we 
halted a while and found Tim Goodale here, one of the 
trappers who passed us at the Platte ferry. There are 
not many Indians here but they appear to have a great 
many handsome ponies. We then continued on and after 
fording four creeks on an average about a rod wide, we 
arrived at Fort Bridger which is proved by the roado- 
meter to be 397 miles from Fort John. We went half a 
mile beyond the fort and formed our encampment after 
crossing three more creeks, having traveled this after- 
noon eight and three-quarters miles and during the day 
seventeen and three-quarters. The grass is very plenti- 
ful in this neighborhood and much higher than we have 
generally seen it. The whole region seems filled with 
rapid streams all bending their way to the principal fork. 
They doubtless originate from the melting of the snow 
on the mountains and roar down their cobbly beds till 
they join Black's Fork. Bridger's Fort is composed of 
two double log houses about forty feet long each and 
joined by a pen for horses about ten feet high constructed 
by placing poles upright in the ground close together, 
which is all the appearance of a fort in sight. There 
are several Indian lodges close by and a full crop of 
young children playing around the door. These Indians 
are said to be of the Snake tribe, the Utahs inhabiting 


beyond the mountains. The latitude of Fort Bridget is 
41 19' 13" and its height above the level of the sea ac- 
cording to Elder Pratt's observations is 6,665 feet. It is 
doubtless a very cold region and little calculated for 
farming purposes. To the west is a pretty high mountain 
which appears well covered with timber. The country 
all around looks bleak and cold. 

THURSDAY, STH. Morning fine but high wind. It 
is concluded to stay a day here to set some wagon tires, 
etc. Many have gone to trade their rifles and some 
clothing for buckskins. H. Egan traded two rifles and 
got twenty pretty good skins for them. The day con- 
tinued warm with high wind. Evening there was a coun- 
cil and some complaints listened to from George Mills 
against Andrew Gibbons. It was decided for Thomas 
Williams and S. Brannan to return from here and meet 
Captain Brown's company from Pueblo. Inasmuch as 
the brethren have not received their discharge nor their 
paw from the United States, Brother Brannan goes to 
tender his services as pilot to conduct a company of 
fifteen or twenty to San Francisco if they feel disposed 
to go there and try to get their pay. Williams came 
clothed with authority to arrest Tim Goodale or one of 
his men for stealing a horse at Pueblo, but he can get 
no encouragement from President Young to make the 

FRIDAY, 9TH. We started at eight o'clock, the 
brethren who go back bidding good bye to the camp and 
proceeding on their back journey while we moved west- 
ward over pretty rough roads. After traveling six and 
a quarter miles, we arrived at the springs and halted 


a while to rest our teams. We then proceeded on three- 
quarters of a mile and began to ascend a long steep hill, 
near the top of which and eight miles from Fort Bridger, 
Elder Pratt took an observation and found the latitude 
41 16' 11". Arriving on the top we found the table 
tolerably level for several miles then began to descend to 
the bottom again. The descent from this hill is the steep- 
est and most difficult we have ever met with, being long 
and almost perpendicular. At three o'clock we crossed 
the Muddy Fork, a stream about twelve feet wide, and 
formed our encampment on the west bank, having trav- 
eled since the halt six and three-quarters miles and dur- 
ing the day thirteen. Here is plenty of tall bunch grass 
and a pretty good chance for our teams. The day has 
been windy, warm and dusty. 

SATURDAY, lOra. Started this morning at eight 
o'clock, weather warm with tolerably high wind. After 
traveling three and a half miles we passed a small cop- 
peras spring at the foot of a mountain a little to the left 
of the road. The water is very clear but tastes very 
strong of copperas and alum and has a somewhat singular 
effect on the mouth. It runs a little distance over the red 
sand which abounds in this region and where it is satur- 
ated with water almost looks like blood at a little dis- 
tance. After passing this spring the road winds around 
the foot of mountains gradually ascending for some dis- 
tance till finally arriving on the summit of a high ridge. 
Here Elder Pratt took a barometrical observation and 
found the height to be 7,315 feet above the level of the 
sea. On arriving at the west side of the ridge two and 
a half miles from the last mentioned spring we found a 


very steep, rough place to descend and found it neces- 
sary to halt and fix the road. About half way down there 
is a place over huge rocks, leaving barely enough room 
for a wagon to get down, but by labor it was soon made 
passable. A little farther, the brethren had to dig a place 
considerably to make a pass between the mountains. Pres- 
ident Young and Kimball labored hard with a number 
of others and in about a half an hour made a good road. 
At twenty miles from Fort Bridger, passed another 
spring and a little farther after arriving on the bottom 
land, the road turns nearly south through a beautiful 
low bottom filled with grass. At 1 :45 we halted for 
noon, having traveled nine miles. Latitude 41 14' 21". 
After halting an hour and a half we proceeded again and 
after traveling three and a half miles began to ascend 
the dividing ridge between the Colorado waters and the 
great basin. This mountain is very high and the ascent 
steep, rendering it necessary to make a crooked road to 
gain the summit. The height is 7,700 feet according to 
Elder Pratt's observations. The surface at the top is 
narrow. Here three bears were seen to run over a still 
higher mountain on the left. The descent was very steep, 
having to lock the wagons for half a mile. We then de- 
scend and travel on the bottom a few miles between high 
rugged mountains till the road seems suddenly to be 
shut up by a high mountain ahead. The road here turns 
suddenly to the left and goes east about 200 yards then 
winds again southwest. After ascending and descending 
another high ridge, we crossed a small creek about ten 
feet wide and at 7:45 formed our encampment on the 
southwest banks, having traveled this afternoon nine 


miles and during the clay eighteen over the most moun- 
tainous course we have yet seen. After camping, Mr. 
Miles Goodyear came into camp. He is the man who is 
making a farm in the Bear River valley. He says it is 
yet seventy-five miles to his place, although we are now 
within two miles of Bear River. His report of the val- 
ley is more favorable than some we have heard but we 
have an idea he is anxious to have us make a road to his 
place through selfish motives. Elder Pratt has found a 
beautiful spring of clear, sweet, cold water about a hun- 
dred yards southwest from the camp. Water excellent. 

SUNDAY, HTH. Morning fine with ice a quarter of 
an inch thick on the water pails. Walked on the moun 
tain east with President Young and Kimball, from 
whence we had a pleasing view of the surrounding val- 
ley which is about ten miles wide. Abundance of tim- 
ber on the mountains south and southwest and beyond 
that plenty of snow. After having prayers, we again de- 
scended and at the foot discovered a very strong sulphur 
spring. The surface of the water is covered with flour 
of sulphur and where it oozes from the rocks is per- 
fectly black. The water in the creek shows sulphur 
very clearly and smells bad. During the day some of the 
brethren discovered an oil spring about a mile south. 
The substance which rises out of the ground resembles 
tar and is very oily. Some have oiled their gun stocks 
with it and oiled their shoes, others have gone to fill 
their tar buckets and are sanguine it will answer well 
to grease wagons. It is somewhat singular to find such 
a great contrast of substances within so short a distance. 
Here is pure water, sulphur, and oily tar within a mile of 



each other, and matter of curiosity all around for the 
contemplation of the curious. Porter, Brother Little and 
others have been out with Goodyear to view the route he 
wishes us to take. They represent it as being bad enough, 
but we are satisfied it leads too far out of our course to 
be tempted to try it. There are some in camp who are 
getting discouraged about the looks of the country but 
thinking minds are not much disappointed, and we have 
no doubt of finding a place where the Saints can live 
which is all we ought to ask or expect. It is evident the 
country grows better as we proceed west, and vegetation 
is more plentiful and looks richer. After dark, a meet- 
ing was called to decide which of the two roads we shall 
take from here. It was voted to take the right hand or 
northern road, but the private feelings of all the twelve 
were that the other would be better. But such matters 
are left to the choice of the camp so that none may have 
room to murmer at the twelve hereafter. 

MONDAY, 12xH. Morning cloudy and cool. We 
pursued our journey at 7 :15. At one and a quarter miles 
rose a very steep, low hill, narrow but very steep on 
both sides. One-half a mile farther crossed the Bear 
River, a very rapid stream about six rods wide and two 
feet deep, bottom full of large cobble stones, water clear, 
banks lined with willows and a little timber, good grass, 
many strawberry vines and the soil looks pretty good. 
About a half a mile beyond the ford, proceeded over 
another ridge and again descended into and traveled up a 
beautiful narrow bottom covered with grass and fertile 
but no timber. Four and three-quarters of a mile beyond 
Bear River, passed a small spring of good clear cold 


water. At 11:50 halted for noon in the same narrow 
bottom near a ridge of high, rough rocks to the right, 
having traveled nine and three-quarters miles. There is 
scarcely any wagon track to be seen, only a few wagons 
of Hasting's company having come this route; the bal- 
ance went the other road and many of them perished 
in the snow; it being late in the season and much time 
was lost quarreling who would improve the roads, etc. 
There is a creek of clear water close by, deep but scarcely 
any current. President Young was taken very sick awhile 
before we halted. After resting two hours the camp 
moved on again, except President Young and Kimball's 
wagons, who concluded to remain there today on account 
of the President's sickness. After traveling one and a 
half miles we crossed the creek at the foot of a high 
mountain and a little farther crossed back again. A mile 
farther, began to ascend a long steep hill, narrow on the 
summit and steep descent. We then wound around be- 
tween high hills till arriving again on a narrow rich bot- 
tom. At the foot of the hill we crossed last, there is a 
spring of very good cold water, and in fact, there are 
many good springs all along the road. At six o'clock we 
formed our encampment near a very small creek and 
a good spring, having traveled this afternoon six and 
three-quarters miles and during the day sixteen and a 
half. There is an abundance of grass here and the coun- 
try appears to grow still richer as we proceed west, but 
very mountainous. There are many antelope on these 
mountains and the country is lovely enough but destitute 
of timber. About a quarter of a mile west from the camp 
is a cave in the rock about thirty feet long, fifteen feet 


wide and from four to six feet high. There are many 
martins at the entrance and on observing closely, can be 
seen myriads of small bugs. It is supposed from ap- 
pearances that there is some property cached in the cave. 
Soon after we camped, we had a light shower accom- 
panied by thunder. This country evidently lacks rain, 
even the grass appears parched. 

TUESDAY, 13TH. Awhile before noon, Elder Kim- 
ball and Howard Egan arrived from the company back. 
A meeting was called but suddenly dispersed by a thun- 
der shower. After the rain ceased, Elder Kimball pro- 
posed that a company start from the camp with Elder 
Pratt to proceed to the Weber River canyon and ascer- 
tain if we can pass through safely, if not, to try 
and find a pass over the mountains. He reported that 
President Young is a little better this morning, but last 
evening was insensible and raving. Colonel Rockwood 
is also very sick and quite deranged. A company of 
twenty-two wagons, mostly ox teams, started on soon af- 
ter dinner, in company with Elder Pratt, and soon after, 
Elders Kimball and Egan returned to the back company. 
The day has been very hot and sultry, and mosquitoes are 
very troublesome. 

WEDNESDAY, HTH. The day has been very hot, 
with occasionally a light breeze. Several of the brethren 
have been out hunting, and brought in several antelope 
which appear to abound in this region. Brothers Wood- 
ruff and Barnabas Adams went back to the other wag- 
ons this morning. They returned at night and reported 
that President Young is considerably better, but Brother 
Rockwood remains very sick. There are one or two 


new cases of sickness in our camp, mostly with fever 
which is very severe on the first attack, generally render- 
ing its victims delirious for some hours, and then leaving 
them in a languid, weakly condition. It appears that a 
good dose of pills or medicine is good to break the fever. 
The patient then needs some kind of stimulant to brace 
his nerves and guard him against another attack. I am 
satisfied that diluted spirits is good in this disease after 
breaking up the fever. At night had a light shower. The 
following is a list of the names of those who are gone on 
to look out and make a road, etc., viz. : Orson Pratt, com- 
mander of company, O. P. Rockwell, Jackson Redding, 
Stephen Markham, Nathaniel Fairbanks, Joseph Egbert, 
John S. Freeman, Marcus B. Thorpe, Robert Crow, Ben- 
jamin B. Crow, John Crow, Walter H. Crow, Walter 
Crow, George W. Therlkill, James Chesney, Jewis B. 
Myers, John Brown, Shadrack Roundy, Hans C. Hanson, 
Levi Jackman, Lyman Curtis, David Powell, Oscar 
Crosby, Hark Lay, Joseph Mathews, Gilbert Sumjme, 
Green Flake, John S. Gleason, Charles Burke, Norman 
Taylor, A. P. Chesley, Seth Taft, Horace Thornton, 
Stephen Kelsey, James Stewart, Robert Thomas, C. D. 
Barnham, John S. Eldridge, Elijah Newamn, Francis 
Boggs, Levi N. Kendall, David Grant. First division: 
seven wagons, fifteen men ; second division : sixteen 
wagons, twenty-seven men besides Crow's family of 
women and children. Total, twenty-three wagons and 
forty-two men. 

THURSDAY, ISxn. Morning pleasant but cloudy. At 
twelve o'clock President Young, Kimball and all the rear 
wagons arrived, eight in number. The President is much 


better. Brother Rockwood is considerably better. Orders 
were given for this company to harness up, and during 
the time till we started onward at half-past one we had 
a very refreshing shower. After traveling two miles we 
passed another spring of good water at the foot of a 
high hill a little to the right of the road. At half-past 
three we formed our encampment at the foot of some high 
red bluffs, having traveled four and a half miles, and 
enjoyed two more pleasant showers. Feed here good and 
a beautiful spring of good, clear, cold water a little to 
the left of the road. The evening fine and pleasant. 

FRIDAY, 16rH. This morning we have had two pleas- 
ant showers accompanied by pretty loud thunder. At 
8:45, we proceeded onward, passing through a narrow 
ravine between very high mountains. After traveling one 
and a quarter miles passed a deep ravine, where most of 
the teams had to double to get up. One-half mile farther, 
crossed the creek and found the crossing place very bad. 
Harvey Pierce broke his wagon reach and bolster. The 
wagon had to be unloaded, but with little delay was soon 
repaired, during which time a number of the brethren 
fixed a new place to cross the creek. After passing this 
place, following the course of the creek, the mountains 
seem to increase in height, and come so near together 
in some places as to leave merely room enough for a 
crooked road. At half past twelve we halted to feed, 
having traveled six and three-quarters miles and are yet 
surrounded by high mountains. As we halted, O. P. 
Rockwell came up from Elder Pratt's company. He 
reports that it is about twenty-five or thirty miles to the 
canyon. They have found the road leading over the 


mountains to avoid the canyon and' expect to be on top 
today at noon. The day is pleasant with a nice breeze. 
Grass plentiful and pretty high, but no timber yet, except 
small cedar on the sides of the mountains. Numerous 
springs of clear water all along the base of the moun- 
tains. During the halt two of the brethren went to the 
top of the mountain on the north of the camp. They 
looked like babes in size. At 1 :40, we proceeded onward 
and found the pass between the mountains growing nar- 
rower, until it seemed strange that a road could ever 
have been made through. We crossed creek a number 
of times, and in several places found the crossing diffi- 
cult. After proceeding a few miles, we saw patches of 
oak shrubbery though small in size. In the same place 
and for several miles there are many patches or groves 
of the wild currant, hop vines, alder and black birch. Wil- 
lows are abundant and high. The currants are yet green 
and taste most like a gooseberry, thick rind and rather 
bitter. The hops are in blossom and seem likely to yield 
a good crop. The elder-berries, which are not very plen- 
tiful, are in bloom. In some places we had to pass close 
to the foot of high, perpendicular red mountains of rock 
supposed to be from six hundred to a thousand feet high. 
At a quarter to seven we formed our encampment, hav- 
ing traveled this afternoon nine and a half miles, and 
during the day sixteen and a quarter. We are yet en- 
closed by high mountains on each side, and this is the first 
good camping place we have seen since noon, not for 
lack of grass or water, but on account of the narrow gap 
between the mountains. Grass is pretty plentiful most of 
the distance and seems to grow higher the farther we go 


west. At this place the grass is about six feet high, and 
on the creek eight or ten feet high. There is one kind of 
grass which bears a head almost like wheat and grows 
pretty high, some of it six feet. There is a very singular 
echo in this ravine, the rattling of wagons resembles 
carpenters hammering at boards inside the highest rocks. 
The report of a rifle resembles a sharp crack of thunder 
and echoes from rock to rock for some time. The lowing 
of cattle and braying of mules seem to be answered be- 
yond the mountains. Music, especially brass instruments, 
have a very pleasing effect and resemble a person stand- 
ing inside the rock imitating every note. The echo, the 
high rocks on the north, high mountains on the south 
with the narrow ravine for a road, form a scenery at once 
romantic and more interesting than I have ever witnessed. 
Soon after we camped, I walked up the highest moun- 
tain on the south. The ascent is so steep that there is 
scarce a place to be found to place the foot flat and firm, 
and the visitor is every moment, if he makes the least slip 
or stumbles, in danger of being precipitated down to the 
bottom and once overbalanced, there is no possibility of 
stopping himself till he gets to the bottom, in which case 
he would doubtless be dashed to pieces. After resting 
about half a dozen times I arrived at the top and found 
the ascent equally steep all the way up. In many places 
I had to go on my hands and feet to keep from falling 
backwards. From this mountain I could see the fork of 
Weber River about a mile west of the camp ; looking back 
I could see the road we had come for several miles, but in 
every other direction nothing but ranges of mountains 
still as much higher than the one I was on as it is above 


the creek. The scenery is truly wild and melancholy. 
After surveying the face of the country a little while, I 
began to descend and found the task much more difficult 
than ascending, but by using great care and taking time, 
I got down without accident a little before dark. Solo- 
mon Chamberlain broke his forward axle tree about two 
miles back. A wagon was unloaded and sent back to 
fetch him up. He is yet very sick. 

SATURDAY, I?TH. Arose to behold a fine pleasant 
morning, my health much better. This is my thirty-third 
birthday. My mind naturally reverts back to my family 
and my heart is filled with blessings on their 
heads more than my tongue is able to express. 
The richest blessings that ever were bestowed up- 
on the head of woman or child could not be 
more than I desire for them, whatever be my lot. Pres- 
ident Young is reported as having had a very sick night. 
A forge was set up and some repairs done to wagons and 
Brother Chamberlain's repaired also. The cattle and 
mules seem very uneasy and continue lowing and bray- 
ing all the morning. I suppose it is in consequence of the 
singular echoes, they no doubt thinking they are an- 
swered by others over the mountains. At 9 :40 the camp 
renewed the journey and one mile farther arrived at the 
Red fork of the Weber River. We also seem to have a 
wide space to travel through and now turn to the right in 
a western course, the ravine having run mostly south- 
west. The distance we have traveled through this nar- 
row pass is twenty-three miles. Yesterday was the first 
day we have been out of sight of snow a whole day since 
we arrived at Fort John. We could not see it for the 


high mountains although surrounded by it. On arriving 
at this stream we see it again on the mountains to the 
east. This stream is about four rods wide, very clear 
water and apparently about three feet deep on an aver- 
age. Its banks lined with cottonwood and birch and 
also dense patches of brush wood, willows, rose bushes, 
briers, etc. By stepping to the top of a small mound at 
the bend of the road, the mouth of the canyon can be 
seen very plainly, as also the mountains between which 
we pass to avoid it. The canyon appears to be about 
eight or ten miles west of us. I should judge not over 
that. President Young being so very sick found he could 
not endure to travel farther. Accordingly Elder Kim- 
ball and some others went to select a camping ground 
and soon returning reported a place a little farther. The 
camp moved on and formed encampment on the banks 
of the river having traveled two and a half miles, the 
day very hot and mosquitoes plentiful. Several of the 
brethren have caught some fine trout in this stream 
which appears to have many in it. In the afternoon El- 
ders Kimball, Richards, Smith, Benson and others went 
onto a mountain to clothe and pray for President Young 
who continues very sick. On returning they rolled down 
many large rocks from, the top of the mountain to witness 
the velocity of their descent, etc. Some would roll over 
half a mile and frequently break to pieces. John Nixon 
found and brought to camp a very singular kind of thistle 
which I have never seen before nor recollect of ever 
reading of the like. He found it on the low land near 
the camp and says there are many more like it. It is a 
great curiosity and worthy of description. The stem is 


about four feet long, about six inches wide and a quar- 
ter of an inch thick. It is formed of a double leaf or case 
and when broken is hollow, although the stem lies close 
together, perfectly flat. It is ornamented with prickles 
from bottom to top. These leaves are but sparsely scat- 
tered all along up the stem. The top is a kind of crown 
and bush formed by the same kind of prickly leaves and 
is about ten inches long by five inches broad, forming a 
very handsome head or crown. But the great curiosity 
of this thistle is a perfect resemblance of a snake coiled 
around the crown as though in the act of guarding it 
against foes. The head of the snake lies on the top of 
the crown at one end and is ornamented by a small bunch 
of flowers like common thistle flowers on the snake's 
head. At the extremity of the tail is a bunch of small 
burrs covered with prickes something resembling the 
rattles on a rattlesnake's tail. The body of the snake is 
formed of the same kind of substance as the thistle itself 
and has a very singular appearance. It seems that two 
of the great enemies of mankind have combined, the most 
bitter and destructive guarding the more innocent. The 
serpent tempted the woman causing her to sin, in conse- 
quence of which the earth was cursed and decreed to pro- 
duce thorns and thistles, etc., but this is the first time I 
ever saw the snake guard the thistle. In the evening El- 
ders Kimball, G. A. Smith and Howard Egan rode down 
the river to visit the canyon. They returned about ten 
o'clock and said they had been eight miles down the river 
but at that distance did not arrive at the canyon and being 
late they concluded to return to camp. 

SUNDAY, ISxn. This morning the camp was called 


together and addressed by Elder Kimball. He reports 
President Young as being a very sick man. He proposed 
to the brethren that instead of their scattering off, some 
hunting, some fishing, and some climbing mountains, 
etc., that they should meet together and pray and exhort 
each other that the Lord may turn away sickness from 
our midst and from our President that we may proceed 
on our journey. It was decided to assemble at ten o'clock 
and at the sound of the bugle the brethren met in a small 
grove of shrubbery which they have made for the purpose 
opposite the wagons. During the meeting, Elder Kimball 
proposed to the brethren that all the camp, except Presi- 
dent Young's and eight or ten other wagons with breth- 
ren enough to take care of him, etc., proceed on tomor- 
row and go through, find a good place, begin to plant po- 
tatoes, etc., as we have little time to spare. The proposi- 
tion was acceeded to by unanimous vote and after a num- 
ber had expressed their feelings the meeting adjourned 
till two o'clock at which time they again assembled and 
listened to remarks from a number of the brethren. El- 
der Kimball again gave much good instruction and proph- 
ecied of good things concerning the camp. The bishops 
broke bread and the sacrament was administered. Good 
feelings seem to prevail and the brethren desire to do 
right. A number yet continue sick, but we expect all 
will soon recover. The day is very hot with very little 
air moving. Elder Kimball consented for me to go on 
tomorrow with the company that goes ahead. 

MONDAY, 19xn. Morning fine and warm, President 
Young considerably better. At 7:45 we started onward 
leaving President Young and KimbaH's wagons and sev- 


eral others. We found the road very rough on account 
of loose rocks and cobble stones. After traveling two 
and a quarter miles, we forded the river and found it 
about eighteen inches deep but proceeded without dif- 
ficulty. Soon after we were over, Elder Snow came up 
and said the camp were requested to halt awhile till Dr. 
Richards came. One of his oxen is missing and he wished 
to go on. We concluded to move on a little to where the 
road should turn off between the mountains to avoid the 
canyon. Elder Pratt went three miles out of his road 
and had to return again. Three-quarters of a mile from 
the ford we found the place to make the cutoff and there 
halted awhile. I put a guide board up at this place 
marked as follows: "Pratt's Pass to avoid canyon. To 
Fort Bridger 74^4 miles." Brother Pack, having charge 
of the company, concluded to move on slowly and be 
making our way up the mountains. We accordingly 
started and after traveling a mile from the forks began 
to ascend and wind around the mountains. We found 
the road exceedingly rough and crooked and very dan- 
gerous on wagons. Three and a half miles from the 
forks of the road the brethren made a bridge over a small 
creek over which we crossed having passed a number of 
springs near the road. Two and a quarter miles farther 
we arrived on the summit of the dividing ridge and put 
a guide board up, "80 miles to Fort Bridger." At this 
place Elders Kimball, Woodruff, G. A. Smith and H. 
Egan rode up to view the road, etc. The descent is not 
very steep but exceedingly dangerous to wagons being 
mostly on the side hill over large cobble stones, causing 
the wagons to slide very badly. After traveling a little 


way, G. A. Smith's wagon wheels gave way going down 
a steep pitch. The spokes are loose in the hub, and 
worked about so that when the wagon slides they dish 
inward, etc. At two o'clock, we halted beside a small 
creek to water teams, having traveled ten and a half 
miles over exceedingly rough road. A wagon was un- 
loaded, and sent for G. A. Smith's loading which is re- 
ported to be two miles back. While they were gone, 
many turned out their teams to graze. At 3 :30 the men 
returned with the wagons, putting the loading into sev- 
eral so as to proceed and at 3 :35 we started forward, the 
road turning suddenly to the right for about three-quar- 
ters of a mile and then a southwest course again. Here 
we ascend a very long steep hill for nearly a mile, then 
descend by a very crooked road. I think a better road 
might be made here and this high hill avoided and save 
a mile's travel. After traveling a little over three miles, 
we crossed a creek about a rod wide and eighteen inches 
deep, pretty steep going down but good going out. We 
went on a little farther and at half past five camped on 
a small spot surrounded by willow bushes full of mosqui- 
toes, having traveled this afternoon three and a quarter 
miles and during the day thirteen and three-quarters. 
The day has been hot and no wind. Teams sweat much 
and it has been a pretty hard day's travel. There is not 
much grass here, but is said to be more plentiful a little 
farther. Several accidents have happened to wagons to- 
day but nothing serious except Brother G. A. Smith's. 
Dr. Richards' wagons arrived in camp at the same time 
the rest did. The sick are getting better. In the evening 
the brethren picked up a lot of dry willows and made a 


coal pit to set G. A. Smith's tire before we can leave to- 
morrow. The evening and night were very cold. 

TUESDAY, 20m. This morning fine and warm. The 
coal pit is burned and Burr Frost set Elder Smith's 
wagon tire and did various other repairs to a number of 
other wagons which took till nearly eleven o'clock, about 
which time the camp started onward. One of Brother 
Crow's men returned from Elder Pratt's company and 
reported that their camp is about nine miles from here. 
He is hunting stray cattle. He says the road is very 
rough from here and about a mile beyond where they are 
camped the road begins to ascend over a high range of 
mountains. Elder Pratt has been to the top but cannot 
see the Salt Lake from there. Their company is gone on. 
I walked ahead of the camp nearly four miles and picked 
many gooseberries nearly ripe. They are very plentiful 
on this bottom. The brethren spent much time cutting 
brush wood and improving the road. After traveling 
four miles, halted about half an hour to water teams 
and eat dinner. The road over which we have traveled 
is through an uneven gap between high mountains and 
is exceedingly rough and crooked. Not a place to be met 
with scarcely where there would be room to camp for 
the dense willow groves all along the bottom. We then 
proceeded on and traveled over the same kind of rough 
road till a little after 5 :00 p. m. then camped on a ridge, 
having traveled today seven and a quarter miles. The 
last three miles has been the worst road of the two, it 
being through willow bushes over twenty feet high, also 
rose and gooseberry bushes and shaking poplar and 
birch timber. Although there has been a road cut 


through, it is yet scarcely possible to travel without tear- 
ing the wagon covers. We have crossed this creek which 
Elder Pratt names Canyon Creek eleven times during 
the day and the road is one of the most crooked I ever 
saw, many sharp turns in it and the willow stubs standing 
making it very severe on wagons. As we proceed up, 
the gap between the mountains seems to grow still nar- 
rower until arriving at this place where there is room to 
camp, but little grass for teams. There are many springs 
along the road but the water is not very good. In one 
place about a mile back there is a very bad swamp where 
the brethren spent some time cutting willows and laying 
them in to improve it. We have got along today without 
much damage which is somewhat favorable for the road 
is awful. At this place the ground around is represented 
as being swampy and dangerous for cattle. It is reported 
that there is no place to camp beyond this till where 
Elder Pratt's company camped and this is so small they 
have to huddle the wagons together. The soil continues 
Isandy, except in the low moist places where it looks 
black and good. There is some pine occasionally in sight 
on the mountains, but timber here is scarce. We have 
passed through some small patches today where a few 
house logs might be cut, but this is truly a wild looking 

WEDNESDAY, 21 ST. We started onward at half past 
six, the morning fine and pleasant. We crossed the creek 
once more and about a half a mile from where w r e 
camped, the road turns to the right leaving the creek and 
ascending the mountains gradually. Much time was ne- 
cessarily spent cutting down stumps, heaving out rocks 


and leveling the road. It is an exceedingly rough place. 
There are several springs at the foot of the mountain and 
one a mile from the top which runs above the ground a 
little distance, then sinks under again. The last half 
mile of the ascent is very steep and the nearer the top 
the steeper it grows. There is considerable timber up this 
gap but mostly destroyed by fire. We saw a prairie 
pheasant while going up and some wild gooseberries. At 
eleven o'clock, the teams began to arrive on the dividing 
ridge and in less than an hour, all were safely up. From 
this ridge we can see an extensive valley to the west but 
on every other side high mountains, many of them white 
with snow. It seems as though a few hours' travel might 
bring us out from the mountains on good road again. 
We halted on the ridge a little while and then prepared 
to descend, many locking both hind wheels, a precaution 
not at all unnecessary. We found the road down exceed- 
ingly steep and rendered dangerous by the many stumps 
of trees left standing in the road. The brethren cut up 
many of them which delayed us much. About a mile down 
is a bridge formed of small trees laid one on another to 
fill up a deep ravine. It is steep on both sides and here 
Joseph Rooker turned his wagon over, however, without 
much damage. A mile and a half from the top is a 
spring and small stream of very good cold water where 
we halted to let teams drink. This would make a tol- 
erably good camp ground in case of necessity. After this, 
the road is not so steep but is very rough and winds be- 
tween high hills or mountains through willows and brush 
wood and over soft places, crossing the creek a number 
of times. At four and a half miles from the top of the 



ridge, we arrived at a good spring of cold water, plenty 
of grass and a good place to camp. Our teams have now 
been in the harness about ten hours without eating and 
the feeling of many was to stay here, but some wanted 
to go on and we continued. Turning suddenly to the 
right a little below this spring we began to ascend an- 
other high ridge and while ascending some of the teams 
began to fail. There are a great many service berries 
on this ridge growing on what we supposed to be wild 
apple trees. The berries are good and rich when ripe. 
The descent from this ridge is not nearly so steep as 
the other one, yet many locked both hind wheels. After 
descending, we found another small creek and a very 
rough road again. At 7 :30, we formed our encampment 
near the creek, having traveled fourteen miles in thirteen 
hours. There is but little grass here and a poor chance 
for cattle. Orson Pratt's company are camped a half a 
mile ahead of us and our camp was formed by Colonel 
Markham. He says they have had many new cases of 
sickness but mostly getting better. The cannon is left 
back on the other 'side of the mountains. About a mile 
back from this place there is a small grove of sugar maple 
and considerable other timber along the creek. There 
are also beds of nice green rushes in several places. 

THURSDAY, 22ND. This morning is cloudy and some 
like for rain. We started on at 8:30 and soon came up 
with Elder Pratt's company. There were several bad 
places in the road where the brethren spent considerable 
time fixing them. As we near the mouth of the canyon, 
there is a small grove of elder bushes in bloom and con- 
siderable oak shrubbery. We named this a canyon be- 


cause of the very high mountains on each side leaving but 
a few rods of a bottom for the creek to pass through and 
hardly room for a road. It is evident that the emigrants 
who passed this way last year must have spent a great 
deal of time cutting a road through the thickly set tim- 
ber and heavy brush wood. It is reported that they spent 
sixteen days in making a road through from Weber River 
which is thirty-five miles but as the men did not work a 
quarter of their time much less would have sufficed. 
However, it has taken us over three days after the road 
is made although a great many hours have been spent in 
improving it. In this thick brush wood arid around here 
there are many very large rattlesnakes lurking, making it 
necessary to use caution while passing through. After 
traveling one and three-quarters miles, we found the road 
crossing the creek again to the north side and then 
ascending up a very steep, high hill. It is so very steep 
as to be almost impossible for heavy wagons to ascend 
and so narrow that the least accident might precipitate a 
wagon down a bank three or four hundred feet, in 
which case it would certainly be dashed to pieces. Colonel 
Markham and another man went over the, hill and re- 
turned up the canyon to see if a road cannot be cut 
through and avoid this hill. While passing up, a bear 
started near them but soon was out of sight amongst 
the very high grass. Brother Markham says a good road 
can soon be made down the canyon by digging a little and 
cutting through the bushes some ten or fifteen rods. A 
number of men went to work immediately to make the 
road which will be much better than to attempt crossing 
the hill and will be sooner done. 


Agreeable to President Young's instructions, Elder 
Pratt acompanied by George A. Smith, John Brown, Jo- 
seph Mathews, John Pack, O.P. Rockwell and J. C. Little 
started on this morning on horses to seek out a suitable 
place to plant some potatoes, turnips, etc., so as to pre- 
serve the seed at least. While the brethren were cutting 
the road, I followed the old one to the top of the hill and 
on arriving there was much cheered by a handsome view 
of the Great Salt Lake lying, as I should judge, from 
twenty- five to thirty miles to the west of us ; and at 
eleven o'clock I sat down to contemplate and view the 
surrounding scenery. There is an extensive, beautiful, 
level looking valley from here to the lake which I should 
judge from the numerous deep green patches must be 
fertile and rich. The valley extends to the south prob- 
ably fifty miles where it is again surrounded by high 
mountains. To the southwest across the valley at about 
twenty to twenty-five miles distance is a high mountain, 
extending from the south end of the valley to about op- 
posite this place where it ceases abruptly leaving a pleas- 
ant view of the dark waters of the lake. Standing on the 
lake and about due west there are two mountains and 
far in the distance another one which I suppose is on the 
other side the lake, probably from sixty to eighty miles 
distance. To the northwest is another mountain at the 
base of which is a lone ridge of what I should consider 
to be rock salt from its white and shining appearance. 
The lake does not show at this distance a very extensive 
surface, but its dark blue shade resembling the calm sea 
looks very handsome. The intervening valley appears 
to be well supplied with streams, creeks and lakes, some 


of the latter are evidently salt. There is but little timber 
in sight anywhere, and that is mostly on the banks of 
creeks and streams of water which is about the only ob- 
jection which could be raised in my estimation to this 
being one of the most beautiful valleys and pleasant 
places for a home for the Saints which could be found. 
Timber is evidently lacking but we have not expected to 
find a timbered country. There may be timber on the 
mountains which the long distance would render impos- 
sible to be seen with the naked eye, but the mountains 
through which we have passed have very little on them. 
In some places may be seen a grove of small fir or cedar 
or pine and in the valleys some cottonwood and other 
small timber. There is doubtless timber in all passes and 
ravines where streams descend from the mountains.There 
is no prospect for building log houses without spending 
a vast amount of time and labor, but we can make 
Spanish brick and dry them 1 in the sun ; or we can build 
lodges as the Pawnee Indians do in their villages. For 
my own part I am happily disappointed in the appear- 
ance of the valley of the Salt Lake, but if the land be as 
rich as it has the appearance of being, I have no fears 
but the Saints can live here and do well while we will 
do right. When I commune with my own heart and ask 
myself whether I would choose to dwell here in this wild 
looking country amongst the Saints surrounded by 
friends, though poor, enjoying the privileges and bless- 
ings of the everlasting priesthood, with God for our 
King and Father ; or dwell amongst the gentiles with all 
their wealth and good things of the earth, to be eternally 
mobbed, harassed, hunted, our best men murdered and 


every good man's life continually in danger, the soft 
whisper echoes loud and reverberates back in tones of 
stern determination ; give me the quiet wilderness an J 
my family to associate with, surrounded by the Saints 
and adieu to the gentile world till God says return and 
avenge you of your enemies. If I had my family with 
me, how happy could I be, for I dread nothing so much 
as the journey back again and when I think of the many 
dangers from accident which families traveling this roac 1 
are continually liable to and especially this last mountain 
road from Weber River, it makes me almost shudder to 
think of it and I could almost envy those who have got 
safely through, having their families with them, yet they 
will doubtless have a hard time of it the coming winter. 
Brother Crow's family especially have very little bread 
stuff with them, they say enough to last them two months 
and they are dependent on the success of their hunter 
for support through the winter. This valley appears to 
be fortified by mountains, except on the banks of the 
lake, on many of which there is still snow lying in large 
quantities. It is certain that good limestone abounds in 
these ridges and it is supposed coal can be found with 
little labor. From this hill I passed down the creek 
which we named the Last Creek about a mile and there 
saw a bed of bull rushes of the largest kind I ever saw, 
some of them being fifteen feet high and an inch and 
a half in diameter at the bottom. The grass on this creek 
grows from six to twelve feet high and appears very 
rank. There are some ducks around and sand hill cranes. 
Many signs of deer, antelope, and bears, but not many 
have been seen here. There have been fresh buffalo 


signs seen a few days' travel back, but those animals 
evidently do not stay in this region unless some come to 
winter. The ground seems literally alive with the very 
large black crickets crawling around up grass and bushes. 
They look loathsome but are said to be excellent for fat- 
tening hogs which would feed on them voraciously. The 
bears evidently live mostly on them at this season of the 
year. After spending about four hours' labor the breth- 
ren succeeded in cutting a pretty good road along the 
creek and the wagons proceeded on, taking near a south- 
west course. We found the last descent even but very 
rapid all the way. At half past five, we formed our 
encampment on a creek supposed to be Brown's Creek, 
having traveled seven and a quarter miles today. We 
are now five and a quarter miles from the mouth of this 
canyon making the whole distance of rough mountain 
road from the Weber River to the mouth of the canyon 
on this side a little less than thirty-five miles and de- 
cidedly the worst piece of road on the whole journey. 
At this place, the land is black and looks rich, sandy 
enough to make it good to work. The grass grows high 
and thick on the ground and is well mixed with nice 
green rushes. Feed here for our teams is very plentiful 
and good and the water is also good. There are many 
rattlesnakes of a large size in this valley and it is sup- 
posed they have dens in the mountains. The land looks 
dry and lacks rain, but the numerous creeks and springs 
must necessarily tend to moisten it much. The grass 
'ooks rich and good. A while after we camped, Elder 
Pratt and company returned and reported that they had 
been about fifteen miles north from here and this re- 


gion is as suitable a place to put in our seeds as they 
have seen. Approaching nearer the lake, the land is 
mostly sunken and many small lakes in it. A few miles 
north of this, is a good spot to break up and plant po- 
tatoes, sow our seeds, etc. There is a little timber on 
the creek. From twelve to fifteen miles north at the foot 
of the mountain they saw many hot sulphur springs is- 
suing from the rocks, as many as fifty in number. One 
of them, the largest, falls out of the rocks and then forms 
a pool apparently ten feet deep and a rock is in the cen- 
ter. The water of this is so hot a person cannot bear his 
hand in it but a very few seconds. It is strong of salt 
and sulphur and the bottom appears green as though it 
was covered with verdigris. A council was held at the 
Doctor's wagon and it was decided to move early to- 
morrow to the place designated; also, to send two men 
back to the President and company to report our prog- 
ress, etc., then to commence forthwith and plow and plant 
about ten acres with potatoes this week if possible and 
thus continue till the seed is secured. John Pack and 
Joseph Mathews were selected to return to President 
Young's company. The evening was fine and pleasant 
and the night feels much warmer than in the ravines of 
the mountains. 

FRIDAY, 23RD. This morning Elders Pack and 
Mathews started to meet the President and at the same 
time the camp moved on to the final location. We trav- 
eled two miles and then formed our encampment on the 
banks of the creek in an oblong circle. The grass here 
appears even richer and thicker on the ground than 
where we left this morning. The soil looks indeed rich, 


black and a little sandy. The grass is about four feet 
high and very thick on the ground and well mixed with 
rushes. If we stay here three weeks and our teams have 
any rest they will be in good order to return. As soon 
as the camp was formed a meeting was called and the 
brethren addressed by Elder Richards, mostly on the 
necessity and propriety of working faithfully and dili- 
gently to get potatoes, turnips, etc., in the ground. El- 
der Pratt reported their mission yesterday and after 
some remarks the meeting was dismissed. At the open- 
ing, the brethren united in prayer and asked the Lord 
to send rain on the land, etc. The brethren immedi- 
ately rigged three plows and went to plowing a little 
northeast of the camp; another party went with spades, 
etc., to make a dam on one of the creeks so as to throw 
the water at pleasure on the field, designing to irrigate 
the land in case rain should not come sufficiently. This 
land is beautifully situated for irrigation, many nice 
streams descending from the mountains which can be 
turned in every direction so as to water any portion of 
the lands at pleasure. During the afternoon, heavy 
clouds began to collect in the southwest and at five 
o'clock we had a light shower with thunder. We had 
rains for about two hours. The brethren have plowed 
up considerable land and broken several of their plows, 
but there have been three plows going nearly all day. 
At night, the camp was called together and addressed 
by Elder Richards on a subject which seemed little wel- 
come to many from the way it was handled. It was a 
sermon of from end to end. Some felt a little in- 
sulted but it all passed off well and jokingly. 


SATURDAY, 24xH. The plowing is renewed and many 
are gone to planting potatoes. There is one drag going. 
Others are still at work on the dams. John Pack and 
Toseph Mjathews returned at dark last night and re- 
ported the President and company a few miles up Last 
Creek. They have gone back this morning to fix two 
bridges at the mouth of the canyon. The day is fine and 
hot with a nice breeze. At a quarter to twelve, Presi- 
dent Young and Kimball arrived and the wagons also 
began to arrive at the same time. The President seems 
much better and the sick generally are getting better. 
Most of the brethren express themselves well; pleased with 
the place, but some complain because there is no timber. 
There appears to be a unanimous agreement in regard to 
the richness of the soil and there are good prospects of 
sustaining and fattening stock with little trouble. The 
only objection is a lack of timber and rain. The latter 
God will send in its season if the Saints are faithful 
and I think yesterday was a proof that He listens to and 
answers the prayers of the Saints. We can easily irri- 
gate the land at all events which will be an unfailing and 
certain source of water, for the springs are numerous 
and the water appears good. About 5 :00 p. m. we were 
favored with another nice shower accompanied by thun- 
der and some wind. It continued raining till nearly 
dark ; the balance of the evening fine. Elder Kimball 
says that it is contemplated to send out an exploring 
party to start on Monday and proceed north to the 
Bear River and Cache valleys. They design taking 
several wagons with then and Presidents Young and 
Kimball accompany the expedition. Another company 


is to start at the same time and go west to the lake, then 
south to the Utah lake and return down this valley. 

SUNDAY, 25TH. Morning fine and pleasant. At ten 
o'clock a meeting was held in the camp and the brethren 
addressed successively by Elders G. A. Smith, H. C. 
Kimball and E. T. Benson these mostly expressing their 
feeling of gratification for the prospects of this country, 
each being highly satisfied with the soil, etc. Elder Kim- 
ball referred especially to the manifold blessings we have 
been favored with during the journey. Not a man, 
woman, or child has died on the journey, not even a 
horse, mule, ox, cow or chicken has died during the 
whole journey. Many exhortations were given to the 
brethren to be faithful, obey the council of those in au- 
thority and we shall be blessed and prosperous. At 1 :00 
p. m. by request of Elder Kimball, the following per- 
sons viz. : Howard Egan, Hans C. Hanson, Jackson 
Redding, Carlos Murray, Thomas Cloward, George Bill- 
ings, Philo Johnson, Charles Harper, Edson Whipple, 
Wm. A. King, Hosea Cusing, Robert Byard, Orson K. 
Whitney and Horace Whitney, assembled themselves 
in a willow grove adjacent to the camp where Elder 
Kimball addressed them in substance as follows : 

*"Most of you here present have become adopted 
into my family, except a very few calling them by 
name and Horace, who hase become corlnected with my 
family by marriage, but I do not care for that, you are 
all the same to me, and your interest is my interest for 
what's mine is yours and what's yours 'is your own. If 
I have the privilege of building a house, I want you to 

"The whole reported by Horace Whitney. 


help me and I will help you. Horace will want to build 
a house for some of his father's family if they should 
come up and there is plenty of timber in the hills. When 
my family comes up, we may conclude to settle some- 
where else. If so, there will be plenty to buy us out if 
we shall have made any improvements. I want you 
all to be prudent and take care of your horses, cattle 
and everything entrusted to your care. It would be a 
good plan and probably will be done for those who stay 
here, to go back on the Sweet Water and kill buffalo, 
etc., for winter consumption. We shall go tomorrow 
if Brigham is well enough, in search of a better loca- 
tion if indeed, such can be found if not, we shall re- 
main here. There should be an enclosure made for the 
purpose of keeping the horses and cattle in nights for 
there are plenty of Indians in the vicinity. I should ad- 
vise you to keep the Sabbath day holy whether others do 
or not. I want you to put all the seed into the ground 
that you think will come to maturity. I am satisfied 
that buckwheat will do as well here as any other seed 
we can grow. I want also some peach stones and ap- 
ple seeds to be planted forthwith. Brother Byard and 
Hans I would like to have immediately engage in 
making garments of buck skins, Brother Cloward in 
making shoes and Brother Johnson in making hats as 
soon as practicable. If you wish to go hunting, fishing, 
or to see the country, select a week day and not the Lord's 
day for that purpose. Do not let us get giddy and light 
minded as the Nephites did of old, but strive to work 
righteousness in the beginning, inasmuch as we have 
reached the promised land. If it is advisable to work 


in a family capacity, we will do so; and if in a church 
capacity, we should be equally willing to do that. I am 
going out on a scout with the brethren and I shall prob- 
ably want one or two of you to go with me and also one 
or two wagons. I am not going to take anything back with 
me to Winter Quarters except what is actually neces- 
sary > even some of my clothes I shall leave behind. I 
shall leave Bishop Whipple with you. He is quite a steady 
and economical man, and as such I recommend him to 
you. I want every man to be as industrious as possible 
while I am gone and get into the ground all the tur- 
nips, cabbage and other seeds you can. In case a storm 
of snow should come on, it would be advisable to drive 
all the cattle among the willows where they can remain 
until the snow goes off. I want you all to work together 
until such time as every man can have his inheritance 
set off to him. I feel towards you as a father towards 
his children and I want you to banish all peevishness 
from your midst and accommodate yourselves as much 
as possible tp each other's wishes. I have it to say that 
my boys have been faithful to their various duties on this 
journey and other people have noticed it and expressed 
the opinion that they never saw such an attentive set of 
men in their lives, and I consider that their conduct is 
worthy of imitation. I want you to be sober and pray- 
erful and remember me and my family in your prayers." 
A number of other good ideas were advanced by Brother 
Heber and then we closed the meeting by prayer. 

'At 2:00 p. m. the brethren again assembled within 
the camp and were successively addressed by Elders 
Woodruff, Orson Pratt and W. Richards sustaining the 


ideas advanced by the other brethren this morning. Some 
remarks followed from Lorenzo Young, John Pack and 
others and the' meeting was dismissed. It is contem- 
plated to send some wagons back to lighten the loads 
and assist the next company over these rough roads. 
It is now certain that there is considerable timber in the 
ravines and valleys between the mountains, several large 
bodies having been seen by the brethren since our ar- 
rival. There is a mountain lying northeast from here on 
which is considerably large timber. It is supposed to 
be about ten miles distance. The northern expedition 
is given up for the present on account of President 
Young's health. A company intend to go tomorrow to 
the lake and survey that region. If they go, they will 
probably be gone a day or two. 

MONDAY, 26xH. Morning cloudy and pleasant. 
The brethren commenced plowing early, others are gone 
to planting, etc., and the brethren appear to feel well. 
Some of the sick have been to bathe in one of the hot 
springs and pronounce the effects wonderfully bene- 
ficial. Others are going this morning to try the same 
experiment. Another company are gone to make a road 
to the timber through a ravine a little north of this. 
About ten o'clock, President Young sent me a horse with 
instructions to join him and some others going on a 
short exploring expedition. I immediately started and 
found the company consisted of President Young, Elders 
Kimball, Woodruff, G. A. Smith, Benson, Richards and 
Carrington. We took a course northward passing by 
the land where the brethren are plowing and planting. 
The land indeed looks rich and light. About three- 


quarters of a mile north of the camp, we arrived on a 
beautiful table land, level and nicely sloping to the west. 
Here we halted to view it and the more we viewed, the 
better we were satisfied that it is as handsome a place for 
a city as can be imagined. At the east part there is 
a considerable creek of clear cold water descending from 
the mountains and just above this place it branches into 
two forks, one running northwest the other southwest 
and the two nicely surrounding this place, and so well 
arranged that should a city be built here the water can 
be turned into every street at pleasure. We passed or. 
and began to ascend the mountains, the President sig- 
nifying a wish to ascend a high peak to the north of us. 
After some hard toil and time we succeeded in gaining 
the summit, leaving our horses about two-thirds the 
way up. President Young felt pretty well fatigued when 
he got up. Some of the brethren feel like naming this 
Ensign Peak. From this place, we had a good view of 
the Salt Lake and could see that the waters extend for 
a great many miles to the north of us. There appears 
to be land, although white with salt, all the way to the 
mountain on the northwest which we had previously sup- 
posed was surrounded by water. We can see a pretty 
large stream winding from the south to the north 
through ,the valley but keeping not many miles distant 
from these mountains towards the lake. After satisfy- 
ing ourselves we began to descend, President Young and 
Lorenzo, who joined us a while before we went up, 
going down on the east side where they were joined by 
Elders Woodruff, Benson, and Richards with the horses. 
Elders Kimball. Smith, Carrington and myself descended 


on the northwest corner and found the descent very 
lengthy and difficult. These hills are mostly rocky of a 
kind of soft stone in some places, in others a harder kind 
of flint stone. On arriving on the level again, we wound 
our way southward to meet the other brethren and after 
passing a little way saw one of the sulphur springs 
where a pretty large stream of sulphur water boils out 
of the rock at the foot of the mountain and thence 
branches out into several smaller streams for some dis- 
tance till these enter a small lake. This water is about 
as warm as dish water and very salty. There is much 
filthy kind of substance collected on it and the smell aris- 
ing from it is truly nauseating and sickly, though gen- 
erally supposed to be in no way unhealthy. Elder Kim- 
ball left us here on seeing Elder Woodruff's carriage 
and the other brethren returning back towards the camp. 
In the meantime, Elders Smith, Carrington and myself 
went lower down towards the lake in search of some 
fresh water to quench our thirst. We found a nice clear 
stream of cold water but a little way from the sulphur 
spring and having drunk of it, we concluded to go on 
and see the river which we had noticed from the moun- 
tain. We took nearly a west course and soon struck the 
old road made by emigrants last year. We found the 
land exceedingly rich all along, good grass and abund- 
ance of rushes. We found many wet places but no 
signs of swamps, nor danger of miring. After traveling 
about two miles, we arrived at the river having followed 
the road to the ford. This river is about five rods wide 
on an average, three and a half feet deep at the ford but 
in other places much deeper. The current is slow and the 


water of a dark lead color. The banks are about five 
feet high and the soil to the water level of a rich, black 
alluvial. There is no timber on the banks here and not 
many willow bushes. We went over the river and 
found the soil equally good on the other side. While 
here we observed Elder Woodruff's carriage and the 
brethren again proceeding northward. We started back 
to meet them, it being the intention to go to the large, 
hot sulphur spring. We could but remark all along, the 
richness of the soil and the abundance of high, good 
looking grass. On arriving at the foot of the moun- 
tain beside another sulphur spring, we saw the carriage 
come on to the first spring but apparently judging it un- 
safe to cross, they wheeled around and returned back to 
camp. Elders Smith, Carrington and myself then con- 
cluded to go on and view the big spring which we 
found to be about two miles farther. Before arriving 
at it, there is a large shoal salt lake and on the banks are 
numerous sulphur springs varying in the appearance of 
the surface and losing themselves in the lake. There 
were many plovers on and around this lake. We arrived 
at the big spring about four o'clock and making our 
horses fast, we went down to where it boils out of the 
rock. This spring is also situated at the foot of the 
mountains and at the base of a large rock, perpendicular 
on the west side and gradually losing itself on the ea>t 
in the mountain. The spring, as I have said, is at the 
base of this rock. There is a circular hole about four 
feet wide and a yard high from the top to the surface 
of the water from whence the water boils out in a con- 
siderable stream. The water itself in the spring seems 


to be about two feet deep. There is a rock at the mouth 
of the spring where a person can stand and see inside. 
Standing on this rock with your face near the mouth of 
the spring a strong warm sulphurous air is felt to come 
in gusts out of the rock and it is so hot that it requires 
only a few minutes to start the perspiration. On putting 
my hand in the spring, I was startled with the heat and 
found I could not bear to hold my hand in five seconds. 
It is as hot as the hottest dish water ever used for 
dishes. Immediately on emerging from the rock, the 
water forms a lake about three rods in diameter and 
evidently pretty deep. The water is exceedingly clear 
and nice to look at but very salty indeed. We could see 
the water boil up in many parts of the lake. The water 
escapes at the north side of the lake at the base of the 
rock and there forms a stream about four feet wide and 
eighteen inches deep. We concluded we would go down 
the stream six or eight rods to wash our feet, naturally 
expecting the water to be cooler, but on taking off our 
boots and socks we found it impossible to hold our feet 
in it a moment and could barely wash by dashing the 
water on with our hands and suddenly dipping them in 
and out. It is supposed this would boil an egg in about 
ten minutes. At five o'clock we returned back to camp 
and supposed that the spring is about four miles dis- 
tance. We arrived in camp at six o'clock. The breth- 
ren have planted about three acres of potatoes, some 
peas, beans, and are now planting four or five acres of 
corn. Elder Kimball stated that on returning with the 
carriage to the creek near the camp to get some water, 
he discovered that he had lost his spy glass. He re- 


traced his steps on foot to the top of the peak and back 
without finding it, and on arriving at the bottom he saw 
Elders Richards and Benson bathing in one of the 
warm sulphur springs. Although wet with perspiration 
he took off his clothes and plunged in and found the 
effects very pleasant and beneficial. After bathing 
they started back for camp and but a few rods dis- 
tance found the glass near the road. Some of the breth- 
ren have commenced making a garden about two miles 
to the southeast and indeed their operations and in- 
dustry are truly pleasing and noble. The more I view 
the country, the better I am satisfied that the Saints 
can live here and raise abundant crops. Elder Kimbail 
has kindly offered me a horse to ride and view the coun- 
try as much and when I have a mind to while we stay 
here. This morning Joseph Mathews and John Brown 
started west to go to the mountain. They returned this 
evening and report that they have been at the foot of the 
mountain and judge it to be about sixteen miles distance. 
They say the wild sage is very plentiful on the other side 
the valley, showing that the land is not so rich there 
as here. They found a horse, near the mountain and 
have brought it to camp, supposed to have strayed from 
emigrants who have previously passed this way. To- 
wards sundown heavy clouds were noticed in the south 
and southwest. We expected a shower, but it passed 
off .to the east. 

TUESDAY, 2?TH. Morning fine and warm. The 
atmosphere appears very different here to what it did 
amongst the mountains. The evenings and nights are 
very warm and pleasant and the air appears pure. Two 


of the Utah Indians came to camp early this morning 
to trade. Two ponies were bought of them for a rifle 
and musket. These two are but of moderate size, pleas- 
ing countenance and dressed in skins. At half past eight 
Amasa Lyman, Rodney Badger, Roswell Stevens, and 
Brother Brannan arrived in camp. They report that the 
Pueblo company will be in tomorrow or the day after. 
The brethren are still busy plowing and planting. P>urr 
Frost has his forge up and quite a number of plows have 
been rigged up by the assistance of the carpenters. El- 
der Lyman, I understand, reports that they heard of a 
large company on their way and he thinks we may expect 
them in 15 or 20 days. Elders Lyman and Brannan 
joined the exploring party with President Young and 
Kimball and the company started off soon after their ar- 
rival. A company of brethren have been to the moun- 
tains to get more lumber to build a skiff. They returned 
this evening bringing a very handsome pine log about 
twenty inches through and which, probably, when whole, 
would measure sixty feet long. The day has been very 
fine and warm. The horses and cattle seem in good 
spirits and are getting fat. They are full of life and 
ambition. Presidents Young and Kimball have had 
their wagons moved a little distance from the camp to 
the other side the creek. During the afternoon, two 
more Indians came in to trade. Some of the brethren 
are making unwise trades, giving twenty charges of 
powder and balls for a buck skin, while the usual price 
is three charges. This is Wrong. 

WEDNESDAY, 28TH. Morning fine and warm. Sev- 
eral of the Indians have remained in camp over night. 


They seem very peaceable and gentle and anxious to 
trade. The brethrn are making a saw pit to saw lum- 
ber for a skiff. Joseph Hancock and Lewis Barney have 
been off hunting in the mountains two days. They state 
there is abundance of good timber for building in the 
mountains but difficult to get at it. The timber is mostly 
balsam fir and poplar and many sticks will make two 
god logs. At half past three President Young and com- 
pany returned. They have been at the Salt Lake and 
report it to be about twenty-five miles distance. No wa- 
ter aiier thev leave the river except salt water. The 
lake is very clear and the water heavy, so much so, that 
a man cannot possibly sink. Even not where more than 
four feet deep and they tried to fall down on their 
knees but could not touch the bottom. They can sit or 
lie in the water perfectly easily without touching the 
bottom. One of the brethren lay down on the water 
and another got on him but could not sink him. They 
suppose the water will yield 35%' pure salt. They gath- 
ered some off the rocks which is as pure, white and fine 
as the best that can be bought in market. 

There is a cave in the mountain west of the camp 
which is sixty feet from the entrance to the far end. 
The Indians appear to have frequently visited it and 
there are yet the remains of their fires. 

There appears to be no fresh water beyond the river 
and the brethren are more and more satisfied that we 
are already on the right spot. At eight o'clock the breth- 
ren were called together and addressed by President 
Young on various subjects, pointing out items of law 
which would be put in force here, his feelings towards 


the gentiles, etc. He said they intended to divide the 
city into blocks of ten acres each with eight lots in a 
block of one and a quarter acres each. The streets to be 
wide. No house will be permitted to be built on the 
corners of the streets, neither petty shops. Each house 
will have to be built so many feet back from the street 
and all the houses parallel with each other. The fronts 
are to be beautified with fruit trees, etc. No filth will 
be allowed to stand in the city but the water will be 
conducted through in such a manner as to carry all the 
filth off to the River Jordan. No man will be suffered 
to cut up his lot and sell a part to speculate out of his 
brethren. Each man must keep his lot whole, for the 
Lord has given it to us without price. The temple lot 
will be forty acres and adorned with trees, ponds, etc. 
The whole subject was interesting to the brethren and 
the items will probably be given more fully hereafter. 
The Twelve were appointed a committee to lay off the 
city, etc. 

THURSDAY, 29xH. We have had a very strong cold, 
east wind all the night and the morning is tolerably 
cool. At eleven o'clock I was moved up to the other 
camp about three-quarters of a mile. At ten o'clock we 
had a light shower. It rained pretty heavily all around 
but mostly passed by here. At three o'clock, the Pueblo 
brethren came in sight, the soldiers appearing in military 
order, many of them mounted. They have twenty-nine 
wagons in the company and one carriage. Presidents 
Young, Kimball and the Twelve went to meet the breth- 
ren and met them in the canyon. They report that they 
had very heavy rain there, the water rising in the creek 


three feet in a very short time, caused by the rush from 
the mountains. The brethren arrived at the lower camp 
at half past three and marched in headed by the fifes and 
side drum. They have camped a little west of the other 
camp. The brethren are represented as feeling well and 
cheerful. At five o'clock the Twelve retusned here and 
an hour later went over north to the mountains, I sup- 
pose to hold a council. 

FRIDAY, 30rn. 'Day warm. Twelve held a coun- 
cil with the officer of the battalion, then rode up to the 
hot spring. Evening a general meeting of the camp 
and addressed by President Young. He told his feel- 
ings concerning the soldiers, they have saved the people 
by going when required, etc. He rejoiced that they are 
here. He expressed his feelings warmly towards the 
brethren and also told his feelings towards the gentiles. 
The meeting was opened by hosannas three times and 
closed by requesting the battalion to build a bower to- 
morrow on the temple lot where we can assemble for 
meetings, etc. 

SATURDAY, 31 ST. This morning the brethren com- 
menced making the bower on the temple lot a little south- 
west from our camp. They will make it about forty feet 
long and twenty-eight feet wide. Walked with Presi- 
dent Young, Kimball, Richards and others to the Mis- 
sissippi camp. Brother Thomas Richardson is very sick 
and several others of the soldiers. Soloman Tindal is 
yet alive but looks feeble. Elder Kimball conversed 
sometime with Captain James Brown. There are from 
twenty to thirty of the Utah Indians here and some 
squaws trading with the brethren. They are generally 


of low stature, pleasing countenance but poorly clad. 
While we were there, a dispute arose between two of the 
young men and they went to fighting very fiercely. One 
broke his gun stock on the other's head and I expected 
to see a pretty serious affray, many of the others gath- 
ering around. Soon an old man came up, father to 
one of the young men engaged in the quarrel and he 
used his heavy whip very freely about both their heads 
and faces. The antagonist of the son struck the old man 
and he immediately gathered a long pole and broke it 
over the young man's head. He succeeded in quelling 
the broil and gave them a long lecture. They then 
mostly left and resumed their trading a little distance 
from the camp. In the afternoon, we had a pretty smart 
thunder shower and considerable wind. In the evening 
I walked down to the Pueblo camp and there learned 
the following particulars : 

These Indians who are now here are of the Sho- 
shones, about fifteen or twenty in number, and several 
women among them. There were four or five of the 
Utahs here this morning when the Shoshones came 
up. One of the Utahs had stolen a horse from one of the 
Shoshones and the latter party saw him with the horse 
here. He had traded the horse for a rifle but was un- 
willing either to give up the horse or rifle hence the 
quarrel spoken of above. When the old man separated 
them, the thief went down and hid himself in the camp 
below. Soon after, he saw another horse walking by. 
which he knew to belong to the Shoshones. He sprang 
on his own horse and drove the other one before him to- 
wards the mountains on the southeast as hard as he 


could ride. The Shoshones being informed of it, four of 
them started in pursuit and as he got in between the 
mountains they closed in on him, one of the pursuers 
shooting him dead while another one shot his horse. 
They returned and made this report to the others of 
the tribe at the camp at the same time exhibiting fresh 
blood on one of the rifles. They appear to be much ex- 
cited and continually on the watch. When the men re- 
turned, they sat down and made a meal of some of these 
large crickets. They appear to be crisped over the fire 
which is all the cooking required. Many of the breth- 
ern have traded muskets and rifles for horses and ordi- 
nary muskets will buy a pretty good horse. They appear 
to be displeased 'because we have traded with the Utahs 
and say they own this land, that that the Utahs have come 
over the line, etc. They signified by signs that they 
wanted to sell us the land for powder and lead. The 
Shoshones are poorer clad than the Utahs. They are 
about the same in stature and there are many pleasing 
countenances among them. Colonel Markham reports 
that there are three lots of land already broke. One 
lot of thirty-five acres of which two-thirds is already 
planted with buckwheat, corn, oats, etc. One lot of eight 
acres which is all planted with corn, potatoes, beans, etc. 
And a garden of ten acres, four acres of which is sown 
with garden seed. He says there are about three acres 
of corn already up about two inches above the ground 
and some beans and potatoes up too. This is the result of 
eight days' labor, besides making a road to the timber, 
hauling and sawing timber for a boat, making and re- 


pairing plows, etc. There have been thirteen plows and 
three harrows worked during the week. 

SUNDAY, IST. We have had another cool windy 
night. At ten o'clock in the morning the brethren as- 
sembled for meeting under the bower on the temple lot, 
all the members of the quorum of the Twelve being pres- 
ent except President Young who is quite sick again. Af- 
ter the meeting had been opened by singing and prayer 
by Elder G. A. Smith, Elder Kimball arose and made 
some remarks to the following effect, as reported by 
Brother Bullock: "I would enquire whether there is a 
guard out around our cattle ; if not, let one be placed im- 
mediately. The Indians left here very suddenly this 
morning and we don't know their object. If we don't 
take good care of what we have, we will not bave any 
more. It is all in the world we shall ever have, for 'to 
him that receiveth I will give more: We are the sons of 
God and He will do with us as we would do to our chil- 
dren, and inasmuch as I am faithful in taking care of my 
leighbors' goods, I shall be entitled to the same from 
them, for we are commanded to do unto others as we 
want others to do to us. Every penurious man who takes 
advantage of others will come down to poverty. If we 
have to follow the steps of our Savior we have to fol- 
low and experience the same things ; you will have to feel 
for men so as to know how to sympathize with them and 
then you can feel for them. I feel for this people and 
grow more feeling for them every day. Our Father in 
Heaven is more tender to us than any mother to her lit- 
tle child. Tf I am faithful to serve- others, others will 
be willing to serve me." 


Orson Pratt requested the prayers of the Saints in 
his behalf: "It is with peculiar feelings that I arise be- 
fore so many of the Saints in this uncultivated region in- 
habited by savages. My mind is full of reflection on the 
scenes through which we have passed and .being brought 
through the deserts of sage to this distant region. God's 
ways are not as our ways. It is not wisdom that the 
Saints should always foresee the difficulties they have to 
encounter for then they would not be trials. We ex- 
pected some revelations to take place and behold they arc 
revealed in the Book of Mormon and Doctrine and Cov- 
enants, for we are to congregate among the remnants of 
Joseph. We did think our wives and children would be 
built up among the strongholds of the gentiles, we 
thought we should be as Mfissourians to them. Jehovah 
had different purposes. He designed that this people 
should be brought out almost as an entire people. The 
Book of Mormon never would have been fulfilled if the 
Saints had not left the gentiles as a people, for when the 
gentiles rejected the Gospel it was to be taken among the 
Lamanites. So long as the Gospel, the Priesthood and 
the main body of the people remained with them, the full- 
ness of the Gospel was not taken away from the gen- 
tiles. This movement is one of the greatest that has 
taken place among this people. I feel thankful as one of 
the Twelve for the privilege of coming out as one of the 
pioneers to this glorious valley where we can build up a 
city to the Lord. For many years I have not read that 
good old book, but I remember the predictions in it and 
some that are now very nearly fulfilled by us. Isaiah 
says, (Chapter 62 ) speaking of the City of Zion, it shall 


be 'Sought out, a city not forsaken,' etc. Many in this 
congregation know what is meant by the garments of 
salvation and the robe of righteousness. Righteousness 
and praise shall spring forth before all the nations of 
the earth and they will not hold their peace. There are 
many of you that feel you can cry day and night to the 
people in ithe cause of righteousness until it shall tri- 
umph. 'For as a young man marrieth a virgin,' etc., 
this belongs and refers to us. 'I will no longer give thy 
corn to be meat for thine enemy.' This has not been ful- 
filled heretofore but will be. The corn that we toil to 
raise from the earth, it shall not be given to our enemies, 
they that gather it shall eat it, and they shall drink- 
in the courts of His holiness. This wine is also to be 
drunk in the courts of the Lord's house. We have gath- 
ered out the stones out of the road and thousands will yet 
fulfil this prophecy. It has reference to the latter times 
that were to dawn upon the world in the last dispensa- 
tion. 'Thou shalt be called. Sought out, A city not for- 
saken.' If ever there was a place sought out it is this, 
we have enquired diligently and have found it. This 
cannot refer to Jerusalem, but to this very place, point 
and spot that the pioneers have found where a city shall 
be built unto the Lord, where righteousness will reign 
and iniquity not be allowed. Isaiah and Joel both spake 
very plainly on this subject. 'It shall come to pass in 
the last days that the house of the Lord shall be estab- 
lished,' etc. In what part of the earth could it be estab- 
lished more than in this place where this congregation is 
gathered. In the midst of the spires of the mountains 
we have found a place large enough to gather a few 


thousand of the Saints. You may travel Europe, Asia, 
Africa and America but you cannot find a place much 
higher where any people can raise crops and sustain 
themselves. The hou?e of the Lord will be established 
on the tops of the mountains when we shall have once 
reared here. The experience of the Saints proves that 
there was no house of the Lord, and we can say : travel 
over this earth but you cannot find the house of the 
Lord. The Lord must give the pattern of the building 
and order it, and give directions to His servants. The 
Lord wants His house built precisely to the pattern that 
He gives and He is bound to speak to and bless and 
make them His own children in that house and I verily 
believe I shall see it and see thousands come flocking to 
the house to learn the way of salvation. And I want 
to see the time that I shall see thousands raising their 
voices on this consecrated land. There are many testi- 
monies in the prophets all bearing upon this subject. 
Joseph, in the Book of Doctrine and Covenants speaks of 
this very subject and it appears there will be some sin- 
ners in Zion who will be afraid and a devouring fire 
will rest upon every dwelling place in Zion. 'He that 
walketh righteously' etc., 'He shall dwell on high, bread 
shall be given him, his water shall be sure.' Isaiah was 
on the eastern continent when he spoke this and was 
speaking of a very distant place. It will be pretty dif- 
ficult to get a ship of war up to this place. When we get 
used to this healthy climate, the people will not say, I 
am sick, but will be able to smite the gentiles. They will 
grow up strong and will not be in jeopardy from sick- 
ness. The wilderness shall become as a fruitful field and 


a fruitful field as a forest. We know the time will come 
that the great Jehovah will cause springs of water to 
gush out of the desert lands and we shall see the lands 
survive that the gentiles have~defiled. Isaiah speaks of 
the heritage of Jacob being in a high place. This is about 
four thousand feet above the level of the sea and the 
high mountains will still catch the hail and we shall be in 
a low place. We will not feel discouraged but will feel 
full of vigor and circumscribe all things to the very 
heavens, for this is what we desire above all things. Let 
us endeavor to covenant in our hearts, that we will serve 
the Lord ; that we will keep His commandments and obey 
His counsel. I wish that all of us should be faithful and 
as President Young said the other evening, every man is 
expected to do his duty. The Lord will be with us still ; 
He will shield, guard and defend us by da}- and be our 
refuge by night, and our salvation. I feel to say in the 
name of the Lord Jesus Christ, you shall be blest if you 
keep the commandments of God. Amen." 

Elder Kimball hopes the brethren will be attentive 
to what they hear for if you bring an evil upon this peo- 
ple you will bring destruction upon yourself. If you do 
things according to counsel and they are wrong, the con- 
sequences will fall on the heads of those who counseled 
you, so don't be troubled. I do not want to be wrapt in 
the skins of some men who have taken a course that has 
brought destruction upon themselves and others, and they 
will have to answer for it. I am a man that would not 
speak to a man's daughter to marry her until I have 
first spoken to her father and mother also, and then it is 
done by common consent. But I preach the truth, every 


word of it. President Young instructed the Battalion 
last evening and counseled them for their comfort and the 
counsel is for the brethren to keep their guns and their 
powder and their balls and lead and not let the Indians 
have it for they will shoot down our cattle. They stole 
guns yesterday and had them under their blankets and if 
you don't attend to this you are heating a kettle of boil- 
ing water to scald your own feet. If you listen to counsel 
you will let them alone and let them eat the crickets, 
there's a plenty of them. I understand they offered to 
sell the land and we were to buy it of them, the Utahs 
would want pay for it too. The land belongs to our 
Father in Heaven and we calculate to plow and plant it 
and no man will have power to sell his inheritance for he 
cannot remove it ; it belongs to the Lord. I am glad I 
have come to a place where I feel free. I am satisfied 
and we are in a goodly land. My family is back, my 
teams are helping on several families and leaving ours. 
1 f my family were here I would not go over that road 
again. I believe in Brother Joseph's religion which he 
said was a key that would save every man or woman, and 
that it is for every man to mind his own business and let 
other people's business alone. We will all have farms 
and cultivate them and plant vineyards, and if we are 
faithful, five years will not pass away before we are bet- 
ter off than we ever were in Nauvoo. If we had brought 
our families along everybody else would have come ; and 
we must lose another year. We could not bring all the 
soldier's families for the same reason that ,we did not 
bring our own families. I thank the Lord that there 
are so many of the soldiers here. If they had tarried 


in Winter Quarters there would have been many more 
deaths among them. We brought many of these pioneers 
to save their lives, many of them were very sick and were 
carried out of their beds and put into the wagons. They 
have mostly recovered their health and we have been 
prosperous and have been permitted to arrive here alive. 
There has not one died on the journey, nor an ox nor 
horse nor Anything except one of Brother Crow's oxen 
which was poisoned. We lost several horses by acci- 
dent and we shall be prosperous on our journey back 
again if we are faithful, those of us who go, and we 
shall see and enjoy the society of our families again. 
We will one day have a house built here and have the 
forts and go into the house and administer for our dead/' 
Elder Richards then read an order from Lieut. Cooke 
of the Mormon Battalion on the Pacific, after which 
Elder Bullock read a letter from Jefferson Hunt to 
James Brown, dated July 6, 1847, after which and a 
few other remarks, the meeting was dismissed. 

At 2 :25 the congregation assembled and opened by- 
singing and prayer by Elder Woodruff. Bread and wa- 
ter were then administered by the bishops after which El- 
der Richards, after a few preliminary remarks read the 
"'Word and will of the Lord," as given in Winter Quar- 
ters. Elder Kimball made some remarks and the breth- 
ren manifested that they received and would obey the 
revelations by uplifted hand. He was followed by re- 
marks by Elder Amasa Lyman, mostly sustaining the 
positions taken by the previous speakers. Elder Kimball 
again rose to lay before the brethren some items of 
business, whereupon it was decided that the three com- 


panics form into one camp and labor together ;that the of- 
ficers be a committee to form the corral, and that the cor- 
ral be formed tomorrow. That horses and mules be tied 
near the camp at nights ; that we build houses instead of 
living in wagons this winter : that we go to work im- 
mediately putting up houses ; that we work unitedly ; that 
the houses form a stockade or fort to keep out the In- 
dians ; that our women and children be not abused and 
that 'we let the Indians alone. 

Colonel Rockwood remarked that a log house 16 by 
15 would cost forty dollars and one of adobes half as 
much. Captain Brown was in favor of setting men to 
work building both log and adobe houses to hasten the 
work. Captain Lewis said that inasmuch as timber is 
scarce and we have spades and shovels and tools enough, 
as many as can be used, he is in favor of building adobe 
houses and saving the timber. Lieutenant Willis said 
you can put up an adobe house before a man could get 
the logs for a log house. Adobe houses are healthy and 
are the best for equinoxial gales. Elder Brannan has a 
man in Canifornia who will take three men, make adobes 
for a thirty foot house, build the house and put a family 
in it in a week. His printing office was put up in four- 
teen days and a paper printed. Elder Richards said we 
want brick made and lime burned. If wood is put into 
houses it will be a waste of it. We want all the timber 
to make floors and roofs. We want the walls up and we 
are men enough to put them up in a few days and have 
the women protected. It was voted to put up a stockade 
of adobe houses. Samuel Gould and James Drum re- 
ported themselves as lime burners. Sylvester H. Earl, 



Joel J. Terrill, Ralph Douglas and Joseph Hancock re- 
ported themselves as brick makers. Elder Kimball then 
remarked that those who intend to send ox teams back 
to Winter Quarters must be ready a week from tomorrow 
morning. If the cattle's feet are too tender, have them 
shod, or have new shoes in the wagons. Those oxen to 
rest and be released from plowing, etc. Do not get the 
Indians around here. I want you to have nothing to 
do with them. After a few remarks on general items* 
the meeting dismissed. 

.MONDAY, 2ND. 'We have had another cool night, 
but morning fine. The other companies commenced mov- 
ing itheir wagons up and we also moved a little farther 
east. During the day the whole camp was formed in an 
oblong circle. About noon Ezra T. Benson and sev- 
eral others started back to meet the next company. They 
carried a letter, the following being a copy of the same : 

"Pioneer camp. Valley of the Great Salt Lake. 
August 2, 1847. To General Chas. C. Rich and the Pres- 
idents and Officers of the emigrating company. Be- 
loved Brethren : We have delegated our beloved Brother 
Ezra T. Benson and escort to communicate to you by ex- 
press the cheering intelligence that we have arrived in 
the most beautiful valley of the Great Salt Lake, that 
every soul who left Winter Quarters with us is alive and 
almost everyone enjoying good health. That portion of 
the battalion that was at Pueblo is here with us together 
with the Mississippi company that accompanied them and 
they are generally well. We number about 450 souls and 
we know of no one but who is pleased with our situa- 
tion. We have commenced the survev of a citv this 


morning. We feel that the time is fast approaching 
when those teams that are going to Winter Quarters this 
fall should be on the way. Every individual here would 
be glad to tarry if his friends were here, but as many 
of the battalion, as well as the pioneers, have not their 
families here and do not expect that they are in your 
camp, we wish to learn by express from you, the situa- 
tion of your camp as speedily as possible that we may 
be prepared to counsel and act in the whole matter. We 
want you to send us the names of every individual in 
your camp, or in other words, a copy of your camp roll, 
including the names, number of wagons, horses, mules, 
oxen, cows, etc., and the health of your camp, your lo- 
cation, prospects, etc. If your teams are worn out, if 
your camp is sick and not able to take care of them- 
selves, if you are short of teamsters or any other cir- 
cumstance impeding your progress. We want to know 
it immediately for we have help for you, and if your 
teams are in good plight and will be able to return to 
Winter Quarters this season or any portion of them, we 
want to know it. We also want the mail, which will 
include all letters and papers, and packages belonging 
to our camp, general and particular. Should circum- 
stances permit, we would gladly meet you some dis- 
tance from this, but our time is very much occupied. 
Notwithstanding, we think you will see us before you 
see our valley. Let all the brethren and sisters cheer up 
their hearts and know assuredly that God has heard and 
answered their prayers and ours and led us to a goodly 
land, and our souls are satisfied therewith. Brother 
Benson can give you many particulars that will be grati- 


fying and cheering to you which we have not time to 
write, and we feel to bless all the Saints. In behalf of 
the council. Willard Richards, Clerk. Brigham 
Young, President. 

This morning, Elders Pratt and Sherwood com- 
menced surveying the city to lay it off in lots but finally 
concluded to wait until the chain could be tested by a 
standard pole which will have to be gotten from the 
mountains. Some of the brethren are preparing to make 
moulds for adobes. In the evening, Elder Kimball's 
teams returned from the mountains with some good house 
logs and poles for measuring, etc. The day has been 
very warm but the nights begin to be very cool. The 
northeast winds seem to prevail here at this season and 
coming from the mountains of snow are cold when the 
sun is down. After dark President Young sent for me 
to come to his wagon and told his calculations about our 
starting back. He wants me to start with the ox teams 
next Monday so as to have a better privilege of taking the 
distances, etc. He calculates the horse teams to start 
two weeks later, and if the first company arrives at 
Grand Island before the other comes up to wait for them 
there, kill and dry buffalo, etc. He wants the roado- 
meter fixed this week and Elder Kimball lias selected 
William King to do the work. 

TUESDAY, SRD. Morning fine, but cool. Elder Car- 
rington starts for the mountains to look for limestone. 
During the day I went and bathed at Bullock's bathing 
place in one of the warm sulphur springs. I found the 
effects very refreshing and beneficial. Spent most of 


the day making a table of distances, etc. The day very 


WEDNESDAY, 4xn. This morning- William A. King- 
has commenced making a new roadometer. The day 
very hot and close. 

THURSDAY, STH. Again at the roadometer, day very 
warm. J. C. Little and others have returned and report 
that they have been at the Utah Lake. As they went 
up they saw bodies of two dead Indians lying on the 
ground proving that there was one of each tribe killed 
the other day. They consider it to be about forty miles 
to the Utah Lake and on the east side is a handsome val- 
ley about six or eight miles wide. They are now con- 
vinced that the stream which runs a few miles below 
here is the Utah outlet, they having followed it to its 
junction with the lake. 

FRIDAY^ 6xH. The day very warm. 
SATURDAY, /TII. Today William A. King has fin- 
ished the roadometer which will now tell the distance 
for one thousand miles without keeping any account: 
About noon a very large whirlwind struck the south side 
of the camp forming a cloud of dust about twenty feet 
in diameter and making a loud roar. It carried a chicken 
up some distance, tore up the bowers, and shook the 
wagons violently hi its course. It passed off to the 
northeast and seemed to break at the mountains. This 
morning fifteen of the brethren commenced building a 
dam a little above the camp so as to bring the water 
around and inside the camp. They finished early in th" 
afternoon and we have now a pleasant little stream o 
cold water running on each side the wagons all around 


the camp. Where the water runs off or overflows the 
gutters, it soon becomes miry and cattle will sink a half 
a yard in mud. This is owing to the lightness of the 
soil, it being very light and rich. In the evening, many 
of the brethren went and were baptized in the dam by 
Elder Kimball for the remission of sins, Elders Pratt, 
Woodruff, and Smith attending to confirmation. I went 
and was baptized amongst the rest. It has been recom- 
mended for all the camp to be baptized and this evening 
they have commenced it. 

SUNDAY, STH. Morning cloudy with strong 
northeast wind. The brethren have resumed baptizing 
and a number have obeyed the ordinance both male and 
female. At ten o'clock, a meeting was held in the bow- 
ery and instructions given to the brethren. At two 
o'clock, sacrament was administered and 110 of the 
brethren selected to make adobes. Wrote a letter for 
Heber to Elder Martin and others. 

MONDAY, 9xH. At eleven o'clock, Brannan, Cap- 
tain James Brown and several others started for San 
Francisco. Elder J 1 . C. Little accompanies them to Fort 
Hall. I spent three hours taking observations with the 
barometer with Elder Pratt to ascertain the height of 
the land on the creek above the city. Ensign Peak, etc. 
The twelve had decided on a name for this place and a 
caption for all letters and documents issued from this 
place, which is as follows: Salt Lake City, Great Basin, 
Xorth America. 

TUESDAY. lOra. This morning, President Young 
an-d Kimball have gone to the adobe yard to commence 
building some houses in that region. They have already 


got many good logs on the ground. Colonel Markham 
reports that in addition to the plowing done week before 
last, they have plowed about thirty acres which is mostly 
planted, making a total of about eighty acres. The plow-, 
ing ceased last week and the brethren are now making 
adobes, hauling logs, etc. Elder Sherwood continues 
surveying the city. Tanner and Frost are setting wagon 
tires and have set fifty-two today. The brethren who 
went td the lake on Monday to boil down salt have re- 
turned this evening and report that they have found a 
bed of beautiful salt ready to load into wagons. It lies 
between two sand bars and is about six inches thick. 
They suppose they can easily load ten wagons without 
boiling. I have received from Elder Kimball a pair of 
buckskin pants, as a present I suppose, but as I have on 
similar occasions been branded with the idea of receiv- 
ing a great many kindnesses without consideration, I will 
for this once state a little particular on the other side the 
question. I acknowledge that I have had the privilege 
of riding in a wagon and sleeping in it. of having my 
victuals cooked and some meat and milk, and occasion- 
ally a little tea or coffee furnished. My flour I fur- 
nished myself. I -have had no team to take care ot. 
Howard Egan has done most of my washing until a 
month ago in consideration of the privilege of copying 
from my journal, using my desk, ink, etc. The balance 
of my washing I have hired. Now what have 1 done for 
Brother Kimball? Am I justly indebted on this journey? 
Answer: I have written in his journal 124 pages of 
close matter on an average of 600 words to a page, which 
if paid at the price of recording deeds in Illinois would 


amount to over $110.00. I have collected the matter 
myself, besides writing letters, etc. This has been for 
his special benefit. I have kept an account of the dis- 
tance we have traveled for over 800 miless of the jour- 
,iey, attended to the measurement of the road, kept the 
distances from creek to creek and from one encamp- 
ment to another; put up a guide board every ten miles 
from Fort John to this place with the assistance of 
Philo Johnson. I have mapped some for Dr. Richards 
and keeping my own journal forms the whole benefit 
to be derived by my family by this mission. I have yet 
considerable to write in Elder Kimball's journal before 
I return. I am expected to keep a table of distances of 
the whole route returning from here to Winter Quarters 
and make a- map when I get through, and this for public 
benefit. Now how much am I considered to be in debt, 
and how often will it be said that I was furnished by 
others with victuals, clothing, etc., that I might enjoy 
this journey as a mission of pleasure. I have spent most 
of this day calculating the height of this spot above the 
level of the sea for Elder Pratt. 

WEDNESDAY, llxir. Early this morning, a large 
company of the Utah Indians came to visit the camp and 
it was with difficulty they could .be kept outside the 
wagons. There are few of them who have any clothing 
on except the breech clout and are mostly of low stature. 
They have scarcely anything to trade and not many 
women and children with them. They are camped 
about three miles north of west and supposed to be going 
north hunting. One of them was detected stealing some 
clothing which lay on the bushes to dry, but was 


to leave it. When they found they were not permitted 
inside the circle, they soon moved off to their camp. 
The brethren have commenced laying the adobe wall to- 
day which will be twenty-seven inches thick and nine feet 
high. The adobes are 18 inches long, 9 inches broad 
and 4 1/2 inches thick. The brethren in camp have 
finished the skiff and launched her in the creek to soak. 
About five o'clock, a child of Therlkill's was found in 
the creek south of the camp drowned. Various efforts 
were made to restore it but unsuccessfully. The child 
was about three years old and its, parents mourn the ac- 
cident bitterly. The day has been very hot, but as usual, 
at sundown we have a strong, cool wind from the north- 

THURSDAY, 12xH. Spent the forenoon with Elder 
Pratt in taking observations to ascertain the height of 
the temple block above the Utah outlet which he found to 
be sixty-five feet. The altitude one mile* up the creek 
above the temple block is 214 feet and the altitude of 
the temple block above the level of the sea is 4300 feet. 
The latitude 40 45' 50". The blacksmiths are very busy 
shoeing oxen and there is prospect that the ox teams 
will start back on Monday or Tuesday. The soldiers are 
getting dissatisfied at being kept here so long from their 
families and yesterday several of them left the camp 
secretly to go to Winter Quarters and this morning- 
others are gone, but it is probable that President Young 
knows nothing of it yet although about a dozen are al- 
ready gone and others are preparing to follow them. 
On Tuesday President Young laid a foundation for 
four houses ; Elder Kimball four, Colonel Markham one, 


Dr. Richards one, and Lorenzo Young two, and today 
Dr. Richards has laid the foundation of another, George 
A. Smith two and Wilford Woodruff two, making a 
total of seventeen houses mostly fourteen feet wide and 
from twelve to seventeen long. Elder Kimball has his 
house four logs high. 

FRIDAY, 13TH. Spent the day mostly writing. The 
brethren have got 130 bushels of salt with twenty- four 
hours labor. 

SATURDAY, 14xH. Started at 8:40 in company with 
a number of others for the Salt Lake. We arrived at 
three o'clock and estimated the distance twenty-two 
miles. We all bathed in it an-d found the reports of those 
who had previously bathed in no ways exaggerated. We 
returned back to the river where we arrived at eleven 
o'clock at the beginning of a light thunder shower. There 
is no pure fresh water between the river and the lake. 

SUNDAY, 15TH. President Young preached on the 
death of little children, etc. Evening the company com- 
posing those who are returning with the ox teams met 
and voted that Shadrach Roundy and Tunis Rappleyee 
be captains. They received instructions to start tomor- 
row and travel leisurely to Grand Island and there wait 
for the last company of horse teams. J. C. Little and 
company returned yesterday from Utah Lake, and this 
morning the exploring company returned. 

MONDAY, 16TH. Spent most of the day fixing the 
roadometer, also finished marking the distances, camp- 
ing places,, etc., on Dr. Richards' map from Devil's gate 
to Little Sandy. Evening took the wagon in company 
with Jackson Redding and Howard Egan to the warm. 


spring to try the roadometer. We found the distance 
to be one and a half miles. Most of the company of 
ox teams have started today for Winter Quarters. They 
will go to the canyon and wait there till morning-. After 
dark. Elder Kimball called a number of us together in 
the tent and each one present selected a lot for himself 
and family. I had previously selected lots 1, 7 and 8 on 
block 95, but President Young- broke into our arrange- 
ments and wished 7 and 8 reserved, consequently I made 
choice of lots 1, 2 and 3 on block 95. 

TUESDAY, 17-m. Started out at 8:10 and found the 
distance to the mouth of the canyon five miles, the dif- 
ference arising from making a road across instead of 
following the first one. One and three quarters of a 
mile farther arrived at where the company had camped 
for the night and found them all ready to start, only 
waiting for President Young to arrive and give some 
instructions, but he sent word he should not come and we 
started forward. Elders Kimball and Richards soon over- 
took the company, gave some instructions, then returned 
and the company moved on. On arriving at Birch 
Spring, we encamped for the night, having traveled thir- 
teen and a half miles. There is considerable danger of 
cattle miring near the spring and several have already 
had to be pulled out. This company consists of seventy- 
one men with thirty-three wagons. After camping, the 
brethren were called together by Captain Roundy for 
the purpose of organizing. He briefly stated the man- 
ner of the organization of the camp when we left Winter 
Quarters and it was unanimously voted to organize after 
the same pattern which was done as follows : 



Joseph Ske'en, Captain. Wm. Burt 

Artemas Johnson James Dunn 

James Cazier Joseph Shipley 

Geo. Cummings Samuel Badham 

Thos. Richardson Roswel Stevens 


Zebedee Coltrin, Captain. Wm. Bird 

Chester Loveland Josiah Curtis 

Lorenzo Babcock John S. Eldridge 

Samuel H. Marble Horace Thornton 
Geo. Scholes 


Francis Boggs, Captain. Geo. Wardle 
Sylvester H. Earl Seeley Owens 

Almon M. Williams Clark Stillman. 

Tunis Rappleyee, Captain of 1st Division. James 
Cazier Captain of Guard in 1st Division. 


Jackson Redding, Captain Robert Biard 

Wm. Carpenter Benj. W. Rolfe 

Henry W. Sanderson Thos. Cloward 

Bailey Jacobs Lisbon Lamb 

John Pack Wm. Clayton 




John H. Tippets, Captain 
Francis T. Whitney 
James Stewart 
Chas. A. Burke 
Wm. McLellan 
Norman Taylor 

Lyman Stevens 
Lyman Curtis 
John S. Gleason 
Myron Tanner 
Rufus Allen 


Allen Cumpton, Captain 
John Bybee 
J. Averett 
John G. Smith 
Philip Garner 
Barnabas Lake 

Franklin Allen 
David Garner 
Harmon D. Persons 
Solomon Tindal 
Chas. Hopkins. 


Andrew J. Shoop, Captain 
Francillo Durfee 
Erastus Bingham 
Loren Kenney 
Benj. Roberts 
Jarvis Johnson 

Albert Clark 
James Hendrickson 
John Calvert 
Daniel Miller 
Luther W. Glazier 
Thos. Bingham 

Shadrack Roundy, Captain of 2nd Division. John 
Gleason, Captain of Guard. 

The soldiers were numbered with the 2nd Division, 
3rd and 4th tens. 

Those who have horses to ride were then numbered 
and their duty pointed out, which is to lead the way and 


fix the road where it needs it ; look out camping places ; 
drive the loose cattle and hunt for the camp. Their 
names are as follows : John Pack, Captain, Samuel Bad- 
ham, Francillo Durfee, Benj. Roberts, Thomas Bing- 
ham, James Hendrickson, John Eldridge, R. I. Redding, 
Seeley Owens, Barnabas Lake, Wm. Bird, Daniel Miller, 
James Cazier. 

WEDNESDAY, 18iH. We had a little rain this morn- 
ing and the air very cool. We started at 8:00 a. m. 
and found the road rough indeed. When ascending the 
mountain from Brown's Creek, most of the teams had to 
double, it generally requiring six yoke of oxen to bring 
lip an empty wagon. The descent is also very rough 
and especially where the road crosses the dry creek which 
is a great many times. Canyon Creek appeared rougher 
than when we first went up it and it took till near night 
to get to the end of the creek, having traveled only fif- 
teen and three quarters miles during the day. 

THURSDAY, 19rH. We got started again about 8:00 
a. m., all except Chas. A. Burke. One of his oxen was 
missing. Before noon several of the loose cattle gave 
out through being over driven. We arrived and camped 
on Red Mountain Creek at six o'clock, having traveled 
sixteen and a quarter miles. The day has been very hot 
but nights are very cold. 

FRIDAY, 20rH. Morning very cold. Started out 
at seven and traveled till 12 :30, the day being cool, then 
rested and baited an hour. At 1 :30 proceeded again 
and arrived at Cache or Reddings Cave at 5 :00 p. m.. 
having traveled twenty and a half miles, but it was nearly 
seven o'clock before the company arrived. 


SATURDAY, 21sT. Started at 7:30 a. m. and trav- 
eled till 12:00 then baited an hour. We found Bear 
River not over fifteen inches deep. We camped on Sul- 
phur Creek at five o'clock having traveled sixteen and 
a half miles and after camping I went with the brethren 
to fill their tar buckets at the oil spring. We followed a 
wagon trail made by a part of Hasting's company last 
year about a mile and found the spring situated in a ra- 
vine a little to the left of the road just at the edge of a 
high bench of land. The ground is black over with the 
oil for several rods but it is baked hard by exposure to 
the sun. It is difficult to get the clear oil, most of it 
being filled with dust and gravel. It smells much like 
British oil and is said to' do well for greasing wagons. 
John Gleason has found a coal bed in the edge of the 
mountain across the creek. The coal looks good and 
burns freely. 

SUNDAY, 22ND. Many of the cattle were missing 
this morning but after much search were found about 
four miles southwest from camp. We started at nine 
o'clock and traveled till one, then halted an hour at the 
copperas spring. Most of the wagons halted at the spring 
four miles back. The water of this spring is not bad, 
cattle drink it freely. At two o'clock we began to ascend 
the ridge and at five formed our camp near the Muddy 
fork having traveled seventeen and three quarters miles, 
the day cool and cloudy. 

MONDAY, 23RD. We started early this morning and 
arrived at Fort Bridger at one o'clock. We found the 
grass pretty much eaten off and only stayed an hour 
and a half while some of the brethren traded some, then 


went on eight miles farther and camped on a stream two 
rods wide, having traveled twenty-one and a half miles, 
the day very cool. 

TUESDAY, 24iH. This morning many of the cattle 
had strayed several miles from camp which prevented 
our starting till eight o'clock. We traveled eight and a 
half miles, then halted an hour on Black's Fork. We 
proceeded again and had a pretty heavy thunder shower 
and arrived at Ham's Fork at 5 :20, then camped for 
the night, having traveled twentv-three miles. Most of 

o o - 

the wagons did not arrive till nearly night, but we had 
no place to camp short of this and here we have good 
range for cattle. 

WEDNESDAY, 25TH. We traveled today twenty-three 
miles and camped on Green River. We found several 
places where the road is shortened some, but it is yet 
about sixteen miles from water to water. 

THURSDAY, 26TH. Started at eight o'clock and went 
on to the Big Sandy and before the majority of the com- 
pany arrived, E. T. Benson and escort came up with 
letters from the companies. They say there are nine 
companies between here and the Platte with 566 wagons 
and about 5.000 head of stock. They report the com- 
panies well and getting along tolerably fast, some they 
expect we shall meet within three days. After eating 
they proceeded on. After sundown a large party of 
mounted Indians came up, and camped on the opposite 
side the river. They have been on the Sweet Water 
hunting and are said to be of the Shoshone tribe. 

FRIDAY, 2/TH. Many of the brethren traded sugar, 
powder, lead, etc., to the Indians for robes and skins 


and meat. We started soon after seven and traveled 
to the crossing of the Big Sandy. Then after halting 
an hour, continued to the Little Sandy, making twenty- 
five and a quarter miles today, but it was nine o'clock 
before some of the wagons arrived. The feed is mostly 
eaten up on the creeks near the road and there is none 
except on the banks of streams. Bailey Jacobs killed a 
large antelope which is a matter of rejoicing as we are 
nearly out of bread stuff and had little meat for several 
days. We started back from the valley with 8 Ibs. of 
flour, 9 Ibs. of meal and a few beans each, and we have 
to depend on getting meat on the road for the rest. I 
was told there were 25 Ibs. of flour put up for me, but I 
find it is not so. 

SATURDAY, 28xH. Started at eight o'clock and trav- 
eled till half past three before halting when we arrived 
at the crossing of the Pacific creek and halted to camp 
for the night having traveled twenty-three miles. There 
is no grass from Little Sandy to this place except a very 
little on Dry Sandy but the water there has some taste 
of alkali and teams do not like it. Here there is con- 
siderable grass along the creek and very good water but 
no wood except wild sage. We had a heavy thunder 
shower about four o'clock and considerable hail. It was 
dark before the ox teams arrived. Some of the men had 
killed a buffalo a few miles back, but it is very poor. 

SUNDAY, 29TH. It was decided to remain here to- 
day to rest the teams, but our ten obtained leave to go 
on to Sweet Water, expecting to meet the company, and 
after reading the letter of instructions from the coun- 
cil to this camp, my wagon proceeded on slowly. At 



the Springs, we saw an aged Indian squaw near the road 
dwelling in a shelter composed merely of wild sage and 
apparently dependent on passing emigrants for sub- 
sistence. She is doubtless left to perish on account of 
age and infirmity, but it is likely she will live some time 
on what she receives from those who pass by. When 
we arrived near the summit of the dividing ridge or 
south pass, two Indians rode towards us and motioned 
for us to stop. Not seeing the other wagons coming after, 
we stopped to wait for the wagons and the Indians soon 
arrived. They made signs that a large party of them 
were over the mountain north and they wanted to "swap." 
\Yhile they were conversing a number more rode over 
the ridge and soon after a still larger number. About 
this time the wagons came in sight and when the brethren 
saw so many, Indians they were alarmed. John Pack 
rode back to the main camp to get some of the brethren 
to come up, but J. R. said he would not budge a foot. 
The brethren behind were much alarmed, some expect- 
ing to be scalped and one W. Carr ran and hid himself 
in the sage bushes. No one returned with John Pack 
but Norman Taylor and the wagons proceeded towards 
us. In the meantime, after learning the object for which 
the Indians sought us, that none of them were armed 
except two, and by a certificate that the first visitor was 
a Shoshone chief, Brother Lamb and myself signified 
that we would trade with them and soon some of them 
returned with antelope, buck and elk skins and robes to 
trade. I traded some balls and a little powder for one 
robe, one elk skin, two buckskins and nine antelope skin? 
-I -id a pair of moccasins. Lamb bought five antelope 


skins. While we were trading, the other wagons ar- 
rived and also commenced trading. The Indians, about 
sixty in number, about twenty of them boys, all mounted, 
seemed highly pleased to trade with us which we did 
mostly through the chief. By request of the chief, I 
gave him a certificate stating that he appeared friendly 
and wanted to trade with the whites, etc. The chief 
gave us, a very strong invitation to go to their camp to 
trade and made signs that they would feed us well and 
we should sleep with them. I answered him by signs 
that we should camp when we arrived where the road 
crossed the Sweet Water but they were very anxious to 
have us then turn off the road and camp. After we 
started, the chief came up and wanted to swap a good 
mule for my spy glass but I refused. I had let him look 
through it and he seemed very wishful to try it. When 
they saw we were determined to go on, they left us and 
returned to their camp while we pursued ouf* journey to 
the first crossing of Sweet Water where we arrived and 
camped at six o'clock, having traveled fourteen miles. 

MONDAY, 30rH. This morning the cattle belonging 
to the camp behind came to us early, having strayed 
away. John Pack and Bailey Jacobs went to drive them 
back and to trade some with the Indians. We calcu- 
lated to go on about eleven miles but before we started. 
Father Eldridge came up with his wagon and said he 
expected Spencer's 1st 50 company up soon. We then 
concluded to stay here until they arrived and about three 
o'clock, their wagons began to cross the creek. I was 
glad to find Aaron and Loren Farr, and William Walker 
in this company with their families all well and in good 


spirits. From Sister Olivia, I received some articles 
sent by my family which were very acceptable indeed and 
made me feel grateful. This company all appear well 
and cheerful and are not much troubled on account of 
lack of teams. I spent the evening with Loren and their 
families. The balance of our camp arrived before dark. 

TUESDAY, 31 ST. Our camp except this ten has started 
on, but Brother Spencer has concluded to halt here to- 
day and I spent the day copying tables of distances for 
Loren and also gave him a plot of the city. 

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER IST. We bid farewell to 
Brother Spencer's company and proceeded on. After 
traveling about a mile, we met P. P. Pratt going to see 
Brother Spencer and to get some cattle. He says some of 
the back companies have lost many head and can scarcely 
move. A few miles farther we met the 2nd 50 of Spencer's 
company. We traveled till nearly dark and camped with 
the returning* pioneers at the cold spring, having trav- 
eled twenty-two and a quarter miles. The day fine and 
pleasant. We find the grass pretty much eaten off all 
the way. John G. Smith was appointed captain of the 
2nd division in place of Shadrach Roundy who returns. 

THURSDAY, 2ND. Started about eight o'clock and 
after traveling two miles passed Russell's company of 
50 and about five miles farther we passed Elder Rich's 
50 and G. B. Wallace's 50. They all agree to the healtk 
and prosperity of their companies but have lost many 
cattle and have had hard work to get along. We passed 
Captains Foutz and Hone on this long drive with their 
companies all well, but complaining much for lack of 
teams. I conversed some with Edward Hunter and Elder 


Taylor. Brother Hunter will give cash for some cattle if 
he can buy them. We arrived on Sweet Water at six 
o'clock but the ox teams did not get in till eight o'clock, 
having traveled twenty-four and a half miles. The even- 
ning was very cold, windy and like for rain. Brother 
Roundy returned back to the valley this morning, having 
met his family. 

FRIDAY, 3RD. We started on this morning follow- 
ing the new road at the north side of the Sweet Water, 
the road sandy in' places but much better than the old 
road. After traveling about two miles, we saw a lone 
buffalo about two miles to the south. John Pack and 
Lisbon Lamb went to try to kill him and finally suc- 
ceeded, on which our ten halted and sent back a wagon 
for the meat which detained us about three hours, after 
which we proceeded again. A little before the road fords 
the river the second time, there is an alkali lake a little 
north from the road. We joined the company and also 
met J. B. Noble's company where the road joins the old 
one again. Brother Noble's company are all well and 
not so bad off for teams as some of the other companies. 
We proceeded on a few miles farther and met J. M. Grant 
with Willard Snow's 50 which is the last company on 
the road. Brother Grant had a child die last night and 
his wife is yet very sick and not much expected to re- 
cover. This company have lost many cattle and are so 
bad off for teams as not to be able to travel more than 
ten miles a day which would make it some day in Octo- 
ber before they get through. We went on nearly two 
miles farther, then camped for the night near Bitter Cot- 
tonwood creek, having traveled fifteen and three quarters 


miles. Most of the company camped back with Brother 
Snow's Company. 

SATURDAY, 4xn. We started late this morning and 
traveled over a very sandy road till five o'clock, then 
camped on Ravine Creek, having traveled sixteen miles. 

SUNDAY, STH. There being alkali springs near, we 
concluded to go to Independence Rock at which place 
we arrived about three o'clock having traveled twelve and 
a half miles. Soon after we camped, Lamb and Jacob 
Cloward went to chase some buffalo and succeeded in 
killing one. I walked over the rock and had some solemn 
meditations and felt to humble myself and call upon the 
Lord for myself and family, for this company, the twelve 
and all the companies on the road. Experience has taught 
me many maxims of late and I intend to profit by them. 
Be not hasty to promise, lest thy promise be considered 
worthless. Make not many promises without reflection, 
lest thou fail to fulfill them and it dampen the confidence 
of thy friend. If thou promise many things and regard 
not to fulfill them and it damp the confidence of thy 
friend, then be assured that thy friends will despise thy 
promises and have no dependence in them. Seek not to 
speculate out of a good brother. 

MONDAY, 6xH. This morning the cattle were found 
down the Sweet Water about six miles from camp which 
made it late before we started. While passing the alkali 
lakes, a number of the brethren filled the bags with 
saleratus. We found the road very sandy to Grease- 
wood Creek and after that it was somewhat better. 
About three o'clock the wind began to blow very strong 
and cold and we had heavy rain for about two hours. 


We proceeded on and arrived at the Willow Spring a 
little before dark in the midst of a heavy shower of 
rain. Thomas Cloward left one of the old oxen sent 
back by Wallace on the road. It died before morning-. 
All except our ten and William's stayed back at Grease- 
wood Creek. We tried in vain to make a fire but finally 
went to bed wet and cold, having- eaten nothing since 
morning. Some of the teamsters have only a light sum- 
mer coat with them and they suffer considerably. We 
traveled twenty-one and a half miles today. 

TUESDAY, 7xH. This morning our cattle were all 
missing and it still rains and snows very heavily. Pack 
and T. Coward started early on foot to hunt the cattle 
but after following them over seven miles in the storm 
and seeing that they had kept on the road towards the 
Platte river, they returned to camp. It rained and snowed 
heavily till eleven o'clock at which time the balance of 
the camp arrived. John Pack asked the company to let 
us have some of their loose cattle to bring on our wagons 
till we overtook ours again, but the captains both gener- 
ously refused for some cause or other. However, some 
of the brethren took their cattle out of their teams and 
let us have them and we moved onward. After travel- 
ing about thirteen miles we saw our cattle about four 
miles to the left of the road at the foot of a mountain. 
We halted and Lamb took one of the mules to fetch the 
cattle to the road. Soon after Pack and Jackson Redding 
came up and learning that we had found the cattle, they 
started to them to drive them to camp and Lamb being 
relieved, returned to the wagon. We harnessed up and 
arrived at the mineral spring about six o'clock, having 


traveled sixteen and a quarter miles. This spring has 
been represented as poisonous but if it is so, it must be 
in consequence of minerals under the water. The water 
has no bad taste till the cattle trample in it. It then be- 
comes almost black as ink and this is probably what 
makes it poisonous. 

WEDNESDAY, STH. We started at eight o'clock and 
arrived at the Upper Platte ferry soon after twelve 
o'clock. We found N. Jacobs and company there hunt- 
ing. We forded the river and found it about two feet 
deep in the channel. We halted on the banks about two 
hours at which time the whole camp arrived. We then 
proceeded on. The main company went about five miles 
but we went till we found a good camping place in a 
grove of timber on the banks of the river where the road 
runs through, then halted for night, having traveled 
nineteen miles. 

THURSDAY, 9xn. This morning Norton Jacob's com- 
pany joined us at eight o'clock and we moved forward. 
Found the road rough, it being cut up by the other com- 
panies in wet weather. We arrived on Deer Creek about 
sundown and camped for the night, having traveled 
twenty-two and a quarter miles. The day fine and very 
pleasant. Joseph Hancock killed an elk which the breth- 
ren packed to camp on horseback about sixteen miles. 

FRIDAY, 10m. We have had a strong southwest 
wind all night and the morning is somewhat cool. We 
started a little before eight o'clock and had good travel- 
ing. We saw many herds of buffalo but the hunters did 
not get any while passing. We arrived at the river A 
La Perle at three o'clock and camped for the night hav- 


ing traveled seventeen and a half miles. A while before 
dark, some of the men came in with a part of a buffalo 
which they killed. Lewis Barney also killed a young one 
which was considerably fat. The meat was all packed 
in on horses. One of the men killed a wolf out of which 
we got considerable grease for the wagons. It was de- 
cided to have a guard each night the remainder of the 
journey, every man to stand in his turn, four each night. 

SATURDAY, HTH. Got up at twelve o'clock and 
stood guard till daylight. The morning very fine and 
pleasant. Three of the brethren arrived from the camp 
back and said that during the night before last the Indians 
had stolen sixteen or seventeen of their horses and they 
were in pursuit of them. We were detained some on 
account of several of the horses having rambled off, but 
about nine o'clock we started on and traveled to the La 
Bonte River, distance nineteen and a half miles. There 
are many buffalo around here also and although we have 
plenty of meat, the brethren continue to kill them. ' We 
find the feed eaten off bare almost every place we come 
to and it is difficult to find grass to sustain' our teams. 

SUNDAY, 12TH. We traveled this day seventeen and 
three quarters miles and camped by Heber's Spring on 
Horseshoe Creek. We found the spring had ceased run- 
ning but there was water in the creek a little north. The 
roadometer has broken down today over the same ground 
it broke as we went west. Our bread stuff is now out 
and we have to live solely on meat the balance of the 
journey. John Pack has got flour enough to last him 
through. We have all messed together until ours was 
eaten, and now John Pack proposes for each man to mess 


by himself. He has concealed his flour and beans to- 
gether with tea, coffee, sugar, etc., and cooks after the 
rest have gone to bed. Such things seem worthy of re- 
membrance for a time to come. 

MONDAY, 13TH. We fixed the roadometer this 
morning, then traveled to Dead Timber Creek, distance 
fifteen miles. Here we find good feed and plenty of 
wood and water. 

TUESDAY, 14TH. Started at nine o'clock and trav- 
eled till about five, then camped on the Platte River, hav- 
ing traveled twenty-four and a quarter miles. In conse- 
quence of some things which have passed and some which 
at present exist, I have concluded to go on as fast as cir- 
cumstances will permit to Winter Quarters and I intend 
to start tomorrow. Some have opposed it, but not with 
a good grace. However, I have no fears that the coun- 
cil will censure me when they know the cause. If they 
do, I will bear the censure in preference to what I now 
bear. Before dark Luke Johnson, William A. Empey 
and Appleton Harmon came up from Laramie, having 
learned from an Indian that wagons were near. They 
say that a party of Sioux warriors have got the breth- 
ren's horses, seventeen in number, on the Raw Hide, 
about eighteen miles north. They say that about fifty 
armed men might go and probably get them, but not 
fewer. The Sioux are at war with the Crows and 
Pawnees and reports say that there is a large party of 
the Pawnees a little down the river. 

WEDNESDAY, 15rH. We started a little after eight, 
forded the Platte without any difficulty and at three 
o'clock concluded to stop for the night, having traveled 


twenty-one and a quarter miles over very sandy road. 
The ox teams have kept nearly up with us and it is evi- 
dent they intend to keep with us or kill their teams, and 
being aware that if the teams are injured we shall be 
blamed for it, we have given up going ahead to save the 

THURSDAY, 16xH. Today we traveled nineteen and 
a half miles over good road and camped near the river 
amongst good grass. 

FRIDAY, I?TH. This morning Thomas Brown, Ezra 
Beckstead, Mathew Welch, Benjamin Roberts, David 
Perkins and William Bird started to go through to 
Winter Quarters in consequence of having no bread. We 
traveled nineteen and three quarters miles and camped 
again on the Platte. The road very good. 

SATURDAY, 18rn. Last night John Pack's gray horse 
was stolen from his wagon. He lays it to the brethren 
ahead and with Norton Jacobs and Joseph Hancock has 
heaped a pretty long string of severe abusive language 
on them which I consider to be premature, unjustifiable 
and wicked. Two Frenchmen came to the camp and 
said they were camped below on a trading excursion 
among the Sioux. Inasmuch as some of the brethren 
wanted to trade with them, it was concluded to move 
down opposite to them. We accordingly traveled four 
and a quarter miles then again camped on the banks of 
the river and the brethren bought a number of buffalo 
robes, etc. Norton Jacobs bought five robes for seven 
common calico shirts. 

SUNDAY, 19TH. The traders say they will move 
down the river today to where there are plenty of buf- 


falo. Our camp also traveled ten and three quarters 
miles and camped a little below Chimney Rock. There 
are many herds of buffalo around and Lewis Barney 
killed one which will give us a little fresh meat. The 
weather has been very fine and warm for some days 
past. This evening there are some signs of stormy 

MONDAY, 20rH. Today we traveled seven and a 
quarter miles, the day very hot. We turned off the road 
to camp at Rtibidoos' request while they killed some buf- 
falo. They gave us some very nice meat. 

TUESDAY, 21 ST. We have concluded to wait here 
until the balance of the company arrives. Afternoon 
went over the river and had a good feast on buffalo ribs 
with the Frenchmen. The victuals were cooked by a 
squaw but looked much cleaner than our men cook it. 
Evening it became cloudy and soon followed by cold 
rain which continued till two o'clock. 

WEDNESDAY, 22ND. At one o'clock, I got up to 
stand guard and found the night extremely cold and un- 
pleasant on account of rain. The morning is cloudy and 
cold. The wagons have not yet come in sight which 
makes us think there is something the matter with them. 

THURSDAY, 23RD. Today Jackson Redding and 
Sanderson went back to see if they could see the other 
wagons. They returned at night and said the company 
were within a few miles having been detained at Laramie 
to recover their horses, most of which they got. They 
state that news has come to the fort by a Sioux Indian 
that the twelve and their company had all their horses 
stolen at the Pacific Springs during a snow storm. The 


Sioux stole them supposing them to belong" to the Sho- 
shones. The man that brought the news stole seventeen 
but lost eight in the mountains, the remainder he brought 
to Laramie and the brethren there knew some of them 
and demanded them. He gave them up, at least all they 
could prove and four of the brethren started with them to 
meet the twelve. The Indian says there were nine of 
them who stole the horses. 

FRIDAY, 24xH. We resumed our journey this morn- 
ing and traveled thirteen and a half miles, then camped 
where the road runs close to the river. The weather is 
again fine and hot in the day time but the nights are cold 
and frosty. Joseph Hancock killed a buffalo cow and 
John Norton an antelope which will supply the company 
with a little meat each, most of whom are without. 

SATURDAY, 25xH. The day cloudy and some like 
for a storm. We made an early start and traveled to 
Crab Creek, distance twenty and a quarter miles then 
camped for the night. The land on both sides the river 
is literally spotted with vast herds of buffalo, but oui 
hunters are not very lucky as yet. From the fact of 
there being so many buffalo in this region, we are in- 
clined to believe we shall see but few lower down and 
this is probably the best chance we will have to lay in a 
supply to last us home. During the afternoon, Joseph 
Hancock killed a buffalo cow and Captain Rappleyee 
sent a wagon to fetch the meat to camp. When it arrived 
John Pack took the hind quarters and the best meat off 
the rest of the cow, together with all the tallow, then 
sent for Rappleyee to take what he had left and divide it 
amongst the company. When Rappleyee saw what he had 


done, he felt angry and Pack and he had some high words 
on the subject. Brother Pack's conduct has caused many 
unpleasant feelings against him among the brethren. He 
takes all the tallow he can lay his hands on, and all the 
best meat and has now got more than will serve him 
home while many of the rest have scarcely any and that 
of the poorest pieces. He has plenty of flour, meal, 
beans, tea, coffee, sugar, etc., while most of the camp 
are destitute of everything but meat, and while he con- 
tinues to take the tallow and best of the meat there will 
be hard feelings against him. He has disgraced himself 
in the estimation of many within the past few days. I 
do not think I can ever forget him for his treatment 
of me, but I cherish no malice nor feelings of revenge, 
but I hope and pray that I may forever have wisdom to 
keep from under his power. There have been six or 
eight buffalo killed by the camp and it is intended to stay 
here tomorrow and try to get meat to last us through as 
it is not likely we shall have another privilege as good as 
this. Most of the camp now begin to feel that it is ne- 
cessary for us to make our way home as fast as possible 
to save our teams and escape the cold rain and snow- 

SUNDAY, 26TH. Many of the brethren are gone out 
hunting. The weather continues fine and warm. In the 
afternoon we had a strong northwest wind. During the 
day the second division killed more than enough meat to 
last them home, but were totally unwilling to let the 
first division have any although they killed none, not 
having but two or three guns in the division. This also 
has tended to increase the feeling of envy and bitterness 


which already exists too much. Thomas Cloward has 
manifested feelings and conduct worse than the general 
run of gentiles and unworthy of a saint. He seems to 
have drunk into Pack's spirit for they act very much 

MONDAY, 27iH. Those of the first division who 
have no meat have concluded to move on a few miles to 
where there are more buffalo as they have mostly left 
here, but the second division will not move till they have 
dried their meat some. We went on three miles and 
then camped where there are plenty of buffalo over the 
river. Lisbon Lamb, Lewis Barney and John Norton 
volunteered to go and kill w'hat meat they can for those 
who have none. They have got enough to last them 
through. It is said that our coming down here has given 
feelings but it is plain and evident that there are several 
men who will find fault and deal out wholesale censure 
whatever is done, and for my part I shall remember John 
Pack, Thomas Cloward, Norton Jacobs and Joseph Han- 
cock for some time to come. Such little, selfish, unmanly 
conduct as has been manifested by them, is rarely ex- 
hibited except by the meanest classes of society. A 
man who will openly and boldly steal is honorable when 
compared with some of their underhanded conduct. Dur- 
ing the day the brethren killed five cows and one bull 
which are considered sufficient to last the first division 

TUESDAY, 28xn. We waited till after nine o'clock 
for the second division to come up but not being yet 
in sight we moved onward, traveled seventeen and a half 
miles, then camped on Sand Hill Creek about a mile 
from the river. We have seen more buffalo today than 


I ever saw in one day, supposed to be not less than 200,- 
000. We had some trouble to make a road through them 
safely. We also saw two horses with the herd. Jack- 
son Redding went to try and catch them but found them 
perfectly wild. 

WEDNESDAY, 29TH. We got an early start this morn- 
ing and traveled till four o'clock, distance twenty and 
a quarter miles. We camped near the river in high 
grass. The road has run close to the river all day except 
a few miles beyond Castle Creek and although the ground 
is perfectly dry, it is very rough, it having been cut tip 
in wet weather. Watch and Wolfe Creeks had abund- 
ance of water in them, as much as when we went up. 
Castle River was about a foot deep. We have not seen 
many buffalo today but after we camped, John Norton 
shot two at one shot. L. Barney also killed a young cow. 
The weather is yet fine and very warm. 

THURSDAY, 30rH. This day we traveled only six- 
teen and a quarter miles, then camped a quarter of a mile 
east of Rattlesnake Creek on the banks of the river. In 
this creek, there is still a very heavy current of water 
running. It appears that some of the brethren left their 
fires burning this morning and the prairie has caught 
fire and is still burning furiously. 

FRIDAY, OCTOBER IST. This morning I wrote a short 
letter and left it in a post for the company behind. We 
traveled twenty miles and camped on Bluff Creek. The 
day fine and very warm. 

SATURDAY, 2xo. This morning we calculated to 
travel eleven miles, but on arriving at the North Bluff 
fork, we found no grass and were compelled to continue 


on. We traveled till the road strikes the river and some 
grass, then camped, having traveled eighteen and a half 
miles. Three buffalo have been killed today and there 
are considerable in this region. Two of the oxen gave 
out and had to be left on the road. 

SUNDAY, SRD. This morning we traveled four and 
a quarter miles, then camped opposite some islands where 
there is pretty good feed and willows. The day has 
been exceedingly warm and the brethren have dried a. 
g"ood quantity of meat. Considerable anxiety and feel- 
ing has originated in the breasts of two or three brethren 
in consequence of a rumor being circulated which deeply 
concerns one individual but it is not known whom. In 
the evening, a strong north wind blew up which made 
it turn very cool. 

MONDAY, 4xn. Cool and pleasant. We traveled 
twenty and three quarters miles and found that the last 
company have made a new road near the bluffs to avoid 
a very bad slough. We went a little on the old road and 
then struck across to the new road but had considerable 
difficulty in crossing the slough. We camped beside a 
small lake of not very good water and several miles 
from timber. 

TUESDAY, STH. Pleasant day. We traveled nine- 
teen miles, then turned off the road about a half a mile 
to camp near a small bunch of timber. The brethren 
have killed a good many buffalo today. They are very 
plentiful here, and wolves abundant. 

WEDNESDAY, 6xH. The largest part of the company 
again concluded to tarry a clay again although there is 
little feed here. Some determined to go on a piece and 


amongst the rest, I felt more willing to go on than to 
tarry. Accordingly eleven wagons started, viz. Jackson 
Redding, William A. Empey, Lewis Barney, Roswel 
Stevens, Cummings, Joseph Hancock, H. W. Sander- 
son, John Pack, Thos. Cloward, Zebedee Coltrin and 
Norton Jacobs. We traveled seventeen and a half miles 
and then turned off the road about a half a mile to 

THURSDAY, ?TH. We started a little before 10:00 
a. m. and traveled till nearly dark and had then to run 
over a mile from the road to camp. We traveled nine- 
teen and a quarter miles. Wind very strong from the 
north and a very cold day. 

FRIDAY, STH. Just as we started this morning, 
twelve or fifteen Indians were seen running .over the 
river towards us. They soon came up to the wagons 
which were somewhat scattered and although they shook 
hands, they showed savage hostility. Four of the oxen 
were not yet yoked up ; these they drove off from the 
wagons which now began to draw together. They soon 
satisfied us that they were bent on robbing us and with- 
out ceremony took Jack Redding's horse from behind the 
wagon. Lamb went to take it from them and seized the 
lariat which another immediately cut with his knife. Lamb 
then got on the horse, but no sooner on than two Indians 
pulled him off and marched off with the horse. They 
stole Jack Redding's knife out of its sheath and one 
from John Pack. They also tried to get Jack off the 
horse he was riding, but he kept his seat. They tried 
Skeen's horse but he kicked one of them over. The In- 
dians then tried to get the men out of their wagons so 


that they might get in and plunder, but every man kept 
in his wagon to guard it and we concluded to turn about 
and go back to the company. We accordingly started 
and the Indians turned back towards the timber with 
the horse, four oxen, two knives and a sack of salt. After 
traveling back about six miles, we met the company, told 
the story and bore their slang and insults without saying 
much, but not without thinking a great deal. The whole 
company were then formed in two lines. All the arms 
were loaded and each man that could raise a gun was 
ordered to walk beside the wagons, the horsemen to go 
ahead. We then proceeded on and when we came opposite 
to where we met with the Indians, the horsemen went 
down and found the oxen where we left them. They 
brought them and we traveled till dark, then camped 
near the river, having traveled five and a quarter miles 
from last night, exclusive of the distance we went back. 
A strong guard was placed around the cattle and camp 
and kept up through the night. Many hard speeches 
have passed among the brethren, such as "damned hypo- 
crites," "damned liars," "mutineers," etc., and most of 
those who started ahead are ordered to travel in the rear 
all the time. This savage, tyrannical conduct was one 
thing which induced some to leave and undertake to go 
through alone and more peaceably and it will still leave 
feelings of revenge and hatred which will require some 
time to cover up. Young Babcock shook his fist in Ze- 
bedee Coltrin's face and damned him and said he could 
whip him. For my part, I shall be glad when I get in 
more peaceable society, and I think I shall not easily be 
caught in such a scrape again. 


SATURDAY, 9rH. We have had no disturbance from 
Indians. We started at six o'clock and went on five 
miles to get better feed. We then halted for breakfast. 
The remainder of the day's travel was mostly over dog 
towns. A United States soldier came up to the wagons 
and went with us a few miles. He says there are ninety 
of them on the island surveying and looking out a place 
to build a fort. We traveled seventeen and a quarter 
miles today, then camped near a low bench of land where 
there is plenty of grass and water and willows for fuel. 
A number of the soldiers came over to camp. They say 
the Pawnees are perfectly enraged and savage and that 
the worst band of between four and five hundred are 
on the north side the Platte about forty miles below. 

SUNDAY, 10m. Morning fine but cold wind. The 
captains called the camp together and asked whether we 
shall wait here three days or a week for the twelve, or 
shall we continue on to Winter Quarters. Thirty men 
voted to go on, seventeen voted to wait and the remainder 
did not vote. The majority having voted to go on, we 
started and traveled very slowly till about five o'clock, 
then turned off to the river to camp, having traveled six- 
teen miles. There are many new tracks of Indians on 
the sand bar, but we have seen none today. 

MONDAY, HTH. Morning, cloudy and cold. We 
have had a little very cold rain and there is great appear- 
ance for more. We started on but it continued to rain 
heavily till near noon. The afternoon was fair but very 
cold. We traveled twenty-one and a quarter miles and 
camped amongst high grass close to timber. There is 
every chance for Indians tonight if any are near. The 


camp in general are much dissatisfied with the camping 

TUESDAY, 12xH. This morning the weather was 
severely cold with strong wind. Some of the cattle were 
missing and the owners not going to hunt them till the 
rest were ready to start on, we were detained till eleven 
o'clock and then proceeded. We found plenty of water 
in Wood River but did not lose much time crossing. We 
took one of the late wagon trails and arrived on Prairie 
Creek a little before sundown, having traveled fifteen 
and three quarters miles. We have seen no Indians yet 
and all goes well but the cold weather. 

WEDNESDAY, 13xH. Morning very cold indeed with 
strong northwest wind. We found the creek difficult to 
cross, it being soft and miry, but all soon got over safely 
and we proceeded on. The road is sandy about five or 
six miles on the bluffs and very crooked all the way. 
We arrived and camped on the Loup Fork at dark, hav- 
ing traveled twenty-one and three quarters miles. The 
day has been excessively cold. 

THURSDAY, 14-TH. Much time was lost this morn- 
ing in hunting for a place to cross the river. It was 
finally concluded to cross a mile higher up and we pro- 
ceeded to the place. While going up we saw a company 
of horsemen and two wagons on the other side the river, 
which we soon recognized to be our brethren from 
Winter Quarters. All the wagons got over safely and 
camped on the hill, having traveled two miles. The com- 
pany is a part of the old police going to meet the next 
company. We were gladdened with the news they bring 
from Winter Quarters. 

FRIDAY, 15xH. The brethren of the police started 


early this morning to go on and meet the next company. 
They got well over the river but not without getting into 
the water to lift at the wagon wheels. It was late when 
we started on account of some oxen being 'missing and 
there are some who will not look for their cattle till all 
the rest are ready to start. We traveled till a little after 
three and camped on the banks of the Loup Fork, dis- 
tance twelve and three quarters miles, day warmer. 

SATURDAY, 16xH. The night has been very stormy, 
there being a strong wind, rain, and very cold. We made 
an early start and by noon arrived at the mission station. 
We found the Pawnees busy gathering corn, probably 
nearly a thousand of men, women and children. They 
soon began to come to the wagons and their chiefs made 
inquiries by signs about the Chirrarots or Sioux. Some 
of the brethren gave them to understand that the Sioux 
were within five days of them. The chief immediately 
gave the word to the rest and in half an hour the squaws 
had loaded their corn on ponies and mules and then be- 
gan to march towards the river. They show great fear 
of the Sioux. They were very anxious to have us camp 
with them tonight but we kept moving on. One of the 
wagons was upset crossing a ravine. Several of the 
brethren traded for corn. At three o'clock, we arrived 
and turned out the teams on Beaver River, having trav- 
eled seventeen and a qurter miles. Soon after we ar- 
rived, some of the Indians came up, having followed 
with the idea of trading. They have conducted them- 
selves peaceably so far, but they are not to be trusted. 
In consequence of their following us, it was the feeling 
of most of the brethren to go on a few miles after dark. 
At 5:45 we started on and traveled till 8:30 being six 


and a half miles, then camped beside the lakes. Evening 
very fine and pleasant. We have traveled twenty-three 
and three quarters miles today. 

SUNDAY, 17TH. We started early and traveled to 
Looking Glass, then halted for breakfast. Morning wind> 
and cold. After breakfast, we started on again and trav- 
eled till four o'clock, distance sixteen and a quarter 
miles, then camped at a point of timber near a creek 
or lake and not far from the Loup Fork. 

MONDAY, 18TH. Started at eight o'clock and trav- 
eled to Shell Creek distance eighteen and three quarters 
miles, day pleasant but cool. 

TUESDAY, 19rH. The night was excessively cold and 
this morning there is considerable ice. We got an early 
start and traveled to where the road leaves the river and 
crosses to the Horn. At this place there is a liberty pole 
set up by some of the brethren. We have traveled to- 
day twenty-three and a quarter miles and we now find 
that the grass is all burned off ahead of us as far as we 
can see, probably to the Elk Horn. We are cheered by 
a view of the timber on that stream. 

WEDNESDAY, 20TH. We started early and found the 
prairie all burned off to the Elk Horn except in small 
patches. We arrived at the Horn about noon and soon 
after commenced crossing where Hosea Stout and com- 
pany crossed. The water was nearly three feet deep and 
the bottom somewhat soft, but we were soon all over 
without accident except John Pack, who broke his wagon 
tongue. We then had to make a road through high, 
strong grass for upwards of half a mile and found a 
very bad creek or slough to cross. When we again struck 
the main road, we found it good and started for the Papea 


where we arrived soon after dark, all except one wagon 
which was left a mile back. The evening cool and windy. 
THURSDAY, 21sT. This morning, Brother Empey, 
Lamb and myself started early accompanied by six horse- 
men and arrived in Winter Quarters a little before noon. 
I found my family all well except Moroni who is very 
sick and his mother is somewhat sick. Their circum- 
stances are not good, but in other respects they have 
been prosperous for which I thank my God. There has 
been much sickness here and many deaths during the 
fall and many are now suffering for lack of some of the 
comforts of life. We have been prosperous on our jour- 
ney home and have arrived in nine weeks and three days, 
including a week's delay waiting for the twelve and kill- 
ing buffalo. Our health has been remarkably good, but 
we have lacked provisions, many of us having nothing 
but dry buffalo meat. I have succeeded in measuring 
the whole distance from the City of the Great Salt Lake 
to this place, except a few miles between Horse Creek 
and the A La Bonte River which was taken from the 
measurement going up. I find the whole distance to be 
1032 miles and am now prepared to make a complete 
traveler's guide from here to the Great Salt Lake, having 
been careful in taking the distance from creek to creek, 
over bluffs, mountains, etc. It has required much time 
and care and I have continually labored under disad- 
vantages in consequence of the companies feeling no in- 
terest in it. The health of my family has encouraged me 
for all that is past and my secret gratitude shall ascend 
to Heaven for the unbounded kindness and mercies which 
the Almighty has continually poured upon them in my